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In the dress of her own Canton. Painted by herself. 


[_Vide /age 150. 









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I take this opportunity to thank all those 
who responded to the request made by me 
in the Athenczum and Notes and Queries, 
for further information about Angelica 
Kauffmann's pictures and house decora- 
tions. The result has been so much fresh 
matter as to necessitate a Supplementary 

The new edition has. had the great advan- 
tage of being revised by an experienced 
friend, to whom I am deeply indebted, as 
I am also to Mr. William Rossetti, who, 
with great kindness, has given me some 
valuable advice about the chapter of Critical 

Much interest attaches to the quotations 
from the MS. Memoir lent by Mr. Hendriks, 

vi Preface to Second Edition. 

in the handwriting ol Zucchi, Angelica's 
husband. 1 There is every reason to suppose 
it is the one alluded to in Goethe's letter to 
Angelica, which will be found on page 304. 

I received considerable help from Mr. 
William Bowles, Mr. Charles Goldie, the 
Honourable Gerald Ponsonby, and Miss 
Wright, to whom I offer my best thanks. 

I cannot conclude without assuring those 
friendly readers of my book, who wrote to 
me encouraging letters, and sent me useful 
hints and remarks, that I appreciate most 
fully their kindness. 

Frances Gerard. 

February, 1893. 

1 A cardinal's seal being - attached to the manuscript 
was a puzzle to Mr. Hendriks ; but Cardinal Quirini 
being a relative of Zucchi, may account for its appearance, 
as it may have been in the Cardinal's possession at some 
period. The "Memoir" came to England in 1858, and 
was sold with the other papers belonging to Angelica. 


Any one who can look back some twenty 
years will remember how much interest was 
excited by the appearance of a story in 
Cornhill Magazine, called " Miss Angel," 
which, written as it was by a young authoress, 
taught the English public something of the 
successes and the misfortunes of a pretty 
German artist, to whom our great Sir 
Joshua Reynolds went on his knees at 
Ranelagh — and whose name was Angelica 

Charming as it is, however, Miss 
Thackeray's story was a novel. It began, 
as all novels should, with the heroine at 
the age of eighteen, and ended in the legi- 
timate manner with the heroine's marriage. 
A biography goes somewhat deeper ; it is, or 

viii Preface, 

ought to be, the true record of a life, and it 
has to take up the two ends of the long 
thread — the beginning, when " all the 
world is young, the trees are green, and the 
birds sing for ever ; " and the reverse side, 
when the world grows very, very old, the 
trees very brown — and the birds sing no 
more for us. It comes to this with all lives, 
only there is a difference. Some have a 
flood of sunshine, others a dull monotony 
more terrible and harder to bear than even 
worse misfortunes. 

Angelica had plenty of sunshine. She said 
in her old age she had one consolation : she 
had lived in the past ! " A tinted life," some 
one called hers, so varied by joy and sorrow, 
success and failure, a life full of interest. 
She comes before us through a mist of tender 
memories. A sweet artistic woman, made 
doubly interesting by her sad story of 
betrayal, by her beauty and her grace, and by 
a sympathetic attraction which won all hearts 
in her lifetime, and which sheds a certain 
tenderness over her when dead — and yet with 
all her charm, her undoubted gifts, Angelica 

Preface. ix 

has not quite kept her place as an artist. It 
may be that she was too much extolled by a 
former generation, and by the present is 
unfairly judged, in fact almost forgotten. 
In England especially, where she spent 
the flower of her youth, and where she 
was the pet of the aristocracy, and the 
fashion of the hour, we look in vain for 
traces of her life : those who may wish 
to know more concerning her than what 
is contained in Miss Thackeray's story, must 
seek for it from foreign sources ; the English 
notices would not fill a small magazine article. 
Half a page in Sir Joshua Reynolds's life by 
Leslie, three or four allusions in Smith's 
"Life of Nollekens," a stray mention here 
and there, is all we can glean concerning a 
woman who was at one time in the first rank 
of artists. Even Horace Walpole, who expends 
all the encomiums of the English language 
in praise of Lady Diana Beauclerk's Gypsies 
and Mrs. Darner's busts, has hardly one wor 
to say of Angelica, although she was an R.A. 
and he was an art critic. But if there is a 
paucity of information concerning the artist 

x Preface. 

on this side of the channel, the libraries 
abroad teem with notices, memoirs and ana. 
The Germans have written copiously on their 
gifted countrywoman, not altogether in her 
praise. Sternberg, whose pen is always 
dipped in the bitterest ink of criticism, has 
little to say for her, her principal ground of 
offence, in his eyes, being her adoption of 
England, which country he holds in contempt. 
Oppermann, Weissely, Wurzbach, Gering, 
Nagler, Bernsdorff, Sturz, Guhl, have 
exhaustive notices and memories of the 
artist. The French, too, are not behindhand 
either in fiction orbiography. Leon deWailly's 
novel is well known abroad. The Biogra- 
phie Nouvelle, Biographie des Contemporains, 
Biographie Universelle, the Manuel des 
Curieux et des Beaux Arts, Leblanc, Beraldi, 
etc., have extensive notices. In Italian there 
is Rossi's life, which has been translated 
into German by Alois Weinhart, who in his 
preface says, " he can vouch for the truth of 
all contained in this volume, as he was not only 
a near relative, being the artist's first cousin 
by marriage and brother-in-law to Johann 

Preface. xi 

Kauffmann, who resided in her house and 
managed her affairs for twenty-two years, 
but also because all her papers and those 
of her father, Joseph Kauffmann, came into 
his hands. 

It is from these different sources that the 
present biography has been compiled, and it 
is hoped that the fact of its being the first 
life of the artist written in English (together 
with the great interest of the subject) may 
incline the reader to overlook the short- 
comings which must manifestly find place in 
a work of this kind undertaken by an in- 
experienced writer. 

There is a want in both Rossi's biography 
and Weinhart's translation, which, to a certain 
extent, has been supplied in this. 1 They are 
both destitute of correspondence. Without 
letters the story of a life cannot be told satis- 
factorily : they make, in fact, the backbone 
of biography. As Angelica corresponded 
with some of the most interesting persons of 

1 It is interesting to know that the late Prince Consort 
had some letters and MSS. concerning Angelica. These 
were given to Miss Thackeray (now Mrs. Richmond 
Ritchie), who kindly lent them to the writer. 

xii Preface, 

her time, her letters would be of great value. 
Unfortunately before her death she burned 
a great portion of them. 

For assistance in procuring letters and in- 
formation most grateful thanks are offered, 
especially to Professor Gebhardt, Director of 
the King's Library, Berlin ; Mrs. Thackeray 
Ritchie; Mr. W. M. Rossetti ; Mr. C. S. 
Hopwood, Foreign Office ; Messrs. Sotheby 
and Co. ; Messrs. Duprez and Gutekunst ; 
Mr. Alfred Morrison ; Mr. Bernton Benja- 
min ; Mr. Algernon Graves ; Mr. Harvey ; 
Mr. R. F. Sketchley ; Mr. Thomas Arm- 
strong ; and Mr. Sidney Colvin. 



Introduction .... • • xv » 

Childhood and Girlhood . . . . i 

Girlhood 4° 


Girlhood and Womanhood . . . -53 

Marriage • . 78 

Womanhood 107 

Womanhood 136 

Womanhood 162 

Middle Age 181 

Middle Age 201 


Middle Age 

Last Years 

Last Years 




. 260 



Critical Notices 

Catalogue of Pictures .... 

Subjects of Pictures whose Owners are un 
known to Compiler .... 

Etchings by Angelica Kauffmann . 

Pictures and Designs engraved by Bartolozzi 

Illustrations and Frontispieces by Bartolozzi 
from Angelica's Design 

Drawings in Pencil, Chalk, and Indian Ink 
by Angelica Kauffmann 

Drawings to be seen in the Exhibition 
Gallery, British Museum . 

In the Fine Arts Gallery, New Bond Street 

Guide to the Houses Decorated by Angelica 

Supplement to Appendix : Catalogue of ad 
ditional Pictures, painted by Angelica 
Kauffmann, R.A. .... 












Angelica Kauffmann, in the dress of her own 

Canton. Painted by herself . . Frontispiece 

Portrait of Angelica Kauffmann. After the painting 

by Sir Joshua Reynolds ..... 44 

Sir Joshua Reynolds. From a portrait in the 

possession of the Earl of Morley . . .126 

Dolly Monroe. From a sketch by the late Henry 
Doyle, C.B., Director of the National Gallery, 
Dublin, from the painting by Angelica Kauff- 
mann . . . . . . , .142 


Before entering on the biography, it may 
be useful to take a glance at the condition 
in which art found itself in the first portion 
of the eighteenth century. It has a very 
distinct bearing upon the life itself, and 
although to many it will be an oft-told tale, 
to others, not so well instructed in the history 
of the past century, it may come in the light 
of a new and interesting revelation. 

Oppermann, who has written a volume 
upon the decay of art, says that in Germany, 
Italy, the Netherlands and France, although 
there was a multitude of schools, a plethora 
of artists, there was no master. " There was 
no inspiration to be found in Nature or in 
Love — there was no strength with which to 
represent a delicious world of imagination, 
passion, or heroism — in one word, genius, 
without which the hand of the painter is 

xviii Introduction. 

paralyzed — genius, the wonderful creative 
gift — was dead." 

Meanwhile, students of all kinds filled the 
schools, and pictures without end flooded the 
market, but with very few exceptions the 
names of the artists have fallen into a well- 
deserved oblivion. They were, for the greater 
part, copyists of the most servile description, 
but for this pernicious and fatal habit — fatal 
alike in literature as in art — they were not 
altogether to blame. It was not, indeed, so 
much the fault of either the school or the 
student that copying became such an integral 
portion of art in the last century ; it was 
attributable in a great measure to the taste 
which had grown up for overlaying a picture 
with details conceived in the highest style of 

The Netherlands was the head centre of 
this species of "genre" painting in which 
genius was replaced by a perfection of 
execution not to be surpassed. One must 
study the works produced in this period to 
be able to judge of the low condition and 
poverty of invention into which art had sunk. 

Introduction. xix 

In the schools each student followed the 
style of such and such a master : they copied 
the colouring, the arrangement of light and 
shade ; their ambition went no further than 
to produce a faithful copy, and so far they 
succeeded perfectly. 

Raphaels, Correggios, Rembrandts, said 
to be originals, filled the shops, and the work 
was so excellent, the imitation so perfect, 
as often to mislead the best critics, and it 
is in this way, Oppermann says, that the 
number of replicas of the same picture can be 
explained, each of which is supposed to be 
by an " Old Master," but not one of which 
was ever touched by his brush. 

It is easy to understand how such a pro- 
cess of imitation, however faithfully executed, 
extinguished every germ, if such existed, of 
natural genius, and so cramped and fettered 
the imagination of the student, that he soon 
became a characterless, insipid copyist, who 
had no right to the name of artist, and, in 
fact, approached the level of a clever photo- 
grapher of our own day. 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, in his lecture to the 

xx Introduction. 

students, condemns most emphatically this 
pernicious habit. " I consider," he says, 
"copying a delusive kind of industry, the 
student satisfies himself with the appearance 
of doing something, he falls into the danger- 
ous habit of imitating without selecting, and 
labouring without a determinate object. He 
sleeps over his work, those powers of inven- 
tion and disposition, which ought particularly 
to be called out and put into action, lie torpid 
and lose their energy for want of exercise. 
The man of true genius, instead of spending 
hours, as many artists do while they are in 
Rome, in measuring statues and copying 
pictures, soon begins to think for himself and 
endeavours to do something like what he sees." 
It cannot be denied, however, that the luxu- 
rious and effeminate tastes of the eighteenth 
century had its share in this lowering of the 
true standard of art : a love had grown up for 
decoration, conceived, it must be owned, in 
an artistic spirit, but still not belonging to the 
region of art. One could hardly imagine a 
Titian or Paul Veronese expending his genius 
on adorning a king's palace with painted 

Introduction. xxi 

ceilings and elegant panellings. Still this 
new method of "prostituting a divine mis- 
tress " soon grew in favour. 

Lebrun and his pupil Laguerre led the 
way ; and later, Watteau and Boucher fol- 
lowed in their footsteps : their work is still 
to be seen at Versailles and Fontainbleau. 
Such groups of charming nymphs and fairy 
shepherdesses — such Colins and Colinettes — 
they are delicious to look at. Even the 
Spinets and Sedan chairs were made vehicles 
for highly decorated designs. Some of these 
can be seen at the Kensington Museum. So 
too with the bureaux with their delightful little 
medallions painted sometimes on enamel, and 
the Watteau fans which are rare and exquisite. 

The fashion spread quickly, demand in- 
variably creating supply, and soon all over 
Europe and in every capital there were 
swarms of Italian, Dutch, and French artists 
eager to get taken on for this sort of work. 
Princelings, dukes, noblemen and rich men 
of all classes, considered it necessary to 
decorate their palaces and country seats, and 
every man of rank and influence was a patron 

xxii Introduction. 

of some needy artist, who formed part of the 
household and ranked with the poor cousin 
and the chaplain. This would be naturally 
deteriorating to the noble art, and the result 
soon began to show itself in the decay, of 
which Oppermann, Sternberg, and all who 
have written on or studied the subject 

Oppermann tells us that perhaps the 
country which suffered least was France. He 
says: " In Germany the perseverance of the 
Teuton race made their schools famous for 
the perfection to which they brought the 
technique of their handiwork ; the German 
artist was a pedant, and precisely because he 
knew actually nothing of the eternal laws of 
art, he was perpetually talking of rules and 
taste." But he goes on : " With the French 
it was somewhat different ; the French 
literature, the French mind, which in the 
eighteenth century governed educated 
Europe, was not by any means conducive to 
art ; the enlightenment of the encyclopaedists, 
with Voltaire to help them, possessed too 
much negativism and too little positivism to 

Introdttction. xxiii 

exercise upon the arts any useful influence ; 
in fact, to understand this, one has only to 
cast an eye over the romances and the poetry 
of the day, for the most part written by the 
Galants Abbes." 

For all this he goes on to say : " If the 
encyclopaedists had no good influence over the 
schools of painting, they brought, neverthe- 
less, a certain influence to bear in the direction 
and formation of taste in the higher classes. 

" In spite of their effeminacy and love of 
pleasure the French aristocracy possessed a 
truer sense of art, more elegance of taste, 
and more freedom of thought than prevailed 
elsewhere, and this freedom showed itself in 
every walk." 

The landscape-gardener used his own 
discretion in varying the stiff style of planting 
which had been introduced from Holland, 
and which had grown into fashion in France 
as elsewhere ; but although at Versailles 
and St. Cloud the straight walks and yew 
trees of Hampton Court are to be seen, the 
artistic vistas cut through the shrubberies, 
the grottoes and shady laurel walks "for 

xx iv Introduction. 

whispering lovers made," all bear testimony 
to a more refined taste, and a certain emanci- 
pation from slavish imitation in our French 
neighbours. So too with their schools for 
painting. It is agreed by all writers on 
the subject that at this period they showed 
some faint traces of inspiration, and were less 
trammelled than were the others by the curse 
of imitation ; they offered, too, some evidences 
of feeling in their compositions, and for that 
reason the French school stands out, as it 
were, in this dark and melancholy period, 
which may be with justice called the deca- 
dence of art. It was at this epoch (and Op- 
permann especially mentions the fact) that 
the pernicious influence exercised by the 
amateur or dilettante, who for the first time 
came prominently to the front, began to make 
itself felt, and led to the worst results. 

Towards the middle of the eighteenth cen- 
tury some symptoms began to arise which 
gave better hopes for the future, without in 
any way reviving the old and ancient glories 
of art. These symptoms were identical with 
the appearance of a new art history. This 

Introduction . x x v 

book, the work of an unknown German 
student, Winckelmann, appeared in 1755. 
It was called the tl Imitation of the Antique," 
and was principally directed against the per- 
nicious taste of the day, and in particular 
against the prevailing worship of Bernini, 
whose outrages against nature and the uni- 
versal laws of beauty were shown up piti- 

Winckelmann's inspiration, his knowledge 
of Greek antiquity, his artistic feeling, 
breathed through the book. He wrote in 
words of fire, and his words did not fall upon 
barren soil. He rose up like a prophet of 
old, and denounced the vile system of copy- 
ing ; he annihilated the trivial, pedantic 
mannerism which prevailed, and created an 
entirely new school, which, if not free from 
faults and grave imperfections, nevertheless 
contained the seeds of all that is noble, fresh, 
and inspired, having, like all true inspiration, 
its root in the sincerity of the man who 
caused this sudden reaction. 

For all this, and without in any way de- 
tracting from the debt of gratitude art owes 

xxvi Introduction. 

to its benefactor, Winckelmann, it would be 
idle to maintain that the artists contemporary 
with Winckelmann ever attained the standard 
of true art. The efforts, however, made by 
some amongst them were in the highest de- 
gree commendable, and go far to prove that 
every return to the laws of nature or to the 
true models of antiquity must have excellent 
effects, even if art itself is not at its highest 
point of development. 

From the desolation and general decay which 
prevailed in the early part of the eighteenth 
century, it is not easy to give any but meagre 
details. Oppermann, however, says, and he 
is supported by Sternberg and Goethe, " that 
" the French (so-called) galanterie painters, 
" Boucher, Watteau, Greuze, form a group, 
"to which imitators of less merit belong." ! 
Amongst the German school he sets apart 
another group — Christian Dietrich, Raphael 
Mengs and Angelica Kauffmann — and of her 
he says: "There have been few artists who 
remained as she did so persistently true to 

1 Oppermann would have been more correct in making 
the group Watteau, Lancret, and Boucher. 

Introduction. xxvii 

her own nature. She was always tender, 
womanly, sympathetic, and, although occasion- 
ally she erred on the side of exaggerated 
sentiment, she never offended against good 
taste. She leaves us a pleasant recollection 
of a sweet woman, who has in a certain degree 
influenced the development of art. Her 
memory will be always cherished, not only 
in her own country, but wherever art is 



1741— 1765. 


Kauffmann * is by no means an uncommon 
name, in fact, in that respect it resembles in 
Germany our Smith, Jones, or Robinson. 
The all-sanctifying "Von" has never pre- 
ceded the name in the family tree. 

John Joseph, the father of Angelica, was a 
native of Schwartzenberg, in the Bregenz, 
where the family had dwelt for years. They 
were simple, kindly folk, and not a little 
proud when John Joseph declared he would 
be a painter. A painter he was, accord- 
ingly, but in no wise an artist ; his talent 

1 The name is written either Kauffmann or KaurTmarc, 
Angelica used both ways, but in later years adopted 
only one n. 


2 Angelica Kauffmaun. 

never rising beyond church decoration and 
a little portrait painting. The church work 
took the lead, especially as, being a devout 
Catholic, he found patrons amongst the 
bishops and heads of monasteries, and so 
made a comfortable living. 

He was engaged in such work when we 
first hear of him, at Chur or Coire — capital of 
the Grisons — whither he had come from his 
native mountains in the Bregenz ; here also, 
he married one Cleofa Lucci or Lucin, still 
more commending himself to his patrons by 
bringing his heretic wife into the fold of 
Catholicity. 1 

The first and only fruit of this marriage was 
Marie Anne Angelica Catherine, who was 
born at Battazatta 2 on the 30th of October, 
1 74 1 . Gering says, "An angel gave Angelica 
her name, and under a strange sky she re- 
ceived the soul of her native country." Al- 

1 The " Dictionary of National Biography " states that 
Joseph had been previously married to Maria Sibilla 
Lohrin, by whom he had a son, who died 1740, but 
Rossi makes no mention of this marriage, neither does 

Zucchi MS. 

Childhood. 3 

though we must consider this a poetic flight, 
still it was evident that the child had peculiar 
graces and attractions, which were visible to 
others besides her adoring parents. She was 
a mere baby when, the work at Coire being 
finished, John Joseph moved his family to 
Monbegno, in the Valtellina, where he 
had fresh engagements, and here the edu- 
cation of the future artist began so far as 
teaching her the rudiments. 

It is evident that from the very beginning 
the father had resolved that his little daughter 
should be a prodigy. It was fortunate that 
he did not (as so many parents have done) 
altogether spoil the rich harvest lying ahead 
by an injudicious system of forcing. That 
he did, however, injure the early seed com- 
mitted to his care is certain. 

Rossi tells us, that when the painter 
began to teach the child how to write, he 
remarked that when he gave her her first 
copy-book, in place of copying the text she 
imitated the ornamentations and hierogly- 
phics, and that her drawing was in infinitely 
better taste than the original. Also that her 

4 Angelica Kaujfmanu. 

greatest delight was to be allowed to remain 
in her father's workroom where the plaster 
casts attracted her. As she grew older she 
spent her play-time in copying little heads 
and figures, either with a pen or pencil, 1 
and always with astonishing precision and 

Kauffmann gladly encouraged the child's 
fancy, and watched with intense anxiety for 
the moment when she would be old enough 
to begin to learn in real earnest. By way of 
losing no time, she was shown every day 
some rare prints, 2 of which John Joseph had a 
large collection, and these he explained to her 
with much care. He was convinced that this 
method of teaching, although slightly over 
her head, would by degrees form her taste 
and educate her eye. 

Under such training the child became 
wonderfully precocious. At the age when 
most girls play with their dolls, she had 
begun a course of study, her father being a 
verv strict master. 

1 When she was a baby her plaything was a chalk 
pencil. — Zucchi MS. 

2 They were lent to him by friends. — MS. 

Childhood. 5 

She might have had worse, for setting 
aside his eagerness in pushing on his pupil, 
he was conscientious enough in the principles 
he laid down. It happened in this case, as 
it has happened before, that an indifferent 
artist has produced apupil of astonishing merit. 

She had to study from plaster models. 
She had to copy heads without end, her father 
not being content that she should only sketch 
them, but forcing her to re-copy them in oil, 
so as to learn the proper treatment of light 
and shade ; and it was to her early practice 
in this manner that she owed that lightness of 
touch and great power of relief, in which she 
afterwards excelled. 

At this time the child artist was barely nine 
years of age, 1 and already her talent was 
beginning to be noticed. Friends and ac- 
quaintances blamed both father and mother 
for working a child of such tender years so 
hard. They accused them of undue severity, 
but this is an unfair accusation. The little 
girl was the idol of both parents, and to John 

1 In Meyer's " Conversations Lexicon," it is stated 
that at this age she drew designs representing " The 
Seasons" on the walls of the house. 

6 Angelica Kauffmann. 

Joseph especially she was the very apple of 
his eye. In her were centred all his hopes 
and ambitions. The high place on the ladder 
of fame to which he had never dared to raise 
his humble eyes, was, he imagined, reserved 
for his fair-haired daughter. 

Anyone who had seen her in her father's 
studio, would have been convinced that no 
undue pressure was put upon her infant 
strength ; she herself ran eagerly to the 
corner where her palette and brushes were 
kept, and established herself at her work 
with the most infinite content ; the praise 
which she received was the sweetest reward 
that could be given to her. 

Nevertheless, with all due reverence to the 
authority from which I quote, it must be 
confessed, that when a couple of years later 
we read of Angelica, aged eleven years, 
practising as a portrait-painter % to whom no 
less a personage than the dignified Bishop of 
Como, Nevroni Cappucino., 1 sat, we are in- 

1 Nevroni Cappucino was not her first sitter. At eight 
years old she had taken likenesses of several beautiful 
ladies and pretty children. — Zuechi MS. 

Childhood. 7 

clined to think that John Joseph's critics were 
in the right ; it was at all events to be deplored 
that the little girl was pushed forward as an 
infant prodigy. 

The portrait-painting began at Como, 
whither the Kauffmanns had removed in 1752, 
and the Bishop, we are told, was a most digni- 
fied prelate, stately in figure, with fine eyes, 
long grey beard, and brilliant colouring. It 
must have gone hard with the little maiden 
of eleven to transfer all this to her canvas. 
We are assured, however, that she was not in 
the least affrighted, but set to work with a 
will. When one comes to think of it, it must 
have been a pretty sight, and one which 
would make a pleasing subject for a picture — 
the child painter sitting opposite her vener- 
able model. The portrait, which was in 
pastel, gave universal satisfaction, and the 
Bishop expressed himself much pleased with 
the likeness. 

The Kauffmanns remained two years in 
Como. Rossi says that the soft southern 
breezes of the lake, the richness of the 
gardens and villas on its shores, the romantic 

8 Angelica Kauffmann. 

charm of its laurel hedges, in which marble 
statues spoke silently of past ages — all this 
had a distinct influence on the impressionable 
mind of a precocious and highly-sensitive 
child, such as Angelica was, and laid the 
groundwork of what afterwards developed 
into a tendency somewhat unhealthy and 

In Como, too, the young artist was an 
object of great interest, her youth and beauty, 
together with her wonderful proficiency, 
exciting much sympathy. In later years she 
always recurred to this period as the happiest 
of her life. The time had now come, how- 
ever, when it would be necessary for her to 
enter upon a wider field of instruction than 
it would be possible for her father, unassisted, 
to supply. The works of the great masters 
were as yet only known to her by hearsay, or 
through the medium, in some instances, of 
copies or engravings. Kauffmann (who, it 
must be owned, lost no opportunity of culti- 
vating to the utmost his child's gift) resolved, 
therefore, to move onwards, and the family 
left Como for Milan, where the opportunities 

Childhood. 9 

for instruction would be greater. It was like 
the opening of a new world to the girl when 
she saw this beautiful city, about the most 
beautiful in Europe, with its fine churches, 
fairy-like palaces, and magnificent theatres. 

Here, too, Leonardo da Vinci had once 
held a school of art, and the sight of the 
splendid works of this great master was not 
without its influence upon the young artist's 
future career. She studied the softness of 
expression and the stately repose of feature, 
which are the leading characteristics of the 
great Lombardian painter, and traces of 
which are very evident in all her subsequent 

Her residence in Milan had, however, 
other and more direct influence upon her life. 
In those days female students were rare. 
The life of an artist was not one to be 
chosen willingly by women, as the drudgery 
was considered unfit for their strength, and 
the Life schools equally unfit for their 
sex. When, therefore, the Governor of 
Milan, Rinaldo d'Este, Duke of Modena, heard 
that a young girl was copying in his gallery, 

io Angelica Kanffmann, 

he wished to see her, and both he and his 
duchess were at once impressed by her 
talent, and charmed by her beauty and 
simplicity. All through her life Angelica 
seems to have possessed this strange power 
of attraction, which in her case was almost 
irresistible, and yet, perhaps it proved more 
a dangerous gift than one that secured her 
any tangible or lasting advantage. 

The Duchess of Modena took a fancy to 
the young German, and, to the delight of John 
Joseph, honoured her by sitting to her for 
her portrait, and her example was immedi- 
ately followed by the obsequious courtiers. 
On all sides orders came in and favours 
were showered on the Duchess's favourite ; 
Cardinal Pozzobonelli, the Bishop of Milan, 
and Count Firman " took especial interest in 
her career, and through their means she had 
access to some of the best private collections 
in Milan. 

The two years which the KaufTmann 
family spent in Milan were of the greatest 

1 Plenipotentiary. A distinguished amateur, 

Childhood. 1 1 

use in developing the young artist, and it 
was no doubt due to her constant intercourse 
with the nobility of the Milanese Court, 
that she acquired that ease of manner and 
great confidence for which she was, later on, 
remarkable, and which never deserted her, 
even in presence of the most exalted person- 
ages. Her pleasant life in Milan, amidst her 
courtly friends, was, however, to come to an 

Her mother, Cleofa Lucci, died in March, 
1 757, just as her young daughter had 
reached her sixteenth year, a dangerous age 
for a girl of her temperament to be left to 
the sole charge of a rather silly father, 
whose judgment, to the great detriment of 
the future artist, was blinded by his affection 
and paternal pride. 

Both father and daughter were overcome 


with grief for the loss of poor Cleofa, and 
Milan with its associations becoming insup- 
portable to them, John Joseph determined 
to visit his old home in the Bregenz, where 
he had not been since the Bishop, his first 
patron, had called him thence to Chur. 

1 2 Angelica Kauffmann. 

He had hosts of relations there, brothers and 
sisters, uncles and aunts, to whom he wished 
to present his golden-haired Angelica. And 
besides, he had the offer of a commission to 
decorate the parish church of Schwartzen- 
berg — his native village. The journey was 
therefore determined on, to the great joy of 
Angelica, to whom her once-loved Milan had 
become a desert ; she also, with the versatility 
of youth, looked forward with rapture to seeing 
a new country — her father's birth-place. 

To give my readers, who may not have 
visited this delightful spot, an idea of its 
beauty, I cannot do better than quote from 
Oppermann's " Walk through the Bregenzer 
Wald (or Valley of the Bregenzer Ach)," 
a charming little book to read in the original. 
" I made a very early start," he says ; " five 
o'clock saw me on my way. In the parish 
church of Alberschwende the bells were 
ringing for morning service, and pious 
women were hurrying to begin the day by 
prayer. I ascended the ' Lorena,' which is 
a mountain-comb, from which the road winds 
i-nto the valley below. The fresh dew of 

Childhood. 1 3 

the early morning lay on the hill-side and the 
vale beyond, hiding the landscape. Sud- 
denly the mist lifted, and before me I saw 
the hill and dale clothed in all the glory of 
the morning sun. It was a sight to remem- 
ber ; the eye did not know where to turn 
to take in all the beauty of the scene. 
To the east, the little village I had left 
behind me — Alberschwende — with its scat- 
tered farm-houses, the towers and turrets 
of the convent of Bildstein, and farther on 
the Suabian country, encompassed by undu- 
lating hills, which seem to reach almost to 
the horizon, and mix themselves with the 
blue of heaven itself. 

" A new and altogether strange world 
opened before me as I turned to the other 
side. Rich with meadow-land, and a luxuri- 
ant growth of shrub and tree, is the slope of 
the mountain which sinks gradually as it 
descends into the lovely valley. The Ach, 
which has been winding circuitously in and 
out of the hill-side with all the coquetry of a 
mountain stream, now bursts into momentary 
importance as it reaches the valley, and 

1 4 A ngelica Ka i iff man n . 

covered bridges span its increased width at 
Schwartzenberg and Egg. 

" Just at the foot of the mountain, and in 
the centre of the greenest meadow-land, sur- 
rounded by rich fruit gardens, embosomed in 
woods and hills, lies the picturesque village 
of Schwartzenberg ; almost joining it are Egg 
and Andelbach, with their cosy farm-houses 
nestling in the trees; and farther on, built up 
the hill-side in terrace fashion, Huttesau." 

The German writer goes on to describe 
the village of Schwartzenberg as he saw it. 
"The inhabitants were all busy with their 
harvesting, and all was quiet in the hamlet. 
The doors stood open, and one could see 
the sunny grass-plots behind the houses. 
Under the apple-trees laden with fruit sat 
some children playing with flower-chains. 
A dog lay yawning in the heat upon the 
doorstep. The pigeons cooed on the roofs, 
and in the distance the murmuring of the Ach 
made a musical sound. It was a true 
summer's day ; and, to pass an idle hour 
before dinner, I walked across the grass- 
grown village square, in the centre of 

Childhood. 1 5 

which stood an old well full of fresh water, 
and made my way to the churchyard, in 
the middle of which stands the church — 
an enchanting spot. The door stood in- 
vitingly open, a delicious coolness breathed 
upon me as I went in. The altars were 
richly dressed, the standards w r ere fixed in 
each circle of seats, the frescoes on the 
walls are the work of Angelica Kauffmann — 
gigantic Apostles copied from Piazzetta's 

This charming description of village and 
church brings us, so to speak, in touch with 
Angelica. More than a hundred years have 
gone by since the girl artist worked in the 
parish church. Her memory still lives in the 
little hamlet ; they talk of her and what she 
did and said, as if the hundred years were 
only a few weeks. Any visitor coming to 
Schwartzenberg cannot be an hour in the 
village without hearing these traditions, and 
being shown the marble bust, placed in the 
church to her honour, together with her 
early attempts at drawing, which are in pos- 
session of one fortunate individual. 1 This 
1 Herr Walch, schoolmaster of Schwartzenberg. 

1 6 A ngelica Ka tiff man n . 

fidelity of the simple villagers is the more 
touching as constancy towards departed 
genius is somewhat rare. 

In after years, Angelica would often recur 
to this time spent in her father's native village, 
and would tell the circle of friends who con- 
gregated round her anecdotes of the sim- 
plicity of her life — how she had to rise at 
break of day and go through deep snow to 
the parish church to hear mass ; also, how 
on one occasion, when staying with her uncle, 
Michael, a goatherd in his service, coming to 
bid her welcome, sat down at the same 
table with her, a proceeding which she was 
wont to contrast with her present position. 

" Who would imagine," she used to say, 
"that I, who have been in company with 
some of the most exalted personages, once 
dined with a goatherd ? " This remark 
would seem to us to savour of pride, although 
all her German biographers tell it as if it 
were a proof of her humility. They con- 
trast her simplicity with the pride of others, 
who, " like the haughty beetle in the fable 
ignore their old companion, the worm." 
Angelica, however, would hardly have 

Childhood. I J 

relished this somewhat doubtful compli- 

After a time both father and daughter 
began to weary of the solitude of Schwartzen- 
berg, and to pine, especially Angelica, for 
the society and the pleasures which she 
had enjoyed in Milan. This feeling, most 
natural to one of her age, and so well fitted 
to shine in even the most refined circles, 
induced her father, who was proud of 
his darling and eager to gratify her 
wishes, to accept the invitation of Cardinal 
Roth — to whom their friend, Cardinal 
Pozzobonelli, had given them an introduction 
and special recommendations. 

The visit was most satisfactory, the Car- 
dinal treating them with the greatest dis- 
tinction. 1 The young artist received a 
commission to paint his Eminence's portrait, 
an undertaking in which she succeeded so 
well that some persons in the town of Mors- 
burg, where the Cardinal's palace was 
situated, also sat to her. 3 

1 "Con decoro" Zucchi says. 

2 The Cardinal was Bishop of Constance. He lived 
with all the splendour of a Sovereign Prince. 


1 8 Angelica Katiffmann. 

From Morsburg father and daughter made 
their way back to Constance, and thence into 
Northern Italy, stopping to pay a visit to 
Count Montfort, with whom they remained 
some time, Angelica painting the portraits 
of that noble family. 

All the biographers of our artist agree that 
at this period her personal attractions were 
great. She was in the first blush of youth, 
and although she was not of a commanding 
or striking order of beauty, she possessed — 
what was perhaps even better — a wonderful 
power of winning hearts. 

Her portraits all tell the same story. A 
face of extraordinary sweetness and sensi- 
bility, an enchanting smile, and long seductive 
eyes. She was tall and graceful, quick of 
intelligence, and to these charms was added 
a fascination of manner and a ready sym- 
pathy which all through her life secured for 
her hosts of friends. As is often the case, she 
possessed almost as much talent for music as 
for painting. She played both the clavichord 
and the zither with exquisite taste, and her 
voice was wonderfully sweet, and of extra- 

Childhood. 19 

ordinary flexibility — so much so, that many 
of her intimate friends advised her to abandon 
painting and make music her profession. 
Foremost amongst these advisers was a young 
man then staying at Montfort Castle — a 
musician of much promise. That the affair 
should not be wanting in the element of 
romance he was deeply attached to her. In 
the debate that followed, Angelica was torn 
one way and then another. She naturally 
inclined to the brilliancy of an operatic career. 
She believed the promises of success that 
were assured to her, and there is little doubt 
that with her grace and talent she would have 
succeeded. Her father, who was easily led 
and greedy for money, was persuaded to take 
the side of those who advised the new venture, 
and who assured him that she would make a 
rapid fortune. Kauffmann was poor, and his 
failing health incapacitated him from work. 
For Angelica, therefore, despite her talent for 
painting, there was a long and weary round to 
travel before she could hope to obtain the fame 
which would lead to fortune. It was a heavy 
task for so delicate and refined a creature, 
c 2 

20 Angelica Kauffmann, 

to plod through all the difficulties which lay 
before her. 

All these reasons combined induced John 
Joseph to throw in his vote for the stage. 
At this juncture — a critical one for our young 
artist — an old priest appeared on the scene. 
He had known Angelica from her childhood, 1 
and some say she confided to him the doubts 
and scruples which were agitating her mind, 
and asked him to interfere. Any way he did 
so, representing to the father the temptations 
which were likely to beset the path of so 
young and beautiful a girl, and the danger to 
which he, her guardian, was exposing her. 
The stage at that time was in a debased 
condition. Players and singers alike were 
ranked as an inferior class, and for one of her 
religion especially, there were pains and 
penalties attached to those who belonged to 
the profession, which made it in their case a 
virtual surrender of every principle of their 

Kauffmann and his daughter were devout 
Catholics. It was enough to hint at these 
1 He was the chaplain of Count Firman, 

Childhood. 2 1 

penalties, to produce a change in the ideas of 
the father, the project of the operatic stage 
as a profession was abandoned and never 
renewed. Angelica, however, lost her lover 
the musician, who never renewed his suit. . 
Zucchi, who told the story to Rossi, added 
that in her picture of Orpheus leading 
Eurydice out of Hades, which she painted at 
Montfort Castle, Orpheus is the portrait of 
the musician who endeavoured to entice her 
from her beloved art. 

Many years later she showed that the 
recollection of this time of struggle still dwelt 
in her memory. She painted herself as 
standing between the rival arts of music and 
painting in a painful state of indecision ; this 
picture she presented to her friend Bernini. 1 

During her stay at Count Montfort's 
Angelica had for the first time recognized 
the power of her own attractions ; she was 
surrounded with admirers and flatterers. 
Her biographer, Sternberg, blames her 
severely for listening to their beguiling 
words ; he forgets that to her good 
1 See Appendix. 

22 Angelica Kauffmann. 

sense was due the departure of the Kauff- 
manns from this enchanted castle. She 
was the one to persuade her weak-minded 
father to leave these pleasant surroundings, 
and to take her where she could pursue a 
course of study which was most necessary for 
perfecting her in the art she had adopted. 
It was difficult at first to make John Joseph 
see the matter in its true light. He was 
growing old, and was glad to remain where 
he was in comfort. Angelica, however, had 
begun to take the lead in the little household, 
where now the added spur of poverty was 
keenly felt. If money were to be gained, it 
must be by the brush of the younger artist. 
From all points of view, therefore, it was 
important she should go where the best oppor- 
tunity for study could be afforded. With this 
view father and daughter set out on their 
pilgrimage, visiting Monbegno, where Joseph 
Kauffmann's sister was married to Florini, an 
Italian ; thence father and daughter pro- 
ceeded by way of Bologna and Parma, arriving 
in Florence, June, 1762. 

They were provided with excellent intro- 

Childhood. 23 

ductions, and as usual the beauty and charm 
of the girl-artist produced its effect. She 
received much gratifying attention, and a 
room in the Duke's Gallery was specially 
set apart for her, where she could copy what- 
ever picture she was engaged upon, without 
being disturbed by the prying eyes, or 
annoyed by the unpleasant remarks of other 
students. She applied herself to her work 
with extraordinary diligence, sometimes 
working from sunrise to sundown ; and when 
she returned home in the evening exhausted 
with the day's incessant toil, she only waited 
for the necessary time to get some refresh- 
ment to again commence work. 

She was at this period of her life entirely 
possessed by that enthusiasm which at times 
seizes upon the artistic mind. She lived only 
for study and for her art ; looking at the work 
of the dead giants who had gone before her, 
ambition grew up in her soul to be like them 
— to fill posterity with wonder and admiration. 
That this wish remained to a certain extent 
unfulfilled was in a great measure owing to 
the circumstances which befell her in after life, 

24 Angelica Kauffmann. 

and also to the hindrances which then — far 
more than in the present time — stood in the 
way of women who sought to make their 
mark, and thus rendered their best efforts 
naturally incomplete. 

In spite of her heavier work, Angelica found 
time to execute several historical pictures, to- 
gether with portraits of distinguished persons, 
during her stay in Florence. These last were 
the necessary pot-boilers which kept the wolf 
from the door, and they are proofs of the in- 
dustry and goodness of the young girl who had 
all the burden of supplying the daily wants of 
herself and her father. 

After a year's residence, Angelica with 
her father proceeded on her journey to 
Rome, there to continue the course of study 
so well begun in Florence. 

No time could have been better chosen 
for her visit. Rome was brilliant — scintil- 
lating at all points with genius — crowded 
with princes, statesmen, artists, it offered a 
fascinating spectacle rich with everything 
that could appeal to a mind like Angelica's. 
To Rome she vowed an eternal fidelity, a 

Childhood. 25 

vow she most faithfully kept. Later on, when 
there was a question of an advantageous 
marriage, she wrote to her father, " Not so 
early will I bind myself. Rome is ever in 
my thoughts." And so it was until the day 
she passed from under the shelter of its 

Our heroine's usual facility for making 
friends came well to the front during her stay 
in Rome. She made lasting friendships, 
which were of much use to her in her future 
career. Notably with English visitors, as 
Lord and Lady Spencer, Lady Wentworth, 
some members of the ducal family of Devon- 
shire, and many others. 

By the artists she was most favourably 
received, and admitted into the inner 
circle, which was presided over by the 
great art critic, Winckelmann, who at this 
time had supreme influence in the Art 

All German writers from Goethe down- 
wards are apt to gush somewhat as to the 
giant intellect of the art restorer or apostle 
(for so he may be justly called) of the 

26 Angelica Kauffmanu . 

eighteenth century. His onslaught on the 
false teachings that prevailed was courageous 
and deserving of all the gratitude and 
encomiums bestowed upon him by his own 
countrymen, in the very longest and biggest 
words in their formidable vocabulary — for- 
midable merely so far as the mileage of the 
words is in question. 

Anyone who has ever read Goethe's 
travels in Italy will remember his outburst, 
" To-day Winckelmann's letters fell into my 
hands. With what emotion have I read 
them ! Thirty years ago, at this time of 
year, he came here a yet poorer fellow than 
I am. He too was full of an earnest wish 
to fathom the depths of ancient Art. How 
bravely he worked, and what remains to me 
but the memory of this man who lived where 

I live now ! " Again, " Winckelmann's let- 
ters are not a representation of life, they are 
life itself — they induce hope, desire, misgiv- 
ing." Goethe devotes pages to his hero ; 

II There are peculiar minds," he says, " who 
find in themselves a necessity to seek in the 
exterior world a counterpart of what nature 

Childhood. 27 

has implanted in themselves, and through this 
the soul becomes elevated and purified, and 
we can have full assurance that such an one 
will have created for himself the most perfect 
existence here and hereafter. So it was 
with Winckelmann ; in him nature had found 
what makes and adorns man. A miserable 
childhood, insufficient instruction in his 
boyhood, and the iron pressure of poverty 
had chained the young student to the school- 
master's desk in an obscure village. He was 
fully thirty years of age before a ray of sun- 
shine crossed his path." 

Goethe goes on to tell us (investing his 
subject with all the charm this great master 
of word-painting possessed) how the poor 
schoolmaster educated himself. The blind 
rector, whose reader he became, returned 
this service by giving the lad the run, so to 
speak, of his small but well-chosen library, 
and here Winckelmann, following his bent 
for ancient lore, read mostly the dead 
languages in which he was almost his own 

A short time after this, and before the 

28 Angelica Kaujfmann. 

academical year commenced, he went to one 
of the Berlin colleges, and there continued 
his studies ; but whether he found a teacher 
who could instruct him in the old literature 
he affected, does not appear, and seems un- 
likely. It must have been a singular and 
fragmentary course of study to adopt ; only 
one scholar had preceded him on this path, 
and to him Winckelmann now made his 

This was Gottfried Sellius, the Professor 
of Jurisprudence and Philosophy in Halle. 
He received Winckelmann cordially and 
soon discerned his merit. 

He gave him the delightful task of putting 
in order the Ludovizshe library, which — 
as is sometimes the case with a body 
of learned men — had got into the direst 
confusion, and for his services he received 
the thanks of the Stadtdirektor. From 
Halle, Winckelmann went to Dresden, and 
became librarian to the Northentz Library 
belonging to Count Biinau. The years 
which he spent here were years of profound 
study which bore its fruit later. He 

Childhood. 29 

studied the commentaries and exercises, and 
laid the foundation for his wide-stretching 
knowledge of all literature which made him 
the wonder of those who knew him in later 

What, however, distinguished him from 
other Librarians was the quiet firmness or 
obstinacy with which he resisted the tempta- 
tion into which most official librarians fall — 
of being nothing more or less than a walking, 
breathing catalogue. 

In Dresden his first literary efforts 
appeared, and the result of his well- 
directed reading was made evident in the 
manner of his composition. His maxim 
never to use two words when one would do, 
was here manifested clearly, and it gave to his 
style a perfect rhythm and a dignity mixed 
with simplicity which few, if any, works of 
the present time possess. 

In the Autumn of 1755 he came to Rome. 
He came poor and sickly, he had only a 
pension of two hundred thalers, but he 
brought with him a " soul of fire, ,; a soul 
which " thirsted for the really beautiful in 

3<d Angelica Kaujfmann. 

Nature and in Art, as a wanderer in the 
desert longs for a drink of pure spring 

At the moment at which this wonderful 
man entered Rome, Art was nigh to extinc- 
tion. We have seen in what a hopeless con- 
dition it had sunk, and how the work of each 
artist, sculptor, or painter went further and 
further from the divine original. Winckel- 
mann brought new fuel into the decaying 
fire of genius. He came fresh from nights 
and days of ceaseless study, he awoke men 
from their trance of indifference, and once 
more the standard of true art was raised. 
His first work, the famous " History of Art," 
attracted the attention of Cardinal Albani, 
who at once appointed him the custodian of 
the art collection his enormous fortune had 
allowed him to amass. It was the moment 
when Pompeii and Herculaneum were vomit- 
ing forth Caryatides, Vases, Statues, Bas- 
reliefs, Antiques of all kinds, and to contain 
these the Cardinal added hall to hall, build- 
ing to building, gallery to gallery, and still 
the collection grew. It was one of the 

Childhood. 3T 

most wonderful museums in the world at 
the time of the Cardinal's death, and by its 
means attention was drawn to Winckelmann, 
who was soon acknowledged to be the most 
learned teacher of a pure ideal in art, which 
is to be sought only in the Greek School as 
it was developed in the true artistic period 
called the Periclean. 

This subject is too deep to find a place 
here. Moreover it has been handled by 
able hands, and is only introduced now for 
the reason that Angelica's future was much 
influenced by the teaching of Winckelmann, 
which, together with the instruction of 
Rafael Mengs, 1 who was her master, left 
distinct traces upon her work. 

It was through the friendly offices of 
Rafael Mengs that the Kauffmanns were 
received into the inner circle which congre- 
gated round the great apostle. He had just 
published his " Anmerkungen liber die 
Baukunst der Alten," and it was this work 

1 Anton Rafael Mengs. His name is spelt by dif- 
ferent writers as Raphael, Rafaell, and Rafael. I have 
adopted the method used in Bryan's Dictionary, la§t 

32 Angelica Kauffmann. 

which riveted Angelica's attention, and 
made her anxious to know the writer and to 
profit by his instruction. 

Winckelmann, who was then forty-nine, 
was much taken with the grace and talent of 
the young artist, who sat in girlish fashion at 
his feet, and listened with her large serious 
eyes to the words of wisdom which fell from 
his lips. The philosopher was after all but 
a man, and there can be little doubt that 
he fell paternally or platonically in love with 
his fair pupil. 

"It is pleasant," says a German writer, 
" to form to oneself a picture of these two 
students, each animated with the same in- 
terest, the same longings, each enjoying 
the intimate communion they held with 
one another — two students separated by 
almost half a century of years, the maiden 
of eighteen summers, and the greybeard 
more than double her age." A portrait 
which the gifted young artist painted of 
her beloved master shows how well she had 
studied his features and caught his expression. 
Winckelmann, in a letter to a friend, mentions 

Childhood. $$ 

with evident pride that his likeness has been 
painted and engraved by a very pretty young 

This was when writing to his friend Franck. 
He says, " I have just been painted by a 
stranger, a young person ofextraordinary merit. 
She excelsin oils. Mine is a half- figure seated, 
and she has herself engraved it (a £eau forte), 
as a present for me. This young girl is 
a Swiss ; her father, who is likewise an artist, 
brought her to Italy when she was only a 
child, so that she speaks Italian as well as 
she does German — as for German, she speaks 
it as if she were born in Saxony. She ex- 
presses herself equally well in French and in 
English, and in consequence of the latter, she 
paints the portraits of all the English in Rome. 
She sings so well that she stands compari- 
son with our best virtuosi. Her name is 
Angelica Kauffmann." 

That her constant intercourse with the first 
Greek scholar of his time left indelible traces 
upon Angelica is evident in all her future 
works. Her romantic nature naturally in- 
clined to the study of classical mythology, 


34 Angelica Kauffmann, 

or, as Oppermann calls it, " the sentiment 
of past ages." Her sensitive mind readily- 
embraced all the beauty of the ideal world ; 
she listened to Winckelmann's preaching 
upon Greek art and the glories of the 
Periclean era, until she became saturated 
with the fables of mythology and set up 
the forms of gods and goddesses as the 
standard of all merit. From that time she 
could draw no face without giving to it a 
Greek profile, and this without regard to 
the circumstances in which she placed her 

One of her critics says, "Angelica painted 
Greek men and women without having 
the faintest idea of the world wherein 
they lived, just as she drew knights of the 
Middle Ages, with as little knowledge of 
the century which produced Gotz von Ber- 

The truth was, in her early youth she was 
somewhat superficial ; her imagination, as is 
the case with many artists, being more lively 
than her reading was deep, and she did not 
remain long enough under the care of men, 

Childhood. 35 

such as Winckelmann and Mengs, who were 
no flatterers, and would have in time cor- 
rected the faults which even her greatest 
admirers have to acknowledge spoil the 
beauty of her pictures. 

Sternberg is of opinion that had she 
possessed resolution to continue the life of 
study and hard work she had begun, she 
might have become, not a great or creative 
genius, for such power did not lie in her 
scope, but a " very respectable artist," 
capable of transmitting to posterity the new 
art religion ; but unfortunately circumstances 
were against her. Her father, without in- 
tending to injure, spoiled her by compliance 
with all her girlish whims, and there was, 
besides, the ever-grinding need of money ; so 
now, when an offer came for her to go to 
Naples and make some copies in the Capo- 
dimonte gallery, she dared not refuse. 
Naples was crowded with English, who all 
sat to her for their portraits, so that the trip 
was very profitable. In the October of this 
same year she went to Venice, and there 
made the acquaintance of Lady Wentworth, 
d 2 

36 Angelica Kauffmann. 

wife of the English Resident at Venice, Mr. 
John Murray. 1 

In the eighteenth century, the two favourite 
amusements amongst the English aristocracy 
were " The Grand Tour " and " Patronage." 
No lord or gentleman's education was con- 
sidered complete until he had passed the Alps, 
studied every continental vice, bought a cer- 
tain number of pictures, and patronized a 
certain number of artists. 

Lady Wentworth loved patronizing ; she 
posed as being devoted to art. She was fasci- 
nated with Angelica, and insisted on carrying 
her off to London, assuring hercharmingyoung 
friend that she would speedily make a fortune. 
Angelica and her father listened and believed, 
with the result that their plans were changed. 
John Joseph returned to Monbegno to remain 
with his sister while Angelica accompanied her 
patroness to England. Angelica's German 

1 This lady was Bridget, daughter to Sir Ralph Mil- 
banke : she married, first, Sir Butler Cavendish Went- 
worth of Howsham, Yorkshire ; this gentleman dying 
in 1 741, she married, secondly, Mr. John Murray (not 
Morris as stated in the dictionary of national biography), 
his Majesty's Resident at Venice from 1754 to 1765, 
when he was appointed Ambassador to Constantinople. 

Girlhood. 37 

biographers blame her for undertaking this 
journey. Sternberg talks of her frivolity in 
abandoning substance for mere shadow, 
sacrificing her art for the love of pleasure, the 
greed of money. Oppermann accuses her of 
forsaking a lover who would have made her 
far happier than any of the titled or rich 
husbands to which she aspired. 

There does not seem any foundation for 
Oppermann's insinuation that she preferred 
ambition to happiness. Rossi, who is a most 
faithful biographer, makes no mention of this 
unknown lover, who in all probability had no 
existence. 1 Rossi tells the story of her leaving 
Rome in the following words : — 

" Although Angelica was much considered 
in Italy, and her name was beginning to be 
well known, still the Italians gave her but 
trifling orders, and paid her insufficiently, 
while strangers, on the contrary, and the 
English in particular, showed an immense 
predilection for her paintings." 

1 Nathaniel Dance, the artist, was her lover during her 
stay in Rome, but although she encouraged his atten- 
tions, she ultimately refused him. 

38 Angelica Kauffmann. 

In the last century England was the 
Eldorado of artists, much as America is in 
the present day. It was there they received 
substantial reward for their efforts ; never- 
theless, the German writers speak most con- 
temptuously of the artistic condition of the 

" It is well known," says Sternberg, " that 
in matters of art the Little Island is of no 
account ; there are nations whose voice makes 
or mars the reputation of painter or sculptor, 
but England, in the matter of pictures or 
statues, is a modern Pompeii. Whatever 
treasures she may possess she covers them 
with the ashes of a cold egotism. They are 
for her — not for the world, She has no 
generous desire to elevate or to kindle a wish 
for emulation. She collects only to possess." 
He goes on : " The Frenchman, when he 
buys a picture, makes a great fuss ; he lets 
the whole of civilized Europe know what he 
has and where it is to be seen. The German 
ornaments his own sitting-room with the 
work of art, he shows it to his friends, he 
enjoys it himself, his eyes turn constantly to 

Girlhood. 39 

his treasure, as do the eyes of the lover towards 
his beloved. The Italian, the true disciple of 
art, places the newly-acquired masterpiece in 
a public gallery where everyone may see it. 
To him its beauty is a subject of devotion, 
and this devotion to be complete must be 
shared by the rest of his countrymen. Now 
mark the conduct of the Englishman ! He 
locks up his picture in his own gallery under 
the care of a surly guardian. He never sees 
it himself, he is content to have been the 
purchaser, the one who has money enough to 
outbid others, and who has_ bought a very 
dear picture. With this, all is said and 
done ! " 




The season was at its height when, on June 
15th, 1766, Angelica arrived in London. An 
exceptionally brilliant season this, for only a 
few weeks since the royal Princess, the king's 
youngest sister, Caroline Matilda, of most 
unhappy memory, had been wedded to her 
cousin the King of Denmark. The town, 
therefore, was seething with the effervescence 
of the late festival. The rank and fashion of 
England had crowded into the capital, and 
there was a going and coming, and a deal of 
noise and chatter, and a general air of 
pleasure and dissipation abroad. Moreover, 
the young king had not long been on the 
throne, and his queen, good, homely Char- 
lotte, was almost a girl, albeit already busy 
with the royal nursery. 

Girlhood. 4 1 

Lady Wentworth had a house in Charles 
Street, Berkeley Square, and here Angelica 
was in the way of seeing the best society, her 
patroness, Lady Wentworth, being a woman 
of fashion, besides a pretender to the authority 
of a connoisseur. 

In the latter part of the last century there 
was growing up' an emulation amongst ladies 
of quality, to be more than "the toast" at 
men's dinners — the Bluestocking Club, later 
on, was the outcome of this laudable desire. 
Lady Wentworth was, however, not to be 
classed with Mrs. Montagu, or even Mrs. 
Vesey — she was what Carlyle would call a 
windbag. She knew little of art, but talked 
a great deal. She loved patronizing a rising 
artist ; bringing one forward, much to 
his or her injury, as her injudicious praises 
and constant flattery were sure to have mis- 
chievous results. 

So it was with Angelica, who was now 
presented to the world of London, heralded 
by the busy tongue of Lady Wentworth, the 
lady running from house to house singing the 
praises of her new prote'ge'e. 

42 Angelica Kauffmanu. 

Angelica did not know this proclivity of her 
ladyship, so she fell into the net, and was 
carried about as my lady's new favourite. A 
hundred years ago people of fashion did not 
know what domestic life by the chimney- 
corner meant. They were, in a sense, far 
more dissipated than the butterflies of our 
own time ; they lived for ever in society. 
There were no big crushes or cultivation of 
city millionaires or American silver kings, 
but a constant give and take of invita- 
tions between the same people in the same 

It took Angelica a longtime to understand 
the ins and the outs of this curious world into 
which she found herself so suddenly trans- 
ported ; it was so unlike the world in which 
she had hitherto lived, totally different, even 
from the court life at Milan, which was more 
polished, but had not half the formality, the 
bowing, and the complimenting which pre- 
vailed in England. Angelica was, however, 
well pleased with the attentions she received. 

Shortly after her arrival in London, she 
wrote to her father ; her letter is dated the 

Girlhood. 43 

1 ith July, 1766 : " I have been told many a 
time that the English, when you meet them 
in their own country, are apt to forget all the 
promises of friendship which they made when 
abroad, but I find this to be quite untrue, 
and my experience is altogether opposed to 
this false statement. The gentlemen particu- 
larly are most kind (molte gentile), and 
their kindness is quite sincere, and, generally 
speaking, their words are full of good 

One cannot forbear a smile at this very 
naive confession that her merits were more 
recognized by the sterner sex than by her 
own — but this was only natural, as Rossi 
tells us that Angelica was now in the full 
perfection of her charms. She was not a 
perfect beauty, but possessed the most won- 
derful attractions. " There was a witchery 
in her sweet blue eyes, and in the pupil so 
much expression that one could almost guess 
her thought before she spoke." 

Everyone must remember how charmingly 
she is described in the opening chapter of 
" Miss Angel " :— 

44 Angelica Kaujfmann. 

" Yesterday, at Mr. Colnaghi's, I saw a 
print lying upon the table, the engraving [by 
Bartolozzi] ! of Sir Joshua's picture. It was 
the portrait of a lady, some five or six-and- 
twenty years of age. The face is peculiar, 
sprightly, tender, a little obstinate, the eyes 
are charming and intelligent, the features 
broadly marked — there is something at once 
homely and dignified in their expression — 
the little head is charmingly set upon its 
frame, a few pearls are mixed with the heavy 
loops of hair, two great curls fall upon the 
sloping shoulders, the slim figure is draped 
in light folds fastened by jewelled bands, such 
as people then wore. A loose scarf is tied 
round the waist. . . ." 

It was no wonder that this dainty figure 
caused a sensation, especially as u her wit 
was sprightly," and her musical accomplish- 
ments of the highest order. People found that 
the combination of beauty and talent, simplicity 
and fascination, which distinguished this 
German girl, 2 was something quite rare. Soon 

1 See Appendix. 

2 Angelica's nationality is sometimes disputed; the 

(After the painting by Sir Joshua Reynolds.) 

To face page 44. 

Girlhood. 45 

she was the leading toast, and Fashion, that 
capricious dame who often refuses to ac- 
knowledge Nature's best handiwork, pro- 
nounced for Angelica, and set her seal, which 
is as a trade-mark for beauty, upon the young 

" She shared," says a contemporary writer, 
"with hoops of extra magnitude, toupees 
of superabundant floweriness, shoe-heels of 
vividest scarlet, and china monsters of super- 
lative ugliness, the privilege of being the rage.'' 

Angelica's letters to her father are full of 
the kindness she received ; how she is invited 
to Lord Spencer's, and introduced by Lord 
Exeter to Sir Joshua Reynolds. 

In July she writes again : — 

" I have been to visit several of the studios 
here, but there is none to compare with that 
of Mr. Reynolds. He is decidedly the first 
English painter. He has a peculiar method, 
and his pictures are mostly historical. He 
has a light pencil or touch which produces a 
wonderful effect in light and shade." 

Germans and Swiss both claim her. She was, however, 
only Swiss by being born in the Grisons. 

46 Angelica Kanffmann. 

This expression penello volante is particu- 
larly appropriate, and shows the happy turn 
of expression possessed by Angelica, both in 
speaking and writing. 

In another letter, dated October 10th, in 
the following year, she mentions Reynolds' 
kindness to her : — ■ 

" He is one of my kindest friends, and is 
never done praising me to everyone. As a 
proof of his admiration for me, he has asked 
me to sit for my picture to him, and in return 
I am to paint his." l 

Rossi says, " Reynolds was indeed full of 
admiration for Angelica's talent, and for her- 
self he had a far tenderer feeling than admi- 
ration. She, however, only thought of her 
beloved art, and her heart was closed to all 
other passions.' 

As with Rossi, so it was with all other 
foreign writers who have occupied them- 
selves with Angelica's career, as biographers 

1 This compact was duly carried out. A picture of 
Angelica appeared in the Artists' Exhibition of 1769; 
hers of the painter was done for his friend Mr. Parker 
of Saltram, in Devonshire. Mr. Parker was raised to 
the peerage in 1784 as Lord Boringdon, and in 1815 
his son was created Earl of Morley. 

Girlhood. 47 

or novelists. They cling to the idea of 
Reynolds' love for their charming country- 
woman, and her rejection of his suit. Miss 
Thackeray also cultivates this notion, but, as 
a matter of fact, there seem to be no grounds 
for believing that Reynolds ever made her 
a definite offer. His biographers — Malone, 
Farington, and Leslie — make no mention of 
his attachment — fortunate or unfortunate — to 
any woman. 1 The fact that she and Reynolds 
painted each other's portraits was sufficient 
for the gossips of the day to couple their 
names together, and out of this slender 
thread the romantic story has been woven 
together, with the episode of the great 
English painter going on his knees to a girl 
young enough to be his daughter: not that 
his so doing would be injurious to his memory ; 
one would be inclined to like him better in 
this character of an earnest lover, than as he 
was — the most kind-hearted of men, the best 

1 Pasquin says, "Whether, as she alleged, Miss 
Western had anything to do with the steeling of the 
heart of Reynolds against elegant Angelica cannot be 

48 Angelica Kattffmann. 

of friends, but a decided flirt, 1 a regular old 
hand, not likely to be caught by even 
Angelica's simplicity and fascination. 

Sir Joshua himself said his heart had 
grown callous from too much contact with 
beauty : all the most beautiful women in 
London had passed under his pencil. He 
had painted Kitty Fisher, 2 Nelly O'Brien, 3 
and Miss Parsons, 4 the volatile Bellamy, the 
lovely Miss Morris, 5 and the greatest beauty 
of her own or any day, Georgina, Duchess 
of Devonshire. 

For all these ladies the painter had the same 
half paternal, half lover-like manner, which 
may have deceived Angelica. He certainly 
had great kindliness towards her, and some 
little tenderness, • which is made evident by 
the mention of her in his note-book, as "Miss 

1 His friends were well aware of Sir Joshua's foible in 
this direction. " Tis Reynolds's way," says Goldsmith, in 
his genial verses on Dr. Baker's dinner. 

2 One of the most famous Phrynes of the day. Sir 
Joshua painted five celebrated portraits of her. 

3 This lady was in the same category. 

4 The Duke of Grafton was divorced by his Duchess 
for his devotion to Nancy Parsons. 

5 Miss Morris sat for Hope nursing Love, one of the 
most beautiful of Sir Joshua's portraits. 

Girlhood, 49 

Angel" One time he adds, " Fiori" as if to 
remind himself to send her a posy ; but this 
would not be a convincing proof that he ever 
meant to make her his wife. There is no 
reason to imagine he ever went beyond 
these safe attentions, neither would it be 
likely that Angelica would have concealed 
this proposal from her father had it been 
made, and Joseph, who was proud of his 
daughter, would have told his friends ; and so 
the matter would have been made public, 
which it certainly was not, for Rossi does 
not state it as a fact. Sternberg accuses 
Reynolds of the meanness of being jealous of 
the girl artist. " Previous to her arrival he 
had been," says this bitter writer, "the 
oracle in matters of art, and finding himself 
now placed in a secondary position, he re- 
venged himself by pouring words of false 
praise into her ear, which the simple girl, who 
did not know the world, and who adored 
praise, swallowed as gospel truth. For the 
first time in her life she ignored the advice of 
her more prudent father. The old fox, 
Joseph Kauffmann, knew well what underlay 

5'o Angelica Kauffmann. 

the praise and the admiration of a rival. He 
warned Angelica against Reynolds." 

As a refutation of this calumny, there is the 
testimony of a well-known writer : — 

" The most celebrated of the women paint- 
ers," says Mr. John Forster, "had found no 
jealousy in the leading artist of England. 
His was the first portrait that made Angelica 
Kauffmann famous here ; to him she owed 
her introduction to the Conways and Stan- 

There is a mistake here. Angelica's first 
success was "Arcadia"; Reynolds' portrait 
of her was exhibited at the Incorporated 
Society of Artists in May, 1769, when her 
position as an artist had been assured. 
Secondly, this portrait in spite of its merit 
was not the best done of her by Sir Joshua. 1 

The first time that she came before the 
English public, in a professional capacity, was 
in 1765, the year before her arrival in 
London, when mention is made of her in the 
exhibition of the Society of Arts in Maiden 
Lane, at Mr. Marengo's rooms. 

1 She sat to Reynolds three times, 1766, 1769, 1777. 

Girlhood. 5 1 

She is set down in the catalogue thus : — ■ 

A portrait of Garrick, 1 by Miss Kaffmann, 2 
at Rome. 

It was not a wise selection, although 
her six years of travel and study had 
done much to improve the young artist, 
and to ripen the talent she undoubtedly 
possessed. It was a mistake for one so inex- 
perienced to undertake a subject which had 
baffled more mature artists. BernstorfT says, 
"that even Hogarth failed in depicting 
Garrick as Richard III., and that the same 
could be said of Zoffany's Hamlet." It was 
only Reynolds who made a masterpiece of 
his portrait of the actor, standing between 
tragedy and comedy. 

Angelica was more successful the next 
year, 3 when she chose for her subject one 
more suited to her peculiar style. A shep- 
herd and shepherdess of Arcadia, moralizing 
at the side of a sepulchre, while others are 

1 This must have been a copy, as at this time she had 
not seen the actor. It was a commission from the Marquis 
of Exeter, and is in the collection at Burghley. See 

2 The spelling is that Of the catalogue of 1 765. 
s 1766, the year of her arrival in London. 

E 2 

52 Angelica Kauffmann. 

dancing in the distance. This had been, 
originally, used by Guercino, and was a 
favourite of Angelica's. 1 She repeated it 
several times, and always treated it with 
that grace and feeling which she showed in 
such compositions. 2 

A drawing of " Arcadia " is in the possession of 
Charles Goldie, Esq. See Appendix Supplement. 

2 Sir Joshua used the same subject for his pictures of 
Mrs. Bouverie and Mrs. Crewe. 

1766, 1767. 


Lady Wentworth falling into bad health, 
Angelica moved from her house, and estab- 
lished herself in apartments with a friend of 
her patroness in Suffolk Street, Charing 
Cross. It was in every way better for her, 
and work soon began to flow in. The friend- 
ship or admiration of Reynolds was invalu- 
able to her. He sent her many sitters, and her 
patrons were amongst the highest in London. 
A letter to her father, which she wrote at this 
time, gives an interesting account of her life, 
and the struggle she had to keep a proper 
appearance before the grand world who had 
so suddenly taken her to its arms. The good 

1 She died in 1774. 

54 Angelica Kauffmann. 

sense and business capacity which was re- 
markable all through her life, is very pro- 
minent in this letter, especially when we take 
the years of the writer into account. Some 
people might say there was a certain hard- 
ness in her evident wish to keep her father 
from joining her ; but it must be remembered 
at what an early age the burden of the family 
support had fallen upon her shoulders, and 
how anxious she was to procure a certain in- 
come. For this she worked when others 
amused themselves, and it would have been 
suicidal to her plans if she had been saddled 
at the outset with an expensive household. 
That there was no want of affection for her 
father was proved by her subsequent con- 
duct. There never was a better daughter. 

11 A Monsieur Kauffmann, Peintre, chez 
Monsieur Gaupp, L'Apoticaire a Lindau. 

"London, Jeu. 10th, September, 1766. 

1 " My dearest Father, — I received your 
letters of the 20th August, as also of 3rd 
instant all right. I rejoice from my heart 

1 This letter was procured for the compiler by Pro- 
fessor Gebhard 1- , King's Library, Berlin. 

Girlhood. 55 

at the news that your health continues satis- 
factory ; thank God ! I am also in excellent 
health. From your last I see that you 
and dear Rosa l intended to leave Monbegno 
the day after it was written. The thought, 
and the hope of seeing you rejoices me, and 
I wish it heartily. I see also, that without 
waiting for my answer, you are resolved upon 
setting out on your journey, and therefore, 
that it is very uncertain whether this letter 
will reach you. Nevertheless, I cannot re- 
frain from giving you every information about 
this country, so that you can judge what the 
best course is, whether to continue your 
journey, or put it off until next spring. Be 
assured I am as anxious to see you, as you 
are to see me — but do not take it ill if I tell 
you that some good, sensible friends think it 
ill-advised of you, to come this winter to Lon- 
don, and if you will weigh well all the circum- 
stances, you will find it is not for our advantage, 
as the expense of everything here is enormous. 
" 1 am in a private house with excellent 
people, old acquaintances of my lady, who 

1 The daughter of his sister who afterwards accom- 
panied him to England. 

56 Angelica Kauffmann. 

has had the goodness to recommend me to 
them, as if I were her own daughter. I have 
been a month here. The people of the house 
do everything for me. The handy-woman is 
a mother to me, and the two daughters love 
me as a sister. 

" The opportunity was so good, and every- 
thing suited me so well, that I did not hesitate 
to secure them, and have taken the apart- 
ments for the whole winter. I have four 
rooms ; one where I paint, the other to show 
my portraits, which are finished (it is the 
custom here for people to come and see work 
without disturbing the artist). The other two 
rooms are very small, in the one that is my 
bedroom there is scarcely room for the bed- 
stead to stand, the other serves to keep my 
clothes and trunks. For the rooms I pay two 
guineas a week, one guinea for the keep of the 
man-servant, whom I have also to clothe ; this 
is without washing and other small expenses ; 
but I could not dispense with the servant. 

" These are my outgoings, which will ap- 
pear to you very large, but it could not be 
less. Should you determine on coming this 

Girlhood. 5 J 

winter, we must take a house, which is very 
hard to find, and nothing could be had under 
a hundred guineas a year, unfurnished, and 
to furnish it would cost four hundred guineas. 
Consider how expensive all this will be ; 
especially in the winter-time, when every- 
thing is double in price, the days twice as 
short, so that little work can be done. You 
know very well that we must have a man and 
a maid. Decorum reqiures this, for I am 
known by everyone here, and I have to main- 
tain a character for respectability for the sake 
of my standing in the profession, so that 
everything must be arranged on a proper 
footing from day to day, which is most 
necessary if one wants to be distinguished 
from the common herd. Ladies of quality 
come to the house to visit me, or to see my 
work. I dare not receive people of their 
rank in a mean place. My present apart- 
ment is very proper for the purpose, at the 
same time as moderate as can be had here. 
I would not do better by changing. So long 
as I am alone, I hope (in spite of the expense 
I am at) to save a good deal this winter, 

58 Angelica Kauffmann. 

and when the summer comes to make a 

" Houses will be easier to get, and they 
will be cheaper. There is another point which 
gives me uneasiness. The climate is bad, 
and you are not accustomed to the air here. 
It is already late in the year, and we have 
dark, foggy days, also the smoke from the coal 
fires is most unpleasant. I am concerned for 
your health. If you were to get ill what a 
terrible cross it would be. I shall say no 
more. I fear you might think I had some 
other reason, for wishing you not to come, 
but no — certainly not. My only object being 
to avoid under our present circumstances all 
unnecessary expenses. Please God, with 
time, everything will come right, and be 
settled to our wishes. I beg you will consider 
all this carefully, and do not act hurriedly. 
May God preserve you in good health. 

" I remain until death your obedient 

"Angelica Kauffmann. 
"Address to Miss Angelica Kauffmann at 
Mr. Hurnes, Surgeon in Suffolk Street, 
Charing Cross, London." 

Girlhood. 59 

This sensible remonstrance had the desired 
effect, and Joseph Kaiiffmann put off his 
journey for this winter. In the spring of the 
year, however, we find that Angelica, who 
had worked hard all through the winter, did 
fulfil her promise, and in 1767 a house was 
taken in Golden Square, Soho. It can be 
gathered from this step with one so prudent 
that things were going well with the young 
artist, and that money was coming in. 
Whatever we may think of Golden Square 
as we hurry through the now deserted 
thoroughfare, people of quality lived there a 
century ago, and also in the mean little 
streets adjoining it. Mrs. Delany, during her 
first marriage to the rich Mr. Pendarves had 
a house in Hog's Lane, Soho ; her friends, 
Lady Falmouth and Mrs. Vernon, lived in 
Catherine Wheel Lane and Dean Street. 
So it is probable that Angelica paid at least 
a hundred a year for her house — which is 
said to be one of the large ones with tall 
windows at the corner of Soho Street ; it is a 
lodging house now. Except for the silence 
which has fallen upon it, Golden Square is 
but little changed since Angelica lived there. 

60 Angelica Kauffmann. 

It has a broken-down air of gentility as of 
having seen better days. It is decidedly dull, 
and the clerks who write in the dingy parlours 
of the business houses have a desolate outlook 
on the quiet little square, with the forlorn dusty 
trees. Not even nursemaids come here now. 
But in Angelica's time it was otherwise. 

Society a hundred and fifty years ago was 
made of precisely the same stuff as our own 
w r orld of to-day, and the magic touch of royal 
patronage worked wonders then as now. 
When it was known that the king's sister, 
the Duchess of Brunswick, had sat to An- 
gelica for her portrait, 1 there was a rush to 
her studio. Golden Square was blocked with 
carriages. She was doubly, trebly fashion- 
able. It was said that a young nobleman 
got melancholy mad because she refused to 
paint his picture, and officers in the Guards 
fought for a bit of ribbon or a flower she had 
worn. One day a royal carriage drove up 
to the tall house, and the king's mother, the 
Princess of Wales, alighted. She had come 
to see her Grace of Brunswick's picture. 

1 This portrait is in Hampton Court Palace. It is a full 

Girlhood. 6 1 

This visit raised the young artist to the 
seventh heaven of delight. She writes to 
her father in a strain of exultation :■ — 

" Never, oh never, has any painter received 
such a distinguished visitor." 

Every letter, indeed, which she sends to 
the far-away village of Schwartzenberg is 
conceived in the same key. 

" There is nothing but applause of my 
work ; even the papers are full of verses 
written in different languages, all in praise 
of me, and my pictures." 

In another letter she says, — 

" I have finished some portraits which meet 
great approval. Mr. Reynolds is more 
pleased than anyone. I have painted his 
portrait, which has succeeded wonderfully, 
and will do me credit ; it will be engraved 
immediately. Lady Spenser l has paid one 
hundred ducats for her picture. Lord Exeter 
is still in the country. This morning I had 
a visit from Mrs. Garrick. My Lady 
Spenser was with me two days ago. My 
Lord Baltemore visits me sometimes. The 
queen has only returned two days. As soon 
1 The spelling of the letter has not been altered. 

62 Angelica Kauffmann. 

as she is better I am to be presented to her. 
Two days ago the Duchess of Ancaster came 
to see me. She is the first lady at Court.'' 

This sounds like blowing her own trumpet, 
but it must be remembered she was writing 
to her best friend, the one who would reflect 
her triumphs, and consider them as his very 
own ; this would make a difference from 
ordinary self-glorification. There is also 
something very pretty in her loving anxiety 
to convince her father that she is getting rich. 
It is so transparent that her pleasure in this 
arises from no mercenary feeling, but from 
the joyful anticipation that the time is at 
hand when she can provide him with every 
comfort for his old age. Every line of her 
charming letters has the ring of true feeling 
and a longing to have her home ready for him. 

John Joseph rejoiced exceedingly over his 
child's success. He carried her letters about 
with him, and read them to everyone, until 
every man, woman and child knew of the 
Princess Dowager's visit and Angelica's 
triumphs, which, however, are viewed in a 
different light by her biographers. One of 

Girlhood. 63 

these writes: "In England she once more 
was the centre of a frivolous circle, by whom 
she was again, as in Milan and Florence, led 
away, only with this difference. The rich 
aristocratic English were in a position to 
offer far greater temptations (especially to a 
luxurious temperament, such as Angelica's) 
than the, comparatively speaking, needy 
nobility and princes of Upper Italy and 
the Swiss Cantons. The court, the 
nobility, the rich lords of the Parliament 
House, the owners of collections, and the 
leaders of fashion and talent poured their 
money into her hands. She herself was 
amazed at their lavish generosity, but she 
didn't reckon that her art was getting its 
death-blow. England was the platform upon 
which she could exhibit her sentimental gods 
and goddesses. This prudish nation — a 
whited sepulchre, so to speak, of immodesty 
— applauded to the echo the delicacy which 
could handle doubtful subjects, 1 and yet 
know how to present them so as not to 

1 This is an allusion to her picture of Venus attired by 
the Graces. 

64 Angelica Kauffmann. 

affront Society's feelings, hurt the prejudices 
of the ' British matron,' or make the young 
English miss blush. Art, in fact, was to be 
clothed in a sort of toilette luxury to please 
the taste of this eccentric nation, which found 
in Angelica an artist ready to gratify its 
ridiculous prejudices at the expense of the 
true principles and ideal of art itself." 

This criticism of Sternberg is severe, but 
there is truth in it. Angelica, surrounded 
by admirers and flatterers, was led away by 
her success, both social and professional, and 
there is no defending her from another 
charge brought against her, that of being a 
flirt. An arrant flirt, Mr. Smith, who 
does not mince his words, calls her, 
in his " Life of Nollekens." Another writer 
says : " She was one time sighing for Mr. 
Dance, another time declaring herself heart- 
broken for Sir Joshua. She was never happy 
unless she had several strings to her bow." 

So far as Nathaniel Dance was in question 
she had no need to sigh for him ; he was 
desperately in love with her, and had been 
so far back as her first year in Rome, 

Girlhood. 65 

when there was some talk of an engagement, 
but it came to nothing, much to Dance's 
disappointment. Me was an Irishman, an 
artist of considerable merit, and was now 
making his way in London. 1 He renewed his 
suit, but Angelica, being influenced by Lady 
Wentworth, who turned Dance into ridicule, 
would not listen to him. The artist took her 
rejection and the manner of it very much to 
heart, and it was under the smart of his 
mortification that he painted his fine picture 
of Timon of Athens. 

Fuseli was another lover of Angelica's. 
This was a conquest she might have been 
proud of. The young Swiss artist was already 
making a name for himself, and this year his 
portrait of Garrick as Macbeth, and Mrs. 
Pritchard as Lady Macbeth, had attracted 
much attention. Angelica gave him en- 
couragement. J. T. Smith tells of seeing her 
one night at Drury Lane in a private box with 
both Dance and Fuseli. She was playing 
them both off. Standing between the two 

1 He was created a baronet in 1797. 


66 Angelica Kauffmann. 

beaux, she found an arm of each embracing 
her waist ; she contrived, while her arms 
were folded before her on the front of the 
box over which she was leaning, to squeeze 
the hand of both, so that each lover considered 
himself the man of her choice. Smith 
adds, " She should have remembered Mrs. 
Peachum's remonstrance, ' Oh, Polly, you 
might have toyed and known by keeping 
men off you keep them on.' " 

In the end, however, Angelica refused 
Fuseli, also on the plea that she never meant 
to marry. In her letter to her father, ac- 
quainting him with this proposal, she says ; 
" Not so easily will I bind myself. Rome is 
ever in my thoughts. May the Spirit of God 
guide me." The words may have reference 
to the lover in Rome, whom Oppermann 
accuses her of abandoning, but Rossi 
considers they signified that her heart was 
closed against every passion save that of her 
art. Her indifference in regard to Fuseli is 
strange. He was singularly handsome, and 
his wonderful genius would naturally attract 
a girl of Angelica's romantic temperament. 

Girlhood. 67 

The explanation lay in the fact that she was 
ambitious, and that Fuseli's 1 position not being 
assured, and his poverty great, he had no 
means of gratifying her wishes. At this time 
he was only waiting for his friends to secure. 
him 50/. a year to go to Italy, which he did 
shortly after Angelica's rejection ; her treat- 
ment of him made a coolness between her 
and her friend Mary Moser. 

The Mosers had been amongst the first to 
make her welcome, George Moser having 
known John Joseph in their early days, when 
both were struggling artists. Moser, how- 
ever, had come when young to England as a 
chaser in gold and painter on enamel, and was 

1 Fuseli did not at any time hold Angelica's profes- 
sional talents in high esteem ; his criticism, however, has 
a touch of bitterness, which smacks of the despised lover. 
"I have no wish," he says, "to contradict those who 
make success the standard of genius — and, as their 
heroine equals the greatest names in the past, suppose 
her on a level with them in power. She pleased, and 
desired to please, the age in which she lived, and the 
race for which she wrought. The Germans, with as 
much patriotism at least as judgment, have styled her the 
' Paintress of the Soul ' (Seelen Mahlerin), nor can this 
be wondered at for a nation who, in a Raphael Mengs, 
flatter themselves that they possess an artist equal to 
Raphael the divine." 

F 2 

68 Angelica Kent ff maun. 

well considered, being on friendly terms with 
all the leading artists and directors of the draw- 
ing school in Maiden Lane. He received the 
child of his old friend warmly, and Angelica 
was quite at home in St. Martin's Lane, 
where the Mosers lived. Here she met 
Fuseli, for whom the daughter of the 
house, Mary, had a warm attachment, un- 
fortunately not reciprocated, Mary being a 
plain little person, but a kind, sensible girl. 
A skilful artist too — her flower groups were 
exquisite in finish and most elegant in ar- 
rangement. Her work was in great demand, 
Queen Charlotte patronizing her largely, 
and for her she painted a room at Frogmore, 
which was called the Flower-room. 

Angelica and Mary Moser were close 
friends until this affair of Fuseli. They met 
often at the house of Nollekens, the eccentric 
kindly sculptor. He was very partial to 
both the girls, especially Mary, who confided 
to him her love for Fuseli. Angelica painted 
Mrs. Nollekens as " Innocence, with Doves," 
for which she received fifteen guineas. 

Other friends of hers were theGarricks (who 

Girlhood. 69 

often welcomed her to their pretty villa on the 
Thames), Doctor Fordyce, D.D., and his 
brother James, and a host of others too 
numerous to name. 

Amongst the lovers report gave her, was 
a younger son of the ducal house of Devon- 
shire, but although he may probably have 
admired her, there was nothing definite 
in his admiration, else Rossi would 
have surely made mention of the circum- 
stance. It is, however, woven into a German 
novel, 1 which also represents a Lady Sarah 
Cavendish as being in love with the artist, 
Antonio Zucchi, her death being caused by 
the struggle between her love and her pride. 
This improbable story would seem to have 
no foundation. The two brothers, Antonio 
and Joseph Zucchi, were struggling artists : 
Antonio, a correct, but rather uninteresting, 
painter of large architectural designs; Joseph, 
an engraver of much excellence. The story 
that Antonio was at this period a lover of 
Angelica's seems likewise to have no founda- 

1 Historical novel by Amalie Schoppe. The whole 
story as regards the Cavendish family is pure fiction. 

yo Angelica Kauffmann. 

In the early part of 1767 Angelica had 
the happiness of welcoming her father, 
who, henceforth, remained with her until 
his death, many years later. John Joseph 
brought with him Rosa Florini, his sister's 
daughter, to be a help and companion to 
Angelica. He did little to assist the establish- 
ment. Any artistic talent he may have had, 
had long since departed, although he still 
continued to paint, and his pictures were ex- 
hibited. 1 He was rather a pompous old man, 
much inflated by his daughter's success. He 
spent most of his time arranging the house and 
studio for the reception of the distinguished 
sitters and patrons, who, as was the fashion 
in those days, had free entrde, and lounged 
away whole mornings in an artist's studio. 

This year Angelica's popularity seemed on 
the increase. She was presented at Court, and 
Royal commissions were showered on her. 

1 His paintings are mostly Scriptural in subject. His 
"Joseph sold to the Ishmaelites," and "Joseph telling 
his Dream," were engraved by Godby. They will be found, 
together with some sickly abominations called " The 
Affectionate Sister," and the " Afflicted Mother," in the 
fine collections of the engravings from Angelica's pictures 
in the British Museum. 

Girlhood. j I 

Queen Charlotte sat to her with a baby prince 
on her knee. King Christian III., of Den- 
mark, who was this year in London, also sat 
to her. Walpole said that he was as diminutive 
as if he came out of a kernel in a fairy tale. 

Rossi holds forth at great length upon 
Angelica's method in portrait painting ; how 
she sought, not only to make a reproduction 
of the features, but also to convey to her 
canvas a general idea of the character, as 
she conceived it, of her sitter, and for this 
purpose gave much time and consideration 
to each person who came to her. There is 
no doubt, as an eminent authority tells us, 
that the effect of a fine portrait emanates 
more from the painter than from the sitter. 
This gift of imparting, if we may so call it, 
comes to its best where there is a subtle 
harmony between the painter and model. 
Reynolds possessed a faculty of establishing 
such a harmony to a wonderful extent. " All 
the people he paints," says Leslie, " seem 
irradiated by something of the amiability, 
breeding, and sense of the artist. 

So too with Angelica. " She gives," says 

J 2 Angelica Kauffmann. 

a contemporary, " to her portraits much of 
her own grace and dignity." The Biographic 
Universelle remarks "upon the elegance of her 
draperies, which are never confused, and the 
attitude which is always well chosen, although 
her figures are often wanting in strength of 
colour and vigour of touch." 

The Allgemeine Biographic says, " She 
excelled in portraits." 

Another German art critic remarks ; "In 
her portraits she shows undoubted talent ; 
they are full of merit. She not only 
produces a faithful likeness, but gives mind 
and vitality to the picture, as for example in 
her portrait of Winckelmann." 

Oppermann, in his " Bregenzer Wald," 
devotes many pages to criticism of Angelica's 
style. He says : "The principal character- 
istics of her work are facility, clearness, and 
great ability in the treatment of the subject, 
and no artist of her time was possessed of 
as much taste and feeling, which, when it 
was not betrayed into an exaggeration of 
sentiment, was tender and noble." 

Angelica's strange predilection for classical 
and mythological subjects, and the treatment 

Girlhood. 73 

of .sitters in allegorical forms, has often 
been commented on. In regard to the first 
it was no doubt the outcome of Winckel- 
mann's teaching, and the next was not 
always a matter of personal choice. In the 
latter portion of the eighteenth century there 
was a craze for mythology ; the knowledge of 
" the gods of the heathen " possessed by 
women of that day would astonish many an art 
student of our time. Their letters and diaries 
are full of classical allusions and quotations 
from Virgil, and nothing pleased them so 
well as to be handed down to posterity as 
Vestals, Sibyls, in fact, in any shape but 
their own. Angelica perhaps lent herself 
to this fashion more than any other artist, 
for the reason that it was her taste. It was 
a false taste, however ; portraiture was not 
to be dignified by transforming ladies of the 
eighteenth century into heathen goddesses, 
and investing them with the attributes of the 
Pantheon. Angelica, however, was by no 
means the only artist who pandered, so to 
speak, to the fancy of her sitters, very few 
having the courage to resist this classical 

74 Angelica Kauffmaiui. 

. We find Reynolds one of the chief offenders. 
He has handed down " Lady Sarah Bunbury 
sacrificing to the Graces," the Duchess of Man- 
chester as " Diana," Mrs. Blake as " Venus," 
Mrs. Hall as " Euphrosyne," and other ladies 
of fashion, masquerading as goddesses. 
Neither was he successful in his mytho- 
logical portraits, and not even his grace of 
design and beauty of colouring could conceal 
the affectation of the whole idea. 

Where Angelica, however, failed most was 
in the large canvases, upon which she ex- 
hausted her invention, reproducing the eternal 
histories of heathen mythology. Eneas, Ulys- 
ses, Hector, Menelaus, Telemachus, repeat 
themselves with, it must be owned, weari- 
some fidelity. Some of these are dreadful ; 
" wishy-washy canvases," Leslie calls them — 
her heroes look like girls dressed up as men. 
Her figures are full of indecision, and their feet 
never seem to take a firm grasp of the ground. 
This indecision is especially remarkable 
in scenes of passion, which for the rest she, 
as a rule, avoided. Forster, the German 
critic, says, " Her composition of a large 

Girlhood. 75 

picture is weak. Her imagination not having 
sufficient strength, and its predominate feature 
being softness, her tenderness often degene- 
rates into sentimental sweetness." He, how- 
ever, forgets that sentiment was the feature 
of the century in which she lived, when every- 
one " went about with cambric handkerchiefs 
weeping over dead asses." There was, how- 
ever, no affectation in Angelica's sweetness, 
it bore the stamp of sincerity. 

To the rigid prudery of the time in 
which she lived, was due the want of know- 
ledge of the anatomy of the human form, 
which is so often brought against her. No 
woman student was then allowed access to 
the Life Schools. " I have never seen," 
says Pasquin, " the works of any female who 
could draw the human form correctly, their 
situation preventing them from studying nu- 
dities." He adds, in direct contradiction to 
the Biographie Universeife, that her draperies 
were erroneous, and were copied from the 
old expedient of the French School, of clothing 
the lay figure with damp brown paper. 

It is not the place here to say how far art 

J6 A?igelica Kauffmann. 

should dominate decorum. Whether the 
withdrawal of all the barriers, which, in 
Angelica's time, hedged in a woman student 
and prevented her from occupying the 
same position as a man (since her ignorance 
was always sure to cause some crying fault 
in the anatomy of the human body), 
although a gain to art, is compensated 
by the loss of the modesty which is a 
woman's charm, is a question for individual 
opinion. We have seen many changes as to 
women's rights within the last fifty years, 
surely none greater than the latitude allowed 
to them in such matters. 

The Biographie Universe lie says "That 
Angelica's pencil was always faithful to the 
highest aim of real art, and to the character 
of her sex ; she never painted but the most 
chaste imaginations." On the other hand, 
her propriety sometimes verged on prudery ; 
as when in the moral emblem of " Mercy 
and Truth " x she clothes Truth, whose very 
attribute is its nakedness. She explains this 
proceeding in a fly-leaf: 

" To avoid the unnecessary indelicacy of 
1 Moral Emblems, a series published by George Taylor. 

Girlhood. 77 

representing Truth naked, I have clothed her 
in white, as significant of Purity." 

On another occasion, being commissioned 
by a lady to paint a naked figure, she refused 
on the score of indelicacy, but executed a 
most charming picture of a nymph surprised 
when about to bathe, the figure being en- 
veloped in a gauze veil. 

Angelica's enemies set about malicious 
stories as to her " affected propriety," asserting 
that while protesting so much she attended 
the Life Schools dressed as a boy, and that 
in private she drew from a naked male model. 

Mr. J. T. Smith was at the trouble to go 
into this latter invention, and in his u Life of 
Nollekens" says that he found the man, 
Charles Cramer, then 82 years of age, who 
told him he had often sat to Mrs. Kauffmann, 
but that she had only drawn from his arms 
and shoulders. 




There was in London at this time (1767), a 
man of handsome exterior, of brilliant accom- 
plishments, of sufficient education, and of 
most agreeable manners, who, under the 
name of Count Frederick de Horn, repre- 
sented himself as being the head of a dis- 
tinguished Swedish family. He was, in fact, 
the valet of the gentleman whose part he 
undertook to play, and his knowledge of the 
family circumstances which he had thus 
gained, and of which he knew how to take 
advantage, enabled him to carry out the 
deception so perfectly, that no one who met 
him for a moment suspected the deceit, and 

Marriage. 79 

he passed in the very best society. He had 
every appearance of wealth and rank, drove 
a splendid equipage, wore fine jewels, and 
scattered money about with all the air of a 
nobleman, so that he gained an easy credit 

The count lodged at Claridge's. He had 
two footmen behind his coach dressed mag- 
nificently in green, but he was never known 
to invite any friend to his table. 

It was at Dr. Burney's, in St. Martin's 
Lane, that Angelica first met this adventurer, 
who at once singled her out as an object of 

His handsome face and fine figure, his 
charming manners, together with his profes- 
sion of the Catholic faith, inclined Angelica to 
receive his attentions with great favour. 
He came very often to Golden Square, and 
he conducted his wooing with such reserve 
and apparent devotion as to win his way to 
her heart, for she was strangely hard to woo. 
He was quick enough to perceive the advan- 
tage he had gained, and, seizing a favourable 
moment, he declared his love, asked her to 

80 Angelica Kattffmann. 

be his wife, and promised to divide all his 
large fortune between her and her father, to 
whom he would be the tenderest, the most 
obedient of sons — he, who, by his own 
account, was possessed of distinguished 
birth, great military honours, immense 
riches, castles, picture galleries, and magni- 
ficent jewels. 

Deceived by the general belief in him, 
Angelica never for a moment doubted his 
words, and, when he added that in a few 
days he would seek her father and formally 
demand her hand in marriage, Angelica 
was fully convinced, and agreed to his 
condition that until these days had elapsed, 
she would keep their engagement secret. 
The reason he gave was plausible — he was 
expecting papers which he wished to lay 
before John Joseph. 

The villain left her satisfied, but Angelica 
was only so for a short time. The idea of 
concealing so important a matter from her 
father, tormented her tender heart and 
alarmed her delicate conscience. She man- 
aged, however, to silence this monitor by 

Marriage. 8 1 

assuring herself that her father, when he 
knew the extraordinary good luck which had 
come to her, would pardon her the momen- 
tary want of confidence ; and the more she 
saw of her lover, the more she was fully con- 
vinced of the nobility and generosity of his 
mind, the more she trusted, esteemed, and 
even loved him. 

One day the scene changed. 

Pale, agitated, full of grief, he comes to 
Angelica, who, on her side, alarmed and 
trembling at what is going to happen, asks 
him what is the matter. 

Alas ! it is a political affair. His absence 
from his estates in Sweden and from the 
royal court has given offence. His enemies 
have been busy, they have prejudiced his 
friend the king against him ; they have 
calumniated him and persuaded his Majesty 
that he is engaged in a conspiracy against 
the royal life, and orders have come to the 
Swedish ambassador at the British Court to 
arrest him. Therefore, they must separate, 
and more — he is to be loaded with chains, 
branded with dishonour, and sent back to his 


82 Angelica Kauffmann. 

native land to perish there an innocent victim 
sacrificed to the tongue of the detractor. 

Angelica, shuddering at this terrible picture, 
implores her noble-minded hero to fly at once, 
but he refuses. 

Then, after a minute's pause, he goes on 
pleading as for his very life, — 

" Only one hope is there of saving me — 
only one refuge is for me — in thy arms, my 
angel — reach me thy hand as my wife. Once 
a holy bond unites me to thee, I am certain 
the royal family who love you and esteem 
you will not give up your husband, or allow 
him to be carried away to prison and certain 
death. If I escape now, all will go well. I 
am innocent, and once I am free and in 
another country, I will defend myself, I will 
bring my accusers to shame, and triumph 
over them, and it will be to you that I shall 
owe my happiness — my life — but there is not 
a moment to lose, either you make me your 
husband at once or I am a lost man." 

This is Rossi's account of an interview 
at which the words quoted may, or may 
not, have actually been spoke nbut there is 

Marriage. 83 

every evidence to show that great pressure 
was brought to bear on the unfortunate girl 
to induce her to consent to a secret marriage. 

It was unlike her to do so ; the upright- 
ness of her character, her love for her 
father, her respect for herself, were all 
against her doing anything clandestine ; on 
the other hand, she was romantic and — 
a curious anomaly — decidedly ambitious. 1 
Both these tendencies pulling at her heart- 
strings, inclined her to yield to her lover's 
wish, and, by so doing, secure to herself 
the rank and wealth she desired. These 
motives swayed her ; that there was much 
love is to be doubted, although the romance 
of the situation may have somewhat touched 
her heart. 

By the 22nd of November Horn had made 
everything ready, and in the morning 
Angelica met him at St. James's Church 
in Piccadilly, and was there married to 
him safe and sure by the curate, Mr. 
Baddeley. 2 How the supposed count got 

1 Zucchi writes of her — "Ambition is her fault." 

2 The certificate is to be seen in the vestry book at 
St. James's Church. 

G 2 

84 Angelica Kaajfmann. 

over all the difficulty of being a foreigner, how 
he evaded producing baptismal certificates, 
etc., is, like everything else in this hideous 
marriage, shrouded in mystery. He had 
two witnesses, Annie Home and Richard 
Home. Who were they ? 

It must have been a melancholy ceremony. 
How Horn must have started at every sound 
in the empty church ! How he must have 
dreaded that out of some corner an accusing 
voice would be heard denouncing his dastardly 
fraud upon the innocent girl beside him. 

Rossi does not seem to have known of the 
marriage at St. James's. He makes mention 
only of their going secretly to a Catholic 
Church x not far from Golden Square, where 
an imprudent priest blessed a union which was 
no union, without witnesses or proper for- 
malities. In stating this, Rossi evidently 
was not aware that in England, in 1767, the 
penal laws against Roman Catholics were in 
full force, and that it was strictly illegal for 
any priest to marry two people of his own 

1 Probably that of Spanish Place, as stated by Miss 

Marriage. 85 

faith ; such an act was punishable with death 
in his case, and imprisonment in theirs. 

It would be a question whether, as the 
supposed De Horn and Angelica were both 
foreigners, this law could have applied to 
them, but it is evident she was determined to 
be on the safe side. The visit afterwards to 
the Catholic Church (if it did take place) was 
a salve to her conscience, which was delicate 
in matters of her faith. 

The deed being done, Angelica returned 
to Golden Square, as she fondly imagined, 
the Countess Frederick de Horn, and after 
this Rossi says the supposed count seemed 
to recover his serenity. The pressing danger 
vanished, he talked no more of the conspiracy 
against him, but he confided to his newly- 
made wife that neither the papers he ex- 
pected nor the money, which was a large 
sum, had come to hand, and that in conse- 
quence he was much pressed by impudent 
creditors. What should a loving wife do 
but help her husband, and this Angelica did 
gladly, without even a doubt that all he said 
was true. So three weeks glided by, no 

86 Angelica Kauffmann. 

one suspecting that they were man and 

At last, either at the bidding of others or 
because he deemed it was now time to play 
his last card, Horn thought the moment had 
come to disclose to the miserable father of 
the girl he had deceived the true state of 
affairs. He did not, however, care to make 
the announcement himself; he sent an old 
priest to break the news, which, when he 
heard, so overwhelmed and crushed John 
Joseph that he lost the power of speech, and 
for some minutes could not articulate. He 
was a man who, good and honourable him- 
self, could not easily believe others to be 
knaves, and the deception practised upon him 
hurt him sorely ; moreover, he had some 
doubts that this great count was not all he 
appeared to be, and he feared for the happi- 
ness of his beloved child, without exactly ap- 
prehending the abyss into which she had 
fallen through her own fault. He was filled 
with the deepest anxiety, and could not be 
pacified by all the good priest said until 
he saw his daughter. Angelica came trem- 
bling, and threw herself at her father's feet ; 

Marriage, 87 

he reproached her bitterly for her con- 
duct, and pointed out to her the danger she 
had run by trusting herself to a man of 
whom neither he nor she knew anything 
definite. Angelica acknowledged her fault, 
but would hear nothing against her husband. 
She had grown fond of him in these weeks. 
Nevertheless, her words, as quoted by her 
biographer, have not the true ring of affection 
in them, but have rather a worldly matter- 
of-fact flavour. 

" You doubt, my good father, as to whether 
my husband is the nobleman he represents 
himself to be," she said ; " in such a case our 
marriage would be null and void, for it is only 
under these conditions that I have united 
myself to him." 

At these words the priest and the father 
looked at one another, pitying Angelica's 
simplicity. She, however, never ceased con- 
soling and persuading John Joseph, until he 
at last brightened up and consented to receive 
the count. Angelica was now happy, she 
led her husband proudly to her father, and 
looked at these two both so dear to her with 
eyes swimming in joyful tears. Horn stayed 

88 Angelica Kauffmann. 

with them, and when, later on, his father-in- 
law began to make inquiries as to what 
proof he could give as to the reality of his 
position and fortune, he turned off the con- 
versation, saying that the joys of the honey- 
moon should not be disturbed by any such 
worldly conversation. 

In the meantime, the fact that Angelica 
was married began to ooze out amongst 
her own circle. There was, curiously enough, 
at this moment a run of singular marriages, 1 
so that hers did not excite any particular 
attention, but her friends took the alarm and 
were filled with apprehension as to the true 
position of the man she had married. 

During the days that followed the narrowest 
investigations were made about him, and the 
opinion grew that he was an adventurer, if 
not worse. The inquisition to which his past 
life was subjected did not remain long con- 
cealed from the Count, and, as he dreaded the 
inquiry, he thought fit to put on a mask of 
virtuous indignation. His anger was prin- 

1 That of Lady Susan Strangways to O'Brien the 
actor, and another lady of quality to her footman. 

Marriage. 89 

cipally directed against his wife's father. 
He forbade Angelica to hold any communi- 
cation with him. He drove away all her 
friends, and finally ordered her to pack up 
her things and prepare to leave London with 
him immediately ; the town no longer suited 
him as a residence, and it was part of her 
wifely duty to obey him and ask no questions. 

Angelica was aghast. Was this furious, ill- 
mannered man the soft-spoken lover of a few 
weeks ago ? His brutality frightened her. 
His dislike to her unoffending father raised 
a storm in even her tranquil breast ; his 
conduct to her best friends made her indig- 

She refused to go with him and quit the 
home and the certain income she had 
made for an uncertainty, for it did not seem 
to her he had any visible means of support- 
ing her. This contumacy on the part of the 
usually gentle Angelica excited the rage of 
Horn still more ; he threw off his mask and 
showed the wretched girl his true ruffianly 
nature. In her alarm and misery she seized 
the first opportunity to tell her father, and 

90 Angelica Kauffmann. 

implored him to help her. Poor John Joseph 
appealed to his friends. One of these, who had 
been himself taken in by the Count, whose 
warm friend he had been, took upon him to 
demand an explanation. He wrote to Horn, 
telling him the injurious suspicions that were 
gaining ground against him, and demanded 
from him as a man of honour a written con- 
tradiction of them. The letter was couched 
in rather a threatening tone. 

Deceit and cowardice are closely allied. 
The Count answered in fear and trembling, but 
his shifting, double-dealing reply confirmed 
rather than allayed the suspicions against him. 
The letter was shown to Angelica by her father, 
and plunged her into still deeper grief, and 
when Horn, growing moreandmoretyrannical, 
insisted upon his rights as a husband, she sum- 
moned all her courage, and refused to leave 
her father. She showed him the letter in 
which he defended himself from the accusa- 
tions made against him, adding, that until he 
cleared himself from all suspicion of being 
an impostor she would live apart from 

Marriage. 9 1 

" You wish for a separation," he cried in a 
fury ; " then you shall have it." 

Then he burst out in threats, shrieks, 
violence of all kinds, which soon brought 
old Kauffmann to the assistance of his child, 
when the ruffian, seizing a purse full of gold, 
took his hat and flung out of the house, 
crying out, — 

"You will soon know who I am, and you 
will both repent the rough treatment you 
have given me." 

The two poor creatures remained all that 
day trembling from the effect of that terrible 
scene. They were in hopeless despair, not 
knowing what he would next do. Their 
despair increased when the- night passed with- 
out his return, and again the following day. 
It was not his absence that caused them un- 
happiness, it was the dread of what so wicked 
a man might be hatching against them. 

After three days spent in anxious uncer- 
tainty, on the fourth came a lawyer's clerk 
in the name of Count Horn, to demand 
from Angelica instant submission to his 
wishes, since he, as her husband, had a 

92 Angelica Kauffmann. 

legal right over her and all she possessed, 
otherwise he would press for a deed of 
separation and demand compensation to the 
amount of 500/. 

Angelica was quite cured of even the 
lukewarm liking she had for him, she saw 
that it would be impossible for her to live 
with such a villain. She grasped at the idea 
of a separation, but neither she nor her father 
were inclined to reward the other's successful 
villainy with so much of her hardly-earned 
money. She was advised to have recourse to 
the law. The cause, however, took the usual 
tedious course. Proofs had to be collected, 
searches to be made into the career and 
episodes of the false count, and, as much of 
his life had been spent abroad, messengers 
had to be despatched to almost every court 
in Europe. 

Pending the outcome of these inquiries, the 
villain set the seal to all his former turpitude 
by an attempt to carry off Angelica by 
violence. He got together some cut-throats, 
had carriage and horses in readiness, hired a 
vessel, and except by a dispensation of Provi- 

Marriage. 93 

dence, through which his designs were dis- 
closed, Angelica would undoubtedly have 
fallen into his hands. 

From this time (although Horn was bound 
over under strong penalties to respect his 
wife's person and liberty) Angelica lived in 
constant fear of him. She dreaded what 
might befall her if once in his power ; she 
knew that he wore on his ringer a ring which 
contained poison, and she did not think he 
would scruple to use it. 

Meantime, from divers sources, information 
from abroad and depositions were coming 
in, all containing evidence of a rascally 

One set proved the different names which 
he had taken in different places ; another the 
titles and dignities he had given himself; 
this one related how he had extorted money 
on false pretences ; another how he had con- 
tracted debts to keep up a splendid appear- 
ance. All went to prove an unbroken course 
of swindling. There came news, too, of his 
having married another woman, who was with 
him in the year 1765, when he resided at 

94 - Xngelica Kauffmann. 

Hildesheim, and gave himself out as a colonel 
and lieutenant of Frederick the Great. 

In Hamburg, at the Hague, in Breslau 
and other towns, he was well known, and al- 
ways as an adventurer with the worst repu- 
tation. At Amsterdam he had gone by the 
name of Studerat, in other places he called 
himself Rosenkranz. Brandt was the only 
name to which he had any right. 1 

This consensus of accusation and the ac- 
cumulation of evidence that came pouring in 
from every side made the Count tremble. 
He began to think it were best to abate his 
demands and get clear off with what money 
he could extract from his victim. He there- 
fore again approached Angelica with an offer 
of a compromise. To this her friends, and 
especially the magistrate before whom the 
process would come, objected very strongly, 
advising her to make no terms with such a 
villain, but to have him properly punished for 
his shameful conduct in her regard. 

Angelica, undecided, now listened to the 

1 When he was Count Horn's footman he went by the 
name of Buckle. 

Jlfa; n 95 

firm counsels of the magistrate, and z\ 
when the process seemed to stretch away in 
the distance, was inclined to put an end to 
this torturing delay and agree to Horn's 
proposal. He was now limiting his demand 
to 300/., and agreeing to sign a legally drawn- 
up document, wherein he bound himself to 
abandon all his rights as a husband and to 
leave Angelica absolutely free, never seeking 
to renew any intercourse or hold any com- 
munication with her. 

Angelica at last consented to sacrifice the 
money for the sake of peace. She naturally 
preferred — as any sensitive woman would do 
— this method, to exposing to the world all 
the miserable details of her unfortunate con- 
nection with this man. 

On the 10th of February, 176S, 1 this docu- 

1 The deed of separation is signed with Horn's real 
name, Brandt, which was the one he had a right to call 
himself; his mother, Christina Brandt, had been seduced 
by Count De Horn, while she was serving as a maid in an 
inn. The count may have taken the boy and brought 
him up in his own household, which was very often done 
with natural children, and this would account for his 
gentlemanlike manners and his likeness to the Horn 
family. It is also probable that it was thus he got hold 
of the coveted articles and the jewels which cast such a 

96 Angelica Kauffmann. 

ment, which was to give her her freedom 
from the persecution of a villain, was 
signed, and so ended this miserable busi- 
ness, four months after the marriage, 
three of which Horn had spent out of the 
house, which he had quitted on the day of 
the quarrel. 

Rossi goes on to tell of an extraordinary 
incident which took place on the same day 
upon which Angelica's release was signed, 
and which, he says, would have appeared too 
improbable for any stage piece. 

" A respectable person came to Angelica 
and disclosed to her the fact that the Count 
was already married to a girl in Germany, 
and had deserted her, leaving her in the ut- 
most poverty ; and that this girl was intending 
to come to London if only she had the means 
to pay for the voyage. This discovery, if true, 
invalidated the second marriage, and several 
persons tried to persuade Angelica to bring 
the real wife to London. Others advised her 
by no means to give herself the expenses and 

glamour over poor Angelica. It is more than likely that 
he stole them. 

Marr; gy 

anxiety of a trial, and these wiser counsels 
prevailed. Angelica from the first was ad- 
verse to any publicity which could be avoided, 
and it did not take her long to deride upon 
ing the matter .is it was ; ' for,' said she, 
' if the count has been guilty of this offence, 
ami if his guilt is proved, he will be sentenced 
to death, and if I should be the cause of this, 
I should never know a moment's happiness. 
No, the spirit of revenge and anger dwells 
no longer in my breast, and although he 
has injured me, and it may be has 1m ti- 
me, 1 leave his punishment in God's hands. 
Never speak his name to me again.' A 
wise resolution," says her biographer, " 
pious and good, which did her under- 
standing as much credit as her heart, for 
there is no doubt, in the end, the dragging 
of Horn into the mire of contumely would 
thrown a certain stain upon the 
woman who had shared his name for some 

Meantime the soi-disa?it count had made 
good his escape, and never more was heard 
oi until news came many } cars after of his 


98 Angelica Kaujfmann. 

death. Who or what he was must always 
remain a mystery. Rossi adds. " I have lin- 
gered long over this sad story, but I think it 
only just to Angelica to contradict the many 
( fables ' spread abroad. What I have now 
related has been told to me by the father of 
Angelica, who suffered keenly from the dis- 
grace which had fallen undeservedly on his 
loved child, and who wrote down accurately 
the true history." 

John Thomas Smith, in his " Memoirs," 
tells the story of Horn's detection in a 
different manner. 

" After the marriage." he says, " Angelica 
was sent for to Buckingham House to paint 
Queen Charlotte. She communicated her 
marriage to her Majesty, upon which she 
was invited to Court and her husband also. 
He, however, kept out of the way, saying his 
luggage had not arrived. At last the real 
Count Horn arrived in London, and at the 
levee was much surprised at being congratu- 
lated by the queen upon his marriage, when 
it all came out." 

In " Miss Angel " this incident is made 

Marriage. 99 

use of in a very pretty scene between the 
queen and the artist. However well suited 
for the purposes of a novel, there is no truth 
in the story, neither does it appear that a real 
Count Horn did make his appearance on the 
scene. The whole business is involved in a 
strange mystery, out of which it is difficult to 
grasp any tangible facts beyond that of the 
false marriage. 

Putting aside his share in Angelica's story, 
Horn's career was one of the most singular 
instances of audacious swindling. It was the 
age for adventurers. Every court in Europe 
swarmed with them ; every minister used 
them as instruments, and supplied them with 
money and credentials. Handsome, agree- 
able men, with good manners, were in 
request, as they were certain to have bomies 
fortunes, and much could be expected from 
the favour of a great lady. Horn, or Brandt, 
rather answers to this description, and the 
splash he made, the fine horses and footmen, 
the best hotel, and the splendour of his own 
appearance, would lead one to think he had 
some other means besides the jewels he was 
h 2 

IOO Angelica Kanffmann. 

supposed to have stolen. But why did he 
not seek the favour of some great lady ? 
He moved in the best society, and must 
have known many women better suited to 
his purpose than Angelica. The Kauffmann 
household was not appointed in a style to 
deceive a man of Brandt's experience ; he 
must have guessed that all he could possibly 
expect was a share of the girl artist's 

What, then, was his motive ? Love, per- 
haps (who can say ?), and that, knowing the 
dignity and purity of Angelica's nature, 
he saw no way of making her his but by 
going through an apparently legal marriage 

But there is another view of the subject, 
which one finds set forth by several German 
and French writers. 

Wurzbach says ; " The suspicion of having 
a hand in this unpleasant affair fell upon 
Reynolds. It is true that later on he made 
a lame attempt at clearing himself, and gave 
an explanation to Angelica. All the same just 

Marriage. 101 

as it remains a riddle how much Reynolds 
had to do with this melancholy history, so he 
also remains under a certain imputation of 
having a share in the matter." 

Sternberg is even more plain spoken. He 
says: " ' Le Manuel des Curieux et des 
Amateurs des Beaux Arts ' speaks of a 
conspiracy, which was set on foot in London, 
against the artist. The writer does not 
mention names, for the reason that the 
source is nasty. Angelica herself, in the 
public papers, addressed a letter to the 
editor of the " Beaux Arts," denying 
there was any truth in these assertions. 
From other sources of information, how- 
ever, there is not the smallest doubt that 
this contemptible mystification was planned 
for the humiliation of the artist, and that 
Reynolds had a hand in the game. Whether 
it was he, or a friend of his, an artist, who 
had proposed for Angelica and been refused, 
it is enough, that out of revenge, these two 
concocted the plot to disgrace her. There 
then appeared this man, who called himself 

102 Angelica Kauffmann. 

Count Horn, and who gave himself out for a 
distinguished Swede. He pretended to be 
an art patron, and spent considerable sums 
in buying pictures. A handsome man, a rich 
man, a count, Angelica could not resist. 
The poor woman suffered cruelly ; the spring 
of her life was dried up ; she loved and had 
been betrayed." 

Nagler, in his "Notice" of the artist in 
vol. ii., 1 mentions this story in the " Manuel 
des Curieux," also Angelica's letter. The 
" Biographie Universelle " says : — " Des Bio- 
graphies ont accuse Reynolds d'avoir prepare 
ce complot et initie ce malheureux a son role 
pour se venger des dedains d'Angelique, mais 
ce ne fut pas certain." The same charge of a 
"complot" is made either distinctly or hinted 
at in every biographical notice ; in Dohme's 
" Kunst ii. Kiinstler," 2 in " Hoeffer's Nou- 
velle Biographie," and the " Biographie 
Contemporaine," in Wurzbach's Lexicon, 
also in Leon de Wailly's 3 historical novel. 

1 Kiinstler Lexicon. 

2 Article on Angelica, by J. Weissley. 

s Schoppe also and Desalles-Regis wrote novels on 
this subject. The latest addition to fiction is Mr. Du- 

Marriage. 103 

But if this story were true, how does it 
happen that Reynolds' biographers (friendly 
or unfriendly) are silent as to such grave 
charges, of which they must have been aware, 
had this letter from Angelica in the " Beaux 
Arts " ever appeared ? And again, how is it 
that the gossips of the day, the news writer, 
Horace Walpole, and the garrulous Boswell, 
make no allusion to a bit of scandal too 
delightful to be omitted? It would seem 
that when the original accusation was made 
in the "Manuel des Curieux et des Beaux 
Arts," edited by H fiber and Rast, a French 
edition was published contemporaneously 
with the German one. For the purpose of 
this biography, both editions have been closely 
searched for either accusation or letter, but 
without success. It may be that they ap- 
peared in a first edition and have been sup- 

Putting aside the well-known character of 
our great painter, which would make such 
an accusation incredible, it is not possible to 

bourg's play "Angelica," which is soon to be given at 
one of the leading theatres. 

104 Angelica Kauffmann. 

suppose that after treachery of this kind 
he would have remained a fast friend of 
Angelica's to the end of his life, heaping 
favours upon her and her family. If con- 
spiracy there were, and many circumstances 
would lead one to this hypothesis, it would 
lie more probably at the door of Nathaniel 
Dance, and his friend Nathaniel Hone. 1 
Dance, as we know, had loved and been 
rejected by Angelica, and had taken the 
manner of her rejection much to heart, and 
his Celtic blood would lead him to revenge 
himself upon the woman who had not only 
refused but ridiculed him. 

His friend and fellow-countryman, Hone, 
was a despicable character, envious of other 

1 Hone and Dance were both Irishmen ; Dance was 
the most successful artist. He recovered from his disap- 
pointment, married the widow of a Hampshire gentleman 
with a good fortune, was a member of parliament, and 
was created a baronet. He was a vain man, and gave 
out that Angelica refused Sir Joshua because she was 
attached to himself. In the " Records of my Life/' by 
John Taylor, the author talks of " Mrs. Kauffmann's 
correspondence with Dance, which was thought so 
interesting, that his Majesty George III. asked to see it." 
Taylor, however, is not reliable authority, and there is 
no reliance to be placed upon this story. 

Marriage. 1 05 

artists, cordially disliked by them. Smith 
says he was jealous of Reynolds, and lost no 
opportunity to defame him ; the dislike be- 
tween them began in their school days, and 
culminated in the ugly transaction of " The 
Conjurer " later on. There would be every 
probability that such a nature as Hone's 
might have planned the outrage on Angelica, 
for the purpose of throwing dirt, if he could, 
upon Sir Joshua. In addition to which, Hone 
had a personal dislike to Angelica, based 
upon her greater success as an artist. 

Rossi, from whom the account given here 
of Angelica's betrayal is principally collected, 
speaks of the reports and fables in circula- 
tion at the time, which Angelica had not 
the courage to contradict ; and for this 
reason, he adds, he has thought it right to 
communicate to the public the facts which 
were left to him in writing by the good 
father of Angelica, who had suffered infinitely 
from his daughter's misfortune. 

This would seem very conclusive that 
John Joseph had never heard of the 
Reynolds conspiracy, or, if he had, counted 

106 Angelica Kaufjmann. 

it amongst the fables. It has, however, been 
thought better to mention in this biography 
the accusations so freely made abroad, 
which, up to the present time, have gone 
without contradiction, thus leaving a slur 
upon the memory of a great artist and an 
honourable gentleman. 

I 768-1771. 


After Horn's final withdrawal a hopeless 
calm settled down upon Angelica's life. 
There was nothing more to fear, but to a 
sensitive nature like hers the bare idea that 
everyone was in possession of what had 
happened must have been mental torture. 
She bore her trial bravely, and by degrees 
her work, and the sympathy of her friends, 
who were never weary of showing her kind- 
ness, mitigated her pain, although the wound 
never healed. 

Rossi says that the strangeness of her un- 
merited misfortune, together with the esteem 
in which she was held, caused her to receive 

108 Angelica Kauffmann. 

numerous offers of marriage from men in the 
highest positions. Angelica, however, shud- 
dered at the name of a second engagement, 
and before she could have accepted any pro- 
posal of marriage, she must have gone 
through a painful trial to prove that, for 
various reasons, her first union was invalid, 
and from this publicity she shrank. 

Angelica now threw herself into work 
with almost feverish energy. Her brush 
was always in her hand. Money was much 
needed in Golden Square. Horn's demands 
had swept away all her savings, and there 
were the heavy expenses of the legal pro- 
ceedings to be met. Angelica's friends 
behaved generously. Orders came flowing 
in. Her good patron, Lord Exeter, ordered 
pictures by the yard. Lord Spencer, too, 
gave her commissions, and the good-natured 
king l sat for his portrait, although this was 

1 It will be remembered by readers of " Miss Angel " 
that Angelica (after the discovery of Horn's conduct) 
goes to Windsor to paint the portrait of the king. Miss 
Thackeray popped her heroine into the house of Dr. 
Starr, a Master at Eton, Curiously enough, this proved 
to be the very house where had lived her father's great 

Womanhood. 109 

an honour he had not yet paid to Reynolds. 
With all this amount of work in hand, she 
cultivated assiduously her literary and musical 
talents, both of which were of a high order. 
In music she excelled, her voice being of a 
delicious quality. 1 Her mind was highly 
cultivated, and all through her life she en- 
joyed the friendship of those who were dis- 
tinguished in the artistic or literary world. 2 

Count Bernsdorff, 3 the Danish Prime Min- 
ister, who was this year visiting London, 

grandfather, Rev. Dr. Thackeray, who was assistant 
master of Eton in 1 746, and later became Archdeacon 
of Surrey. There is in the family a tradition that one of 
his daughters was attached to Antonio Zucchi. 

1 She would run to the harpsichord and sing all manner 
of national airs. 

2 Rossi says her love for men of letters did not spring 
in any way from vanity or a wish to be considered a bas 
bleu, but from a true appreciation of the beautiful ; so 
much so, that when she read an elevated passage or heard 
some eloquent discourse, her eyes would light up and her 
whole countenance show how moved she was. 

3 Count Bernsdorff, the friend and companion of 
Frederick Prince of Wales, returned to Copenhagen 
after the death of the Prince and became Minister. He 
was a clever statesman and accomplished man. He did 
as much for Denmark as Bismarck did for Germany. A 
handsome obelisk just outside Copenhagen is erected to 
his memory. — Sturz's Biographic 

no A ngelica Kauffma tin . 

gives in one of his delightful letters a descrip- 
tion of a visit he paid her ; it is full of in- 
terest, and is dated September 15th, 1768, 
just six months after Horn's betrayal : — 

" I found our gifted countrywoman yester- 
day with Klopstock's ' Messiah ' in her hand. 
Pope's ' Homer' lay upon the table near her. 
She reads both with perfect ease, but natu- 
rally the German poet is nearest her heart. 
She was born, if I remember right, in Bre- 
genz, and went to Italy when quite young, 
associating there and ever since with the very 
best people, artistic and social. This always 
makes a distinct impression, in early youth 
especially, and she is now both in her art and 
herself, in her manners and mind, quite on an 
exceptional platform. She has a peculiar and 
most womanly dignity which inspires the 
utmost respect. She is about twenty-seven, 
by no means a beauty, nevertheless extremely 
attractive. The character of her face belongs 
to the type Domenichino loved to paint, the 
features are noble, the expression sweet. It 
would be impossible to pass such a face with- 
out looking at it, and once you have looked 

Womanhood, 1 1 1 

you must admire, and there are moments 
when she is absolutely beautiful : thus when 
she is seated at her harmonica singing Per- 
golesi's ' Stabat Mater,' her large expressive 
eyes, ' pietosi a riguardar a mover parchi,' 
are piously raised to Heaven, and her inspired 
look helps the expression of the divine words. 
At this moment she is a living St. Cecilia. 
Alas ! that so much beauty and such talent 
should have failed to secure for this gifted 
woman any measure of happiness. The 
sadness of her whole air betrays an inward 
discontent which is the consequence of her 
unfortunate marriage which has ended in a 
separation. The whole story is pitiful, and 
this misfortune has spoiled her life. She is 
a great favourite here, and has a reputation 
as an eminent artist. This truly British word 
at once guarantees a fortune ; Angelica, how- 
ever, is too modest — she does not sufficiently 
assert herself, for an eminent artist can, in 
this rich capital, use her admirers much as a 
selfish, money-seeking coquette does her 
lovers, plunder and ill-treat them, without fear 
of a rupture ; the passion of the nation being 

H2 Angelica Kauff matin. 

to fill the pockets of their favourite, no mat- 
ter whether he be an artist, or a hair-dresser, 
Farinelli, or a conjurer." 

Angelica, not having left any note-books as 
Reynolds did, it is impossible to know the 
scale of her prices. Fifteen guineas is men- 
tioned by J. T. Smith as the price paid for a 
portrait of Mrs. Nollekens. 1 A hundred years 
ago all artistic and literary work was in- 
differently paid. Goldsmith received sixty 
pounds for the u Vicar of Wakefield ; " Ho- 
garth one hundred for the " Lady's last 
stake ; " Zoffany two hundred for " Abel 
Drugger " ; and it was only when his name 
was at its highest that Reynolds was paid 
150 guineas for a full-length portrait. 

Angelica's rapid method of painting 
enabled her to execute more work than most 
artists. She drew hurriedly, putting in the 
costumes and figures with her pencil before 
she took the palette in her hand, trusting very 
much to the delicate combination of colour, 
for which she was famous, to conceal the 
false outlines into which there is no denying 
1 As u Innocence, with Doves." 

Womanhood. IT 3 

she was often betrayed. Her colouring has 
been the subject of very diverse opinions. 
Bernsdorff says she played strange tricks with 
her carnation, and that her shadows are 
overdone. Rossi maintains she was equal 
in colouring to the old masters. Oppermann 
thinks her draperies are too highly tinted, 1 her 
background too monotonous. At the time 
it was thought she used a secret preparation, 
which gave her tints this extraordinary 
brilliance, but in her later pictures she 
subdued her colouring to a great degree. 

George Keate, her friend and admirer, 
wrote an absurd pamphlet addressed to the 
lovely, the adorable, the beloved Angelica, 
in which he ascribes her miraculous colouring 
» to a magician who has given her a powder 
from Egypt's distant shore. He believes 
Cheops and Rhodope are proud to minister 
to her glory. Nitocris will shine again in 
her delineation of a virtuous monarch, and 
Cephenes will blacken with his dark pigment 
some villain's face which her chaste pencil 

i A Writer in ^ Art Journal oi :8 9 o <&°~^ 
he calls this vinous tone, which is decidedly unpleasant. 

ii4 Angelica Kauffmann. 

abhors to paint." He covers pages with this 

Notwithstanding her secret, Angelica's 
colours have not been lasting. In some in- 
stances they have faded more than others, 
but this is also noticeable in Sir Joshua's, and 
can be accounted for by the different varnishes 
and mediums used, some of these being 
deleterious to the preservation of the work. 

The year 176S was a memorable one in 
the history of Art in England. It was 
then that the scheme of founding a Royal 
Academy, which had long been in agitation, 
took actual shape, and the institution which 
is now such a yearly point of interest to both 
public and artists had its birth. 

Its process of incubation had been a try- 
ing one. So far back as 171 1, Sir Godfrey 
Kneller, then at the head of the profession 
of arts, made the attempt, and failed ; Thorn- 
hill later established a makeshift academy 
or school of art at his own house. This 
lame effort was followed by the Life School 
under George Moser, and when this was 
joined by such men as Hogarth, Cotes, and 

IVowan/iood. 1 15 

other artists of standing, it migrated first to 
St. Martin's Lane, and in 1759 opened rooms 
in Pall Mall. 

Still all felt even this improved position 
did not answer the purposes of a National 
Academy. Efforts were strenuously made 
to induce the royal sanction to be given, to- 
gether with a proper grant. The proclivities 
of the House of Hanover, however, had never 
been artistic. George I. was too fond of his 
mistresses, and George II. had his hands 
full of his quarrels with his son and his 

The struggle still went on ; the Society, 
with gallant spirit, exhibiting annually a 
number of pictures which were excellent in 
work and drew large crowds of visitors. At 
last, in 1765, the Society wrung from the 
Government a charter of incorporation, and 
the right to call itself "The Society of In- 
corporated Artists." Having attained this 
measure of success, the spirit 'which had 
been so admirable died out. 

Constant disputes arose amongst the 
members ; jealousies, private warring, until 

1 2 

1 1 6 A ng clica Ka ujff ma n n . 

the cohesion of the Society became impossible. 
A split followed — Chambers, Moser, West, 
Cotes, being included amongst the mal- 
contents. The result was the starting of a 
new art society upon totally different lines, 
the professed object being to found an 
academy of design for the instruction of 
students with an annual exhibition which 
should contain the work of the academicians. 
Pressure was brought to bear on George III., 
who had at first received the scheme coldly, 
but later offered to supply from his private 
purse any money deficiency and to give the 
academy a royal sanction. 1 This enabled 
the members to offer prizes to the students 
and to bestow annuities on such as were 

With these advantages the new constitu- 
tion was easily formed under the title of 

1 The generosity of the king was much commended by 
the journals of the day. The Advertiser bursts into 
enthusiastic praises in verse : — 

" Long had Britannia sighed for such a king, 
When George arose and bade her Muses sing ; 
Called Genius forth from Contemplation's cell, 
And drew up Wisdom from her sacred well." 

Womanhood. !I 7 

"The Royal Academy." Reynolds at first 
held aloof, not, as unfriendly writers allege, 
from a doubt that the countenance of the 
court would be wanting, but from fear that 
the mistakes of " The Incorporated Society 
of Artists" might again be committed. It 
was after West had taken to him a proposed 
list of thirty members, and explained to him 
enough to show that the new society started 
on a basis of their own which might fairly 
be made to include all the higher objects 
of such an institution, that Reynolds con- 
sented to join ; and all his brother artists, 
rising to a man, saluted him as president of 
the new-born institution. 

The list of original members includes the 
names of Chambers, 1 Moser, Hayman, New- 
ton, Penny, Sandby, West, Reynolds, Barto- 
lozzi, Cipriani, Cosway, Wilson, Zoffany, 
Nollekens, Dance, Hone, and Wilton; 
together with two women artists, Angelica 

' Sir W. Chambers was the prime mover, and is thus 

alluded to : — 

" By all thy odes the world shall know 
That Chambers planned it." 

Academy Lyrics, Peter Pindar. 

1 1 8 Angelica Kauffmann. 

Kauffmann and her friend Mary Moser. 
Such an honour as this has never since 
that day been paid to any female artist, and 
although it was no doubt due to the in- 
fluence of Sir Joshua, still he would not 
have ventured to confer the dignity of R.A. 
upon Angelica unless her position in a great 
degree justified his action. His fellow- 
academicians, however, did not approve of 
the introduction of the female element, and, 
as a hint that their sex rendered them unfit 
for the necessary course, both ladies are 
purposely omitted from Zoffany's picture of 
the "Academicians gathered about the 
Model." In this fine work (as Leslie 1 says), 
"each face is an admirable likeness, and 
the peculiarity of every artist is caught and 
transferred to the canvas so as to strike 
every beholder. There is Moser setting 
the figure, and Zuccarelli and Yeo studying 
the pose. Dr. W. Hunter scans the action 
of the muscles. Nathaniel Hone, with an 
attitude of swaggering importance, leans on 
the screen at the back of the model. Cosway, 
Leslie's life of Sir Joshux Reynolds. 

Womanhood. 1 1 9 

the Maccaroni miniaturist, displays his clouded 
cane andgold lace at full length in the left-hand 
corner. He is the only one present, except Sir 
Joshua, who wears a sword. Zoffany himself, 
palette on thumb, is a pendant to Cos way. 
Behind him West leans on the rail, in con- 
versation with Cipriani and Gwynne. On his 
left, seated on a drawing-box, is the burly 
figure of Frank Hay man. Just behind him is 
Sir Joshua, the centre figure of the composi- 

On the wall hang the portraits only, in oval 
frames, of the two lady academicians, Mary 
Moser and Angelica Kautimann. 1 They 
were thus admitted into the picture, as it 
were, on sufferance, not as making part of 
the assembly. Zoffany, too, has done very 
little justice to them — at least to Angelica, 
whom he deprives of all her beauty, and re- 
presents as a prim, hard-featured woman. 

The first exhibition of the Royal Academy 
pictures was held in the spring of 1769, at 
Messrs. Christie's auction rooms, in Pall Mall. 

1 The diploma given by the Foyal Academy is pre- 
served by the descendants of Johann Kauffmann. 

120 Angelica Kauffmann. 

" Tradition," says Mr. Redford, in his "Art 
Sales," " fixes the spot where the Senior 
United Service Club now stands, opposite to 
Market Lane, Haymarket." On the 26th 
April, 1769, the social and artistic world of 
London were hurrying thither. The Adver- 
tiser of April 27th announces : " On Monday 
the Princess-Dowager of Wales, and yester- 
day his Majesty, accompanied by his Royal 
Highness the Duke of Gloucester and the 
two princes of Mecklenburg Strelitz, visited 
the exhibition of the Royal Academy in Pall 
Mall, with which they expressed themselves 
highly satisfied." 

One hundred and thirty-six pictures had 
been sent in, a small number according to our 
ideas. Angelica sent four, which are thus 
set down in the catalogue : ! 

1 The introduction to the catalogue has the follow- 
ing :— 

" As the present exhibition is a part of the institution 
of an academy supported by royal munificence, the 
public may naturally expect the liberty of being 
admitted without any expense. The academy, there- 
fore, think it necessary to dec'are that this was very 
much their desire, but that they have not been able 
to suggest any other means than that of receiving money 
for admittance, to prevent the room from being filled 



61. Interview of Hector and Andromache. 

62. Achilles discovered by Ulysses amongst the at- 

tendants of Deidamia. 1 

63. Venus showing Eneas and Achates the way to 


64. Penelope taking down the bow of Ulysses for 

the trial of her wooers. 

The Advertiser says that the pictures which 
chiefly attracted the attention of the con- 
noisseurs were three by Sir J. Reynolds, the 
" Regulus " of West and his " Venus lament- 
ing the Death of Adonis," and " Hector and 
Andromache," by Mrs. Angelica, an Italian 
young lady of uncommon genius and merit. 

In the European Magazine there is like- 
wise a short notice : 

Departure of Regulus from Rome. 

The King and Queen 

Lady Molyneux 

A piping boy 

A boy playing cricket 

An altar-piece 

Duchess of Manchester 

Hector and Andromache 

Venus directing Eneas and Achates.. 


N'athaniel Dance. 

Mr. Gainsborough. 

Mr. Hone. 



Mr. Reynolds. 

Mrs. Kauffmann, a 
lady but lately 
arrived in Lon- 

by improper persons, to the entire exclusion of those 
for whom the exhibition is apparently intended." 

1 Deidamia, daughter to King Lycomedes, at whose 
Court Achilles was concealed dressed as a woman. 

122 A?igelica Kauffmann. 

From Angelica's choice of subject it was 
evident the gods and goddesses of Olympus 
ruled her fancy. Other artists, West and 
Reynolds, likewise exhibited classical and 
allegorical subjects. 1 

The president sent no less than three alle- 
gorical portraits : 

i. The Duchess of Manchester, as Diana nursing 

2. Lady Blake, as Juno receiving the Cestusof Venus. 

3. Miss Morris nursing Hope. 

Allan Cunningham says, in his caustic way, 
" Poor Miss Morris was no dandier of babes, 
but a delicate over-sensitive spinster, unfit 
for the gross wear of the stage. Of Lady 
Blake's title to Juno, I have nothing to 
say, and what claim a Duchess of Manchester, 
with her last babe on her knee, could have 
to_the distinction of Diana, it is difficult to 

The critics were hard upon the pictures. 

1 Mr. Taylor, in his Life of Sir Joshua, speaks slight- 
ingly of his forced and far-fetched personifications of 
Juno, Hebe and Diana. He considers them indescrib- 
ably inferior in charm to those which Reynolds has 
painted of the women of his own time. 

Womanhood. L 2 3 

Horace Walpole marks "Bad, very bad," 1 con- 
stantly in his catalogue. He makes no men- 
tion of Angelica's "Hector and Andro- 
mache/' which was a commission from Mr. 
Parker of Saltram (afterwards Lord Bonng- 
don), and was engraved by Watson. 

Bernsdorff saw the picture in the artists 
studio before it went to the Academy, and 
after criticising Angelica's faults severely, he 
says, " The defects in her method (grave ones, 
I own) are in my opinion counterbalanced by 
the many beauties of thought and feeling 
with which her work is permeated. Sensu 
tincta sunt. She shows great wisdom in her 
choice of a subject-the moment of separation 
when the interest is heightened by the fore- 
boding of never again meeting, and the 
imagination can fill up the details. Her 
composition is full of grace, and the figures 
have the quiet dignity of the Greek 
models. Her women are most womanly, 
modest and loving, and she conveys with 
much art the proper relation between the 

1 From the Strawberry Hill Catalogue. 

124 Angelica Kan ft maun. 

sexes, the dependence of the weaker on 
the stronger, which appeals very much to her 
masculine critics. It must be owned, how- 
ever, that a little of this feebleness charac- 
terizes her male personages. They are shy 
creatures ; some of them look like girls in 
men's clothes, and it would be impossible for 
her to portray a villain. However," he 
adds, "the colouring is very faulty, the 
background is monotonous, and a violet 
haze floats over the picture, which is very 
detrimental to its beauty." 

The moment chosen by Angelica is where 
Hector meets his spouse at the gates of 
Troy. His steps are already turned towards 
the camp. It seems that one more and he 
will be outside the city, but he has wavered 
at the voice of Andromache ; he has turned 
towards her, the left foot is loosely drawn 
back behind the right, and the lance which 
he holds is planted in the ground. He is 
consoling the half-fainting woman, who 
rests upon his shoulder. Her right arm 
is thrown round his neck, the other hangs 
down, and her hand seeks that of her 

Womanhood. I 2 5 

husband, who takes it in his clasp. She has 
just spoken : 

" Too daring Prince : Oh, whither dost thou run ? 
Ah ! too forgetful of thy wife and son ! 
And think'st thou not how wretched we shall be, 
A widow I — a helpless orphan he ! 
Thy wife, thy infant in thy danger share. 
Oh, prove a husband and a father's care ! " 

Pope's " Iliad." 

But now she is silent, nestling close to her 
beloved, searching his face, anxious to read 
if she may dare to hope. Hector is speaking 
those noble words : 

"Andromache, my soul's far better part, 
Why with untimely sorrow heaves thy heart ? 
No hostile hand can antedate my doom 
Till Fate consigns me to the silent tomb." 

The spectator can see that the hero has 
not made up his mind. Will he remain ? or 
will he tear himself away, from her loving 
embrace ? The uncertainty of this situation, 
when realistic in intensity, appeals very 
much to the heart, and is a great factor in 
art. Lessing availed himself of it with 
great success in his book dealing with the 
antique statue of the Laocoon. 

Angelica also exhibited this year a portrait 

126 Angelica Kauffmann. 

of the president, done to order for his friend 
Mr. Parker of Saltram. 

Mr. Taylor says it is (judged by the 
present standard) a weak and characterless 
piece of work, but it found great commenda- 
tion in its day. This portrait must have been 
exhibited at the Society of Incorporated 
Artists, who had their show of pictures on 
May ioth this year. 1 

The Advertiser wrote of it in these 
terms : — 

1 While fair Angelica, with matchless grace, 
Paints Conway's lovely form and Stanhope's face, 
Our hearts to beauty willing homage pay, 
We praise, admire, and gaze our souls away. 
But when the likeness she has done for thee, 
O Reynolds, with astonishment we see, 
Forced to submit with all our pride, we own 
Such strength, such harmony excelled by none ; 
And thou unrivalled by thyself alone." 

This painting of one another's portraits, 

1 The Earl of Morley kindly allowed a photograph 
to be taken of this portrait, and, in opposition to Mr. 
Taylor's criticism, we venture to quote the judgment of 
other art critics who, when the portrait was exhibited 
at the Manchester Exhibition, pronounced the treatment 
to be unconventional and the colouring good. 

(From a portrait in the possession of the Earl of Morley.) 

To face page 126. 

Womanhood. I2 7 

together with placing Angelica's name on 
the roll of Academicians, very naturally 
revived the old report, and set the gossips' 
tongues wagging, although now there could 
be no talk of a marriage. 1 Mr. Forster in 
his " Life of Goldsmith," speaks of "Reynolds 
and his Angelica," and gives us the story of 
Dr. Baker's dinner in a rhyming letter from 
Goldsmith to his dear Horneck, in which he 
makes mention of Angelica's portrait of the 
president : — 

"So tell Horneck and Nesbitt 
And Baker and his bit 
And Kauffman beside 
And the Jessamy Bride. 

« But 'tis Reynolds's way 

from Wisdom to stray, 

And Angelica's whim 

To befrolick like him. 
But alas, your good worship, how could they be wser 
When both have been spoifd in to-day's 'Advertiser ? 

The years '70 and '71 were full of work. 
To the exhibition of I 770 she sent four large 
pictures : 

1 \ngelica not being able to get a divorce from Brandt, 
without going through the publicity of a trial. 

128 Angelica Kauffmann, 

116. Vortigern enamoured with Rowena. 1 

117. Hector upbraiding Paris. 2 

118. Cleopatra adorning the tomb of Mark Antony. 3 

119. Samma, the Demoniac, weeping over the ashes 

of his son. 

The subject of this last was taken from 
Klopstock's " Messiah," which the author had 
sent to her, and of which she writes to 
Sturz : — 

" May, 1769. 
11 I have much to thank you for, in the 
great honour our famous countryman has 
paid me in sending me his works. I had 
thought it would be too bold of me to 
offer my warm thanks, but now I have 
resolved to follow your advice and to write 
to him. I am going to venture further 
(still in accordance with your good counsels) 
and having chosen a subject from the 

1 In the British Museum there is a proof engraving 
from the original which is in the possession of the Earl of 
Morley. It is counted one of her best as regards correct 

2 Engraved by Thomas Burke. 

3 Engraved by Thomas Burke from the original, which 
was bought by George Bowles. This is well known to 
all print collectors. 

Womanhood, 129 

' Messiah,' I mean to paint it for the great 
composer. Oh, that I were able to express 
by my brush something of the majesty, the 
divine beauty of this glorious, this sacred 
theme ! I shall, however, attempt it, and 
should I succeed, I shall send my un- 
worthy effort to my kind friend, Herr Klop- 

Sternberg damns this with the words 
11 full of false sentiment," but Horace Walpole, 
in his Strawberry Hill catalogue, remarks : 
Not ill ; which, considering his notes are 
all in a depreciatory key, amounts to almost 

. This year, too, the portrait of General 
Stanwick's daughter, who was lost on her pas- 
sage from Ireland, had an immense success. It 
is full of tenderness and sensibility, and even 
Sternberg has to acknowledge its merits : 
at the same time he takes care to add to 
his few words of praise his usual amount 
of unworthy criticism against the English 

" This picture," he says, "was the fore- 


130 Angelica Kauffmanu. 

runner of an infinite number of pale, sen- 
timental heroines and equally colourless 
heroes, meeting under a romantic moonlight 
in an English park. One can imagine 
nothing more cold and prudish than these 
compositions : nevertheless, they charmed 
all England for the reason that the English 
nation, which is outwardly prudish, but at 
heart immoral, adores a conventional hand- 
ling of dangerous subjects. They like to 
have paintings hung in their drawing-rooms 
which will not cause a pulse to beat, and 
at which their young misses can gaze without 
blushing ; in fact, they clothe art, and, to 
satisfy their absurd prudery, stifle genius." 

Without wishing to enter upon the inca- 
pacity of the English nation to decide upon 
matters of art in the last century, one may 
venture to say in Angelica's defence, that 
the reproduction of her pictures by the best 
engravers of all countries must be an evidence 
that her work was possessed of merit, an 
evidence of greater value than would be the 
sale of her pictures. 

The engraver does for the- painter what 

Womanhood. T 3 T 

the translator does for the author or poet, 
and it is not probable that a bad or indiffer- 
ent writer would find translators from every 
nation competing for his book ! 

The list of the engravers who secured 
the copyright of her designs is a long 
one .—Bartolozzi, 1 Facius, Ryland, Burke, 
Green, Watson, Scorodomoff, Dickinson, 
Laurie, Houston, Dauke, Berger, Smith, 
Porporati, Kruger, Durmer, Schiavonetti, 
Knight, Carattoni, Spilsbury, Taylor, 
Bryer, Cataneo, Morghen, Marcuard, 
Wrenk, Tomkins, Folo, Zucchi ; also the 
girl, Rose Lenoir, who engraved "Venus 
in her Chariot" at the age of fourteen. 
It is almost impossible to make a cor- 
rect list of the proofs taken from her 
pictures and designs. Rossi makes it six 
hundred, without counting the English en- 

The subject of her designs she generally 
took from history, ancient or modern. 
While in England she read constantly the 

1 For a list of those engraved by Bartolozzi, see 

K 2 

132 Angelica Kauffmann. 

English poets ; mythology and classical his- 
tory were, however, nearer to her heart, and 
in dealing with Cupids, nymphs, Bacchantes, 
no one, except perhaps Albano, has ever sur- 
passed her for delicacy and grace of design. 
Goethe talks of them as the children of an 
airy, loving imagination. " Executed by the 
pencil of fascination," says Pasquin, " and the 
colouring is in the chastest Italian school." 
I would draw attention especially to a vig- 
nette, " Die Gekrankte Liebe "- — sometimes 
called " Aglala l bound by Cupid " — also 
" L'Amour dort," " Garde k vous," " Cupid 
Asleep," and " Cupid disarmed by Euphro- 
syne." -' Cupid drying Psyche's tears " extorts 
the warmest praise from Sternberg, who 
acknowledges that "design" was the artist's 
real merit. "Her talent," he says, " lay in 
elegance and delicacy." 

There are two Cupid 2 pictures in the 
Kensington Museum. The anatomy of both 
is as usual faulty, the arm of the woman being 
singularly out of drawing. The colouring, 

1 AglaTa the bright one. One of the nymphs or charities. 
3 Cupid's Pastime should be the name of the pictures. 

Womanhood, 133 

however, is charming, the soft yellows deli- 
cious, and the malicious expression on the 
Cupid's face most humorous. 

Mary Moser wrote a pleasant, chatty 
letter to Fuseli, still in Rome, telling him 
all the news of the Exhibition of 1770, in 
which she says, " Reynolds was like himself 
in pictures which you have seen. Gains- 
borough beyond himself in a ' Portrait of a 
Gentleman,' in a Vandyke habit ; Zoffany 
superior to everybody in a portrait of ' Garrick, 
as Abel Drugger,' with two other figures, 
Subtle and Face. Angelica made a very 
great addition to the show, and Mr. Hamil- 
ton's * ' Briseis Parting from Achilles ' was 
much admired." 

1 77 1. At the third exhibition of the 
Academy, Leslie says Angelica's pictures 
were amongst the best. Again she had four 
large canvases : 

113. The Interview of King Edgar with Elfrida after 

her marriage with Athelwold. 

114. Acontio and Adippe. 

115. Return of Telemachus (Odyssey). 

116. Erminia finds Tancred wounded. 
Also a Portrait of a Lady. 

1 Hamilton was a pupil of Antonio Zucchi. 

1.34 Angelica Kauffmann. 

1 " ' The Interview between Edgar and 
Elfrida,' "says Sternberg, "raised Angelica's 
reputation in England to the highest point. 
Ryland engraved it in the so-called Schwarz 
Kunst (Mezzotinto), and no collection of 
engravings is without it." He adds, in a 
grudging manner, that the drawing of the 
figures is correct, and the grouping original 
and effective, but that there is a certain cold- 
ness, and the forms, although beautiful, are 
wanting in life. Horace Walpole finds very 
little expression in it. 

. At this exhibition appeared West's great 
picture, "The Death of Wolfe," the first 
high art picture that represented a contem- 
porary event. It caused a reaction against 
the classical and allegorical style, which, 
Leslie says, " never took any real hold of the 
English mind, but that in spite of the cold re- 
ception given to Grecian gods and goddesses, 
Angelica Kauffmann and Barry persisted in 
sending in, year after year, mythological 

He might have added Reynolds, and West 

1 In the jossesiion of the Earl of Morley at Saltram. 

Womanhood. *35 

himself, who, the very next year, relapsed 
into the classical. 

In Peter Pindar's bitter "Odes to the 
Academicians," in which he satirizes all the 
leading artists, he gives a touch to Angelicas 
Grecian foible : — 

"Angelica my plaudit gains, 
Her wit so sweetly canvas stains, 

Her dames so Grecian give me such delight, 
But were she married to such males 
As figure in her painted tales," etc. 


1771 — 1776. 


In the autumn of 1 77 1 Angelica visited 
Ireland. She had several commissions from 
noble patrons, amongst the number that of 
the Viceroy, whose portrait she was commis- 
sioned to paint. 

Getting to Dublin a hundred and twenty 
years ago was not such an easy matter as it is 
now-a-days ; it took four days to reach there, 
even if you secured a passage from Parkgate 
in the Lord-Lieutenant's yacht, a matter of 
favour, although it cost five guineas. 

It was thirty years before the Union, 
when Angelica paid this visit to the Irish 
capital, which was then the pleasantest in 
the three kingdoms, the mimic court being 

Womanhood. 137 

infinitely gayer than the more decorous one 
at St. James's. 1 The nobility had fine houses, 
elegantly decorated ; 2 they spent their money 
in a princely fashion, gave orders without 
stint, and what they could not pay for they 
charged upon the family estates. 

In Lord Charlemont's letters, lately pub- 
lished by Mr. Gilbert, one sees what a mag- 
nificent nobleman he was : the freightage of 
his books, his statues, his pictures, his marbles, 
cost a small fortune, and his example was 

1 The vice-Kings were oftentimes jovial, and permitted 
somewhat of a saturnalia to prevail — as when the game 
of Cutchacutchoo was introduced and was in high favour 
at the Castle. " Two recesses were fitted up at the 
end of the grand saloons, and here behind a curtain the 
ladies prepared their toilet for the sport. In a moment 
the floor was crowded with ' belles,' ' dowagers,' and 
1 beaux,' hopping about in the sitting attitude required 
by the game. Great was the laughter when a gentle 
dame of high degree was capsized by the heavier assault 
of a stouter rival. Presently, as the fun waxed more 
furious, dresses were torn, hair disordered, paint on the 
fair faces began to rub off, and the whole became a 

' Most of these houses were designed in Castle's * 
massive style, the interiors being decorated by foreign 
artists, and the ceilings, friezes, and chimney-pieces 
the work of Italian stuccoists who had been imported into 

* An architect of great merit. 

1 38 Angelica Kaufjmann. 

emulated by Lord Powcrscourt, the Duke of 
Leinster, 1 Mr. La Touche, Lord Meath, and 
many others. Most of these houses are now 
Government offices, and are gutted (either 
by sale or removal) of their works of art, but 
the friezes, ceilings, staircases, still remain, 
and are most elegant in design, being chiefly 
the work of either Marinari orVerpyle. The 
chimney-pieces are, many <>f them, Wedg- 
wood's. In Lord Ely's house, in Lly Place, 
they are of such value that the late marquis, 
although he had long since parted with the 
lease, preserved his right in them, and would 
periodically send skilled artists to see they 
were not tampered with. 2 

1 At the time when Leinster House was built, there 
were neither squares nor many houses on the south side 
of the city. From the windows of the Earl of Kildare's 
mansion, in Merrion Square, you could see on a fine day 
the ships in Dunleary Harbour — six miles distant. But 
soon magnificent mansions rose as by a magician's wand. 
Lord Meath came from High Street to Stephen's Green, 
Lord Powcrscourt to William Street, Lord Antrim and 
others to Merrion Square, Lord Mornington to Merrion 
Street, Lord Clonmel to Harcourt Street, the Marquis 
of Ely to Ely Place, etc. 

2 Here, too, the wrought-iron staircase is rare, so, too, 
are the panelled walls with family pictures let in. For 
beauty, however, Lord Ely's House does not equal 
Powerscourt House, where the friezes, ceilings, and 
staircase are most elegant ; there is also a Venetian 

Womanhood. 139 

It was at one of these fine houses that 
Angelica stayed on arriving in Dublin ; she 
was the guest of Mrs. Clayton, the wife of the 
Bishop of Cloghcr, the friend of Swift and 
Dr. Delany. The Bishop's house was in 
Stephen's Green, on the south side, with a 
very handsome frontage, something like 
Devonshire House ; the apartments were 
well furnished with gold-coloured damask, 
with busts and portraits brought by the 
Bishop from Italy. Mrs. Delany says, 
" the Claytons saw the best of company, 
and kept a handsome table : six dishes of 
meat at dinner, and six at supper ! " 

From the Claytons the artist went as a 
guest to the Attorney-General, Tisdall, who 
lived in Molesworth Street, a man of extra- 
vagant habits. She likewise visited Lord 

window of very beautiful design. In Mr. Latouchc's 
house,* in Merrion Square, the chimney-pieces let in with 
Wedgwood's elegant designs, are delightful ; and all 
through the old houses in Dublin there were formerly 
chimney-pieces enriched by this famous artist. They 
have, however, gradually disappeared, having been, in 
most cases, sold to English brokers ; so, too, with the 
carvings, and, in many cases, with the pictures and 

* Now the residence of Sir John Banks, K.C.B. 

140 Angelica Kauffmann. 

and Lady Ely, at Rathfarnham Castle, Lady 
Caroline Darner, an old acquaintance, at 
Emo, in the Queen's County, besides many 
others. Everywhere she was received with 
the greatest distinction — more as a friend 
than an artist ; her portrait of Lord Town- 
shend making her the fashion. 

The Irish Viceroy was a gallant soldier, 
frank, convivial, abounding in humour of a 
somewhat coarse kind, and not always in keep- 
ing with the dignity of the position he held. 
His capricious, uncertain temper offended the 
higher order. Horace Walpole gives him the 
worst of characters; according to him "he 
was proud, insolent, sarcastic, ill-tempered, and 
ill-natured, stooping to the lowest buffoonery, 
and debasing the Government he represented, 
while he drove the Opposition to resistance 
by his absurd and profligate conduct." l 

1 The Townshends were made of very uncertain, unre- 
liable stuff. Charles, the brother of the Viceroy, the wit 
and statesman of the family, being one of those political 
meteors, whose brilliancy is outweighed by a total want 
of ballast, which renders them too erratic to be depend- 
able. The mother, Audrey, or, as she chose to call 
herself, Etheldreda, had an astonishing wit, but little 

Womanhood. 141 

He had been a widower for two years, 
but was not inconsolable. In his picture he 
appears surrounded by his numerous family. 
Angelica had the singular idea of placing 
him with his youngest child in his arms 
before a large looking-glass, in which he is 
showing the infant its own image ; the double 
effect is cleverly conveyed. Another portrait 
of greater interest, which Angelica painted, 
was that of the beautiful Dolly Monroe, niece 
to Lady Ely, 1 whom Lord Townshend was 
supposed to admire. Besides this portrait, 
which will be found facing page 142, 2 Angelica 

1 " I remember, in my juvenile days," writes Mr. 
Caleb Powell, " to have seen a full-length portrait, at 
Rathfarnham Castle, of the beautiful Dolly Monroe, and 
a relative of hers told me that Lord Townshend pre- 
tended to her aunt, Lady Ely, that his object was to 
captivate Miss Monroe, and prevail upon her to become 
Lady Townshend, a delusion he kept up until Lady Ely 
had induced her lord to give his parliamentary support 
(about the strongest in the House of Commons) to Lord 
Townshend's administration ; but, to Lady Ely's great 
mortification, the Viceroy married Miss Montgomery, 
whose portrait, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, was certainly 
not as handsome as that of Miss Monroe."—/. C. FUt- 
Patrick's Portfolio. 

2 The beauty of Dolly Monroe was well nigh as cele- 
brated in her day as that of the famous Miss Gunnings. 
Mr. Forster, in his " Life of Goldsmith," says the poet 

142 Angelica Kauffmann. 

also painted a large canvas, with four figures 
— the Earl with his Countess, Miss Monroe in 
the foreground of the picture leaning over the 
clavichord, and Angelica at the instrument. 
The picture is too much crowded, but it is 
interesting from its vicissitudes. 

During the troubled times which befell 
Ireland in 1798, Rathfarnham Castle was 
tenanted by a dairyman, who made the 
banqueting hall into a stable for his cattle. 
Later it passed into the possession of Chief 
Justice Blackburne, whose son is the present 
owner. When improvements were being 
made some years ago, the oak panellings 
were temporarily removed, and the family 
portraits were found concealed. The late 
marquis presented the Ely group to the 
National Gallery of Dublin, where it is now ; 

devoted his verse to her charms. He introduces her 
name in the " Haunch of Venison " : — 

" Of the neck and the breast I had next to dispose, 
'Twas a neck and a breast that might rival M-r-e's." 

The sketch of her presented here was contributed by 
the late Mr. Henry Doyle, C.B., Director of the 
National Gallery, Dublin, from the original portrait by. 
Angelica. It was bought for the gallery two years ago, 
when the Marquis of Ely's sale took place at Messrs, 

'• ' 


(From a sketch by the late Henry Doyle, C.B., Director of the National 
Gallery, Dublin, from the painting by Angelica Kauffmann.) 

To face page 142. 

Womanhood. 143 

it was considered to be by Reynolds, until 
Mr. Henry Doyle, the then Director of the 
Gallery, discovered the signature, A. Kauff- 

At Kmo there are several portraits by her, 
all in good preservation. Besides " Lady 
Caroline Darner, and her husband, Lord 
Milton," she painted several replicas of the 
Duke and Duchess of Dorset, and presented 
Lady Caroline with a portrait of herself. 1 Rossi 
says, she received such a multitude of orders 
for historical pictures and portraits while in 
Ireland, that she found the only way was to 
sketch in the heads, by this means satisfying 
her patrons, and reserving the completion of 
the work until she had leisure to do it justice. 

" The Death of Sylvia's Stag," painted for 
Justice Downes of the Queen's Bench ; two 
beautiful portraits of Lord Ferrard and his son, 
which are at Antrim Castle ; " Mrs. Bous- 
field," in the possession of Mr. Bagwell, of 
Marlfield, County Tipperary ; " Mrs. Cle- 
ments," with a naked infant on her knee, in the 
possession of Colonel Clements, are about the 

1 There is also at Emo a table of' her work. 

144 Angelica Kauffmann. 

best known of her portraits. The amount of 
decorative work done by Angelica, during her 
stay in Dublin, in the way of ceilings, door- 
panels, tables, etc., seems almost incredible. 
Unfortunately, the delicacy of her method, 
and the fading of the colours she used, to- 
gether with the neglect which shortly after 
befell all of beauty and art in the ill-fated 
country, have caused much of her work to be 
irrecoverably lost. There still remains, how- 
ever, a good deal of her beautiful decoration : 
notably, in Lord Meath's house, in Stephen's 
Green (now the property of the Church Tem- 
poralities), where the ceilings are elaborately 
painted by her, with emblematic figures in 
the four corners of the centre. The doors, 
too, are prettily decorated, the work being 
as fresh as if done yesterday. In an outer 
room there are frescoes, of which both the 
subject and the author are said to be un- 
known; but anyone conversant with Angelica's 
style would have little hesitation in attribut- 
ing them to her. They are weakly drawn, 
and carelessly handled, but the very faults 
show them to be hers; and the subject of 

Womanhood. 145 

one, at all events, was a favourite theme with 
her. 1 At 18, Rutland Square, formerly Lord 
Farnham's, and now the residence of Lord 
James Butler, the ceilings are painted by her, 
also at Lord Longford's, in the same square. 
The best of her work is to be found at Dr. 
Mahaffy's, in North Great George's Street, 
where the medallions are painted on canvas, 
and laid into niches made for them in the 
"Aveco " ; here the subjects are her favourite 
Greeks. It is pleasant to think that, in this 
instance, her work is in the hands of one 
of the best Greek scholars of our day, Dr. 
Mahaffy, of Trinity College. 

Angelica's stay in Ireland lasted over six 
months. She returned to London in time to 
exhibit, at the May Exhibition of 1772, 
"Andromache and Hecuba weeping over 
Hector's ashes," a gloomy, uninteresting sub- 
ject ; " Rinaldo and Armida," " La Penserosa," 
a whole length of a lady in Italian dress, and 
a Bishop ! 2 They made very little mark ; the 

1 A shepherd moralizing while peasants dance in the 

2 Doctor- Robinson, Pri nate of Ireland, afterwards 
created Baron Roke'oy. 

146 Angelica Kauffmann. 

president had six of his best pictures, and 
Zoffany's " Academicians," which was this 
year in the Academy, deservedly absorbed all 

To her other occupations she now added 
those of etching and engraving. The former 
she had practised in her girlhood. There are 
about thirty-five plates of hers extant, 1 which 
are proofs that in this line she would have 
distinguished herself. The outlines are well 
defined, and the shadows brought out with a 
firm touch ; the aquafortis used with intelli- 
gence. With this method she had produced 
a good picture of YVinckelmann, which w r as 
this year engraved by Ryland. Bernsdorff, 
writing to Denmark, says, " Angelica has 
given me a charming present of some etch- 
ings of her own doing, which are not to be 
had in any print shop. Amongst these, I am 
particularly pleased with a likeness of our 
Winckclmann. He sits at his desk, his pen 
in his hand, searching with his eagle eye to 

1 For a list of these thirty-five plates, see Appendix. 
They are very valuable, as after she left England 
Angelica gave up etching. 

Womanhood. t 4 7 

discover in Apollo's nose, or the Torso of 
Hercules, where lay their contempt for the 
gods." x 

Another etching of equal merit was one of 
" Raphael, "and a half length of " Hope, "which 
she gave to the Academy of St. Luke, in 1 765 ; 
"A Madonna and Child," in 1773, and in 1776, 
two fine etched copper-plates, also a picture of 
*'St. Peter" after Guido, the original of which 
is in the Monastery of Sampiere, at Bologna : 
this she perfected with the assistance of 
Joseph (orGiuseppe) Zucchi the engraver, and 
it was published in London in 1776, the plate 
bearing the name of both artists. A good 
many of the thirty-five plates have — "eadem et 
Joseph Zucchi ; " these last are finished with a 
graving tool. Some of them are very fine — 
" Calypso and Ulysses," " Urania," " Sappho 
conversing with Homer," from a picture by 
Antonio Zucchi, which is a masterpiece of 
free treatment. Also the " Haarflechterinn," 
or Hairplaiter, which is well known to all 
collectors. This is also etched in Scheide- 
wasser, or aquafortis, and has the date 1765. 
1 From Sturz's Biography. 
L 2 

148 Angelica Kauffmann. 

After she came to England she gave up 
aquafortis, and adopted the English method of 
aquatint, in which she was not so success- 
ful. Biraldi says that the great English 
engravers, Boydell Brothers, of Cheapside, 
bought the coppers upon which her first im- 
pressions were printed ; she retouched these 
for them, and in 1 780, after putting them 
through the aquatint l process, they were 
reproduced. This process is sometimes called 
a la manicrc de /avis. 

In 1773 we find her varying her usual con- 
tribution of immortals, by sending to the May 
Exhibition 2 only two mythological pictures, 
the others being portraits and a Holy Family. 
Considering Angelica's well-known piety, it 
was strange how seldom her brush was 
devoted to heavenly subjects. An altar- 
piece for the Parish Church at Schwartzen- 
berg ; the frescoes of the Twelve Apostles, 
and one or two Holy Families, are all she 

1 This process consisted in pouring over the copper a 
preparation which bit, so to speak, into the work. For 
this purpose the engravers used salt sand mixed with 
gum, etc. It was only used in England. 

2 See Appendix for complete list of exhibits. 

Womanhood. 149 

has left in this direction. Nevertheless, she 
would have seemed eminently fitted by the 
spiritual tone of her mind to portray Celestial 
Love, and the Beatitude of the Saints. A 
French writer says, " Her heads have much of 
the divine, majestic beauty of Guido, and had 
she preferred Heaven to Olympus, she would 
have attained a far higher degree of perfec- 

The explanation lies in her reverence for 
sacred subjects, to which she considered her- 
self unworthy to give expression. In one of 
her note-books she wrote : " One day, when 
I found it impossible to convey to my canvas 
any idea of the majesty of Almighty God, I 
threw down my brush, saying, Never again 
shall I attempt to interpret the Divine, which 
is impossible to human inspiration. I shall 
reserve the attempt for the time when I shall 
enjoy Heaven, supposing always that there 
should be such an art as painting there." 

If Reynolds's noble idea of decorating St. 
Paul's Cathedral with scriptural subjects had 
come into effect, Angelica's powers in this 
line would have been tested. It was in this 

150 Angelica Kauffmann. 

year that this project was ventilated, and re- 
ceived the hearty approval of both the king 
and Archbishop of Canterbury. The artists 
were chosen. Reynolds was to paint " The 
Nativity," and Barry, Dance, Cipriani, and 
Angelica Kauffmann, were each to take a 
subject. Unfortunately, the narrow-minded 
bigotry of Terrick, Bishop of London, defeated 
this noble conception. Everyone knows his 
answer : " I would rather close the doors of 
the Cathedral for ever, than open them to 
admit Popery." "Accordingly," asThackeray 
says, "the most clumsy heathen sculptures 
decorate the edifice." 

During 1773, and the years that followed, 
Angelica's w T ork as a portrait-painter in- 
creased. Her studio was crowded with 
fashionable sitters ; portraits painted during 
that time by her were "The Duke and Duchess 
of Richmond," " Jane Maxwell (Duchess of 
Gordon)," " Earl and Countess of Derby," 
" Countess of Albemarle," " Marchioness of 
Lothian, *' l " Honourable Charlotte Give," 2 

1 Exhibited at the Royal Academy, 1888, Marquis 
of Lothian. 

8 Exhibited at the N.P.E., 1867, Earl of Powis. 

Womanhood. ] 5 1 

11 the Duke of Gordon," : " Alleyne FitzHer- 
bert," 2 the lovely u Lady Georgiana " and 
" Lady Henrietta," with Viscount Althorp, 
only son, and daughters of John, 1st Earl 
Spencer. 3 (There is another portrait of 
the " Duchess of Devonshire," in a white 
dress and large white hat, which belonged 
to Lord Howard de Walden, and was sold 
in 1869, for 162/.) 

Mrs. Hartley's lovely face and lithe, tall, 
delicious figure, had won her in a short time 
the leading place at Covent Garden Theatre, 
and her picture by Angelica, which is now in 
the Garrick Club, is wonderfully graceful, and 
little inferior to that done by Sir Joshua of 
the same lady. Another sitter, Mrs. Darner, 
was equally well known in the fashionable 
world. She was the " Infanta" of the eiters 
of H. Walpole, whose friendship for her 
father, Field-Marshal Conway, is a refreshing 
trait in his cynical worldliness. Mrs. Darner 
was everything by turns, a dilettante artist of ex- 

1 Exhibited at the Art Treasures, 1857, Duke of 

2 Exhibited at the N.P.E., 1867, Sir W. Fitzherbert. 
5 For particulars of exhibitions, see Appendix. 

152 A ngelica Ka uffma n n . 

ceptional talent, and one of a group of" Pretty 
Fellows," with the Duchess of Ancaster, Mrs. 
Crewe and Mrs. Bouverie, at the Pantheon. 
Angelica's portrait of Mrs. Darner is in the 
possession of Captain Frederick Erskine 
Johnston, and is a far more graceful, pleasing 
likeness than the prim picture painted by Sir 
Joshua of the same lad)-. 

The portraits the artist executed of herself 
are numerous. 1 Some were orders, others 
gifts to friends, as in the case of Klopstock 
and Bernini. There is one of her at Althorp, 
another at Emo — both presented to her good 
patrons, Lord Spencer and Lady Caroline 
Darner. She gave one to Isabella, Duchess 
of Rutland, one to the Academy of St. Luke, 
another to the Uffizii Gallery at Florence. 
Lord Rosebery has one at Mentmore. The 
Earl of Home exhibited a portrait of her at 
the N.P.E. of 1867. So did the Rev. J. E. 
Waldy. Mr. J. Stokes has one. Mr. 
Cheesman exhibited one at the Suffolk Street 
Exhibition of 1833. 

Many of these self portraits have found their 
1 See supplement to Appendix. 

Womanhood. 153 

way to the sale room. In 1879 a beautiful 
portrait of her with Clio was bought at the 
Bowles-Rushout l sale by Lord Leven and 
Melville for 160/., and in 1876 Mr. Henry 
Graves, the well-known picture dealer of Pall 
Mall, bought an oval portrait for 100 
guineas. 2 

She gave a large full-length portrait of 
herself to the Dresden Gallery, as a Vestal ; 
to Berlin also she presented one, in 
which she is dressed in an ideal costume, 
half Muse, half Bacchante. Her head is 
crowned with laurels, the dress covered with 
flowers, with a gold girdle and bracelets, and 
an expression of archness, although somewhat 
affected, suits the beautiful face ; the colour- 
ing, which is reddish-brown, recalls that of 
Mengs, her early master. " From this pic- 
ture," says Sternberg, " one would hardly say 
that she had been a beauty ; her charm lay 
in her youth, her freshness, and expression." 

To her father's native village of Schwart- 

zenberg she presented a portrait of herself 

1 For particulars of Bowles-Rushout sale, see catalogue. 
* Mr. Graves sold this portrait to the National Portrait 
Gallery, where it now is. 

J 54 Angelica Kanffmann. 

in the dress of her own canton, a copy of 
which will be found on the first page. In 
this, as in all her portraits, the extraordinary 
length of her mouth is remarkable. 

In addition to her portraits, Angelica for 
years never missed exhibiting at the Academy 
her classical or historical pictures. 

In 1 774 Leslie ill-naturedly says " Angelica 
Kauffmann as usual in a great expanse of 
washy canvases, six classicals and a portrait." 1 
In 1775 she sent six classicals and five 
portraits; of the former were — 


The Despair of Achilles. 

Rinaldo and Armida (Tasso). 

Andromache fainting at the sight of Eneas (Virgil). 

The Return of Telemachus (Odysssy xvii.). 

Horace Walpole says of the " Despair of 
Achilles " 2 that it was " Very good," but 

1 The catalogues of the Academy from 1769, which 
are in the British Museum, were a bequest from 
Mr. Anderdon, who enriched the collection with all 
manner of details and portraits (Grangerizing, as it is now 
called). His remarks are caustic and amusing; he is 
always giving hits at Angelica, who, he says, had long 
and beautiful fingers. Of this year's exhibition he says, 
seven of the Lady Angelica's work, including Sappho. 

2 From the Strawberry Hill Catalogue. 

Womanhood. 155 

against the " Return of Telemachus " is 
written " Very ill." It was indeed impos- 
sible all could be good, for in addition to these 
she contributed other pictures and portraits 
— eleven in all. 

In consequence, perhaps, of this large 
supply, there was some fuss as to the hang- 
ing. Her father, who was growing old and 
fidgety, harassed her with suspicions as to 
unfairness, and Angelica carried her com- 
plaints to Sir Joshua, who took her to see 
that justice had been done. He also replaced 
the four which had been omitted, and which 
are to be found in the appendix to the 
Academy Catalogue for 1775. 

This year was marked by one of those un- 
deserved insults which low natures have it in 
their power to inflict upon those who suffer 
most keenly from being dragged before the 
public. To Angelica, especially, who had 
endured so much already, and whose peculiar 
position made her shrink from notoriety, it 
was doubly painful to be included in Hone's 
malevolent attack upon the President of the 
Academy. This artist, whose small mind was 

156 Angelica Kauffmann. 

full of envy for those who succeeded better 
than himself, regarded Reynolds with jealous 
eyes. He considered that he stole all his 
ideas from the old Masters, and resolved that 
the world in general should be acquainted 
with the theft. 1 He sent to the exhibition of 
1 775 a picture called "The Pictorial Con- 
jurer displaying the whole art of Optical 
Deception." This picture has been variously 
described as an old man with a wand in his 
hand, commanding the engravings, which 
Reynolds used, to rise out of the flames ; or 
as an old man with a wand in his hand and 
a child leaning on his knee, performing in- 
cantations by means of which a number of 
sketches, from which Reynolds had taken hints, 
were made to float on the air round the 

When the picture was sent in, the Council 
of the Academy decided to reject it, not so 
much for the sneer at the President, but 

1 There was some truth in the allegation. It is now 
well known that Sir Joshua borrowed very freely from 
the old Italian school. An instance in point is " Mrs. 
Sheridan as St. Cecilia," in which the idea is a distinct 

Womanhood. 1 5 7 

because of an alleged likeness in one of the 
floating sketches to Angelica, who was repre- 
sented as a nude figure. There was general 
disgust at such a wanton attack. Angelica 
had plenty of friends to take up her defence, 
and to protest against this insult to a 
woman who was worthy of all respect. 1 

Hone being thus put in the wrong, wrote 
to Angelica : — 

" Madam, — The evening before last 1 was 
not a little surprised at a deputation from the 
Council of the Academy, acquainting me 
that you were most prodigiously displeased 
at my making a naked academy figure in my 
picture of ' The Conjurer,' now at the Royal 
Academy, representing your person. I 
immediately perceived some busy medler, 2 to 
say no worse, had imposed this extravagant 
lie, of whose making God knows, upon your 
understanding. To convince you, Madam, 
that your figure in that composition was the 

1 This striking at Reynolds through Angelica would 
seem to lend a colour to the suspicion that Hone had 
been engaged in the " complot " or conspiracy to which 
the foreign writers allude. See page 102. 

3 Hone's spelling. 

158 Angelica Kaujfmann. 

farthest from my thoughts, I now declare I 
never at any time saw your works but with 
the greatest pleasure and that respect due to 
a lady whom I esteem as the first of her sex 
in painting, and the loveliest of women in 
person. Envy and detraction must have 
worked strangely, for yesterday morning 
some more gentlemen from the Academy 
assured me that your uneasiness was very 
great. I assured them I could so far 
alter the figure that it would be impossible 
to suppose it a woman, though they 
cleared me of such a supposition themselves, 
as they understood it to be a male figure, and 
that I could put a beard to it or even dress 
it to satisfy you and them. I did myself the 
honour of calling twice, when J had the mis- 
fortune not to meet you yesterday at your 
house, purposely to convince you how much 
you have been mistaken, as you will perceive 
when you see the picture itself, and likewise 
to convince you with how much respect, 
11 I am, Madam, 
"Your most obedient, humble servant, 

" N. Hone." 

Womanhood. 1 59 

To this Angelica replied in the following 
dignified manner : — 

" Sir, — I cannot conceive why several 
gentlemen who never before deceived me 
should conspire to do so at this time, and if 
they themselves were deceived, you cannot 
wonder that others should be deceived also, 
and take for satire that which you say was 
not intended. I was actuated, not only by 
my particular feelings, but a respect for the 
arts and artists, and I persuade myself you 
cannot think it a great sacrifice to remove a 
picture that has even raised suspicion of dis- 
respect to any person who never wished to 
offend you." 

Hone, however, thought otherwise ; he 
persisted in his determination to appeal 
against the sentence of rejection, and when 
he was outvoted, he took a room at 70, St. 
Martin's Lane, and there exhibited "The 
Conjurer." The matter did not drop here. 
Hone, who was resolved to give as much 
publicity as he could to the affair, appeared 
before Mr. Addington, the Middlesex magis- 

160 Angelica Kanffmann. 

trate, and made an affidavit, to which he 
attached the accompanying — 

" N.B. — The figure said to have been Mrs. 
Angelica Kauffmann is not only taken out, 
but all the other naked figures, lest they 
should be said to be likenesses of any par- 
ticular lady or gentleman which Mr. Hone 
never meant, as the merit of the picture does 
not depend upon a few smoked Academy 
pictures or even those well-dressed gentlemen 
who supply the place of those figures said to 
be indecent, though Mr. Hone had shown 
the picture to ladies of the most refined taste 
at his own house." 

Notwithstanding these disclaimers, the 
sense of the respectable portion of the artist 
world was against Hone and his picture. 
He was looked upon coldly afterwards. 
Nollekens some years later expressed the 
general opinion: "You are always running 
a rig against Sir Joshua," he says, " and you 
may say what you please, but I have never 
had any opinion of you since you painted 
that picture of ' The Conjurer,' as you called 
it ; and pray what business had you to bring 

Womanhood. 1 6 1 

Angelica into it ? " for the rest it was soon for- 
gotten. It was originally bought by a French 
nobleman, who resold it in 1790 to Knight, 
under the title of " A Conjurer, a well-known 
Satirical Subject," for 15/. 155-., since which 
time it has been consigned to well-deserved 





For the Academy of 1776 Angelica varied 
her usual programme by sending only one 
classical subject, and two taken from English 
history: No. 155, "Eleanor sucking the 
Poison from the wound of Edward I." ; No. 
156, " Elizabeth Grey imploring of Edward 
IV. the Restitution of herHusband's Lands." 

In 1777 Leslie says Angelica was liberal 
of her sentimentalities, the reason for this 
stricture being that she exhibited one of 
"Sterne's Maria," and also " Sylvia lament- 
ing over the favourite Stag." Both were 
very popular. 

In the following year she struck new 
ground with " Leonardo da Vinci expiring in 
the arms of Francis the First," and in 1779 

Womanhood. 163 

exhibited a large canvas, the " Death of 
Procris," together with some insignificant 
pictures, one being " Conjugal Peace," ex- 
emplified by two ducks in a basket. 

In 1780 she produced, in addition to four 
classicals, a large allegorical picture of "Reli- 
gion." The catalogue sets forth that the sub- 
ject was taken from the " Temple of Virtue," 
written by her friend, J. Fordyce. 1 

The Earwig, an amusing satirical paper 
of the day, criticizing Angelica's work, 
remarks that her allegories have too much 
the air of basso-relievo, in which work her 
designs have often been employed with 
better success than any of the Moderns. 
Later Canova made use of her design, 
(t Cupid drying Psyche's tears with her own 
hair," when the full beauty of the grouping 
was brought into view. 

Mention has been made of Angelica's 
illustrations and decorations. Both were 
becoming a great feature of art in England. 

1 James Fordyce, Minister of Alloa, D.D., a well- 
known divine. The " Temple of Virtue " was an 
allegorical poem. 

M 2 

164 Angelica Kauffmann. 

The vignettes of the books of the day were 
designed by the best artists, and men like 
George Taylor, Carington Bowles, and the 
Boydells spared no expense in bringing 
out the finest illustrations, in all of which 
Angelica took a prominent part. In her 
series of "Moral Emblems," published by 
Taylor she produced some beautiful 
designs, notably, "Life," "Omnia Vanitas," 
and "Hope," 1 which last was engraved by 
Ryland. These moral emblems were 
always accompanied by a few words from 
the artist, which shows how well she could 
express herself even in a language not 
her own. 

"The most forcible idea of Hope is to 
imagine a period when that virtue only is, or 
can be, in action. I have therefore repre- 
sented Hope as a woman, supporting the 
head of a dying pilgrim, and cheering him 
with the expectation of a future felicity and 
glory, towards which she points. I have 
introduced an anchor as an emblem of Hope 

1 The original of " Hope " is in St. Luke's Academy, 
at Rome; it was painted in 1764. 

Womanhood. 1 65 

(although it is seldom a graceful object in a 
picture), as well because it is an emblem 
generally received, as because St. Paul, 
speaking of Hope, terms it an anchor of the 
soul, nor is the improbability of its intro- 
duction so glaring in this scene, which repre- 
sents the ocean side." 

The vignettes and frontispieces of Bell's 
11 Poets of Great Britain," and " Collins's 
Eclogues," together with vignettes and fron- 
tispieces of novels, and a series of engravings 
called "Practical Exercises and Morning 
Amusements," came into her work during 
these years. Hamilton published a volume 
entitled " Angelica's Ladies' Library," a col- 
lection of excellent tales illustrated by the 
artist and H. Bunbury, the amateur carica- 
turist. This book had a great success ; the 
little oval woodcuts are charming. 

Angelica likewise designed fans such as 
ladies then carried, and concert and masque- 
rade tickets, some of which were engraved 
by Bartolozzi. 

Her most important undertaking, how- 
ever, some years later was the illustrations 

1 66 Angelica Kauffmann. 

for Boydell's 1 "Shakespeare Gallery," to 
which all the first artists of the day con- 
tributed — West, Copley, Romney, Reynolds 
and " Fuseli." Angelica's share was limited 
to two scenes, one from the " Two Gentlemen 
of Verona ; " the other from " Troilus and 

In 1780, the same year as the Gordon 
Riots, the Academy, to whose first exhibi- 
tion in Pall Mall she had contributed her pic- 
ture " Hector and Andromache," moved its 
abode to Somerset House, the front wing 
facing the Strand, where now the prosaic 
Government offices are installed. The 
entrance was from the vestibule. The ex- 
hibition room for Sculpture was on the 
ground floor, and was not ornamented. The 
ceiling of the library was enriched with a 
painting by the President, a figure of 
Theory holding a scroll, with the words, 
11 Theory is the knowledge of what is truly 
Nature." 2 There were four figures by Cipriani 

1 See Supplement to Appendix for original letter to 
Alderman Boydell. 

2 When the Royal Academy was removed from 
Trafalgar Square to its present habitation the paintings 

Womanhood. 167 

in the coves. In the lecture room, where 
the ceiling was by West, the Graces were in 
the centre, the Elements round them. At 
each end of the ceiling four figures, of Genius, 
Design, Composition, and Painting, were by 
Angelica, who l ". exerted her very strongest 
powers in these pieces, which possess an 
infinite deal of character and sweetness. 
Genius is finely represented leaning upon 
the celestial globe, and expressing rapture 
of invention. We view the very character 
which Shakespeare has described : 

u ' The Poet's eye, in a fine frenzy rolling, 

Doth glance from Heaven to Earth, from Earth to 

And as imagination bodies forth 
The forms of things unknown, the Poet's pen 
Turns them to shapes, and gives to airy nothing 
A local habitation and a name.' " 

Leslie also says 2 " that these pieces were 
painted in a more masterly style than any 

by West, Reynolds, and Angelica were also carried 
thither. " Design " can be seen in the Diploma Gallery, 
set in an oval frame ; it is the figure of a young girl 
drawing from a torso. The three other designs are in the 
cellars ! 

1 From the Earwig. 

2 Leslie's " Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds." 

1 68 Angelica Kauffmann, 

of Angelica's former productions ; " perhaps, 
he adds, " they are more beautiful because 
less finished." 

This was about the last work of importance 
undertaken by Angelica in England, and it 
is a proof of the high consideration she was 
held in by those who were capable of judging. 
Envious and neglected artists would allege 
that it was the powerful influence of fashion- 
able .patrons which procured her this associa- 
tion with men like Reynolds and West ; the 
answer to this is in the work itself, which 
is still to be seen. 

1780 was to be the beginning of a great 
change in Angelica's life. The miserable 
man who had crossed her path fourteen years 
before, and blighted her happiness, died in 
poverty abroad. His death came at an 
opportune moment, when Angelica had 
given an unwilling assent to her father's 
wish for a dissolution of her unfortunate 
marriage. For many years she had ascer- 
tained that her union, from a theological 
point of view, had not been a valid one. 
The bishops of her own Church were of one 

Womanhood. 1 69 

mind as to this. It was only her dislike to 
re-opening the wretched story, which was 
almost forgotten, that stood in the way of her 
freedom. But this year she had allowed some 
steps to be taken towards obtaining the Pope's 
consent to hearing the matter " in camera." 

It is hard to say why, after so many years 
of refusal, she did agree to this. It might 
have been the perpetual harping of old 
Joseph on the point, or perhaps she still had 
a hope that Sir Joshua's kindness might take 
a warmer phase, were she known to be free. 
But in the year that followed Brandt's death, 
she had time to learn that her wishes had 
cheated her into believing what did not exist. 

This may have had something to do with 
her listening to the proposals of another 
suitor, Antonio Zucchi, who, report said, 
had long been in love with her. 

The Zucchis, Antonio and Joseph, were 
old friends of the Kauffmanns. They came 
of an ancient Venetian family, which had, 
however, fallen upon evil times. 1 Both 

1 There is in the British Museum an old Italian 
memoir of the head of the house. 

I 70 Angelica Kauffmann. 

brothers had come to London to seek their 
fortune, and had secured a fair amount of 
consideration. Antonio, 1 the elder, was not 
in the first rank of artists, but he was a 
meritorious painter of architectural subjects, 2 
and had been elected an Associate of the 
Royal Academy in 1770. 

He was a proud, reserved man, remark- 
able for his uprightness. Rossi distinctly 
says, " He never aspired to Angelica, but 
was very much in her society, as she often 
worked in the same studio with him and his 
brother Joseph, the engraver. Old Kauff- 
mann, casting about for a husband for his 
child, thought well of Antonio, knowing his 

Fourteen summers had come and gone 

1 Zucchi had formed one of the party who accom- 
panied Adam, the architect, to Dalmatia, to study 
the architectural remains of that beautiful city. In his 
younger days he must have had some charm, for he had, 
it was said, several advantageous offers of marriage, and 
ladies of position fell in love with him. 

2 In the Knowsley collection there are two large pic- 
tures by Antonio Zucchi, painted for the r2th Earl of 
Derby, in commemoration of the marriage of Lord 
Stanley with Lady Betty Hamilton. They are in Piranesi's 

Womanhood. 1 7 1 

since the June day in 1 766 when Angelica 
had first seen London. Much had happened, 
many changes in friends and lovers ; changes 
most of all in herself. The brilliant girl, 
with life before her, and "a wallet full of 
hopes and anticipations," was now a sad- 
eyed, careworn woman, who had suffered 
much, and learned the bitterness of disap- 
pointment. Still she was content ; she had 
lived on in Golden Square, looking at the 
dingy houses, the dusty trees, her days 
full of work, her brush ever in her hand. 
Now and again there would come a longing 
to her for the Italian sky which she 
loved so well, but the idea of a journey to 
Italy, with her father in his feeble state, 
deterred her from putting her desire into 
execution. 1 Joseph Kauffmann was getting 
very old. The climate of England did not 
agree with him ; moreover, he had suffered 
a good deal from the annoyance of the 

1 Other motives weighed with Angelica in her wish to 
leave England. The favour of the public is ever fickle, 
and there was no doubt her popularity was on the wane ; 
new stars had risen. Mrs. Cosway was now the favourite 
of the hour. 

172 Angelica Kanffmann. 

Hone business. He felt anxious as to his 
daughter's future, for if he died she would 
have no protector. 

Common friends conveyed to Zucchi that 
were he to seek Angelica for a wife, he 
would have her father's consent to the 
marriage, which, for the rest, was suitable 
and advantageous to him. He therefore 
made his proposals, which Angelica, out of 
obedience to her father, accepted. 

In September Zucchi wrote to Sir Rowland 
Winn, one of his patrons, to announce his 
approaching marriage x : — 

" The report you heard of the intention I 
have to enter on the conjugal state is not 
without foundation, and I hope it will contri- 
bute much to my felicity, as the person who 
is to be my companion is in every respect 
agreeable to my wishes, and her merit as an 
artist is sufficiently known to the world by 
the number of prints published after her 
works. I shall take the liberty to send a 

1 The letter given here is one of great interest. It 
was found amongst the correspondence of Sir Rowland 
Winn by the present owner of Nostell Priory, Lord St. 
Oswald: it is a proof that Zucchi's feelings were not 
much engaged, but that he considered his marriage a 
good speculation. 

Womanhood. 173 

specimen of them to your house in St. James' 
Square, and shall likewise add a print of her 
own portrait painted by Sir J. Reynolds, and 
engraved by Bartolozzi. 

" Anthony Zucchi. 
11 London, September 6th, 1780." 

The marriage and the journey to Italy 
were, however, alike postponed by the 
serious illness of Joseph Kauffmann. In a 
letter Angelica wrote at this time to her 
friend, Mrs. Fordyce, she makes no mention 
of Zucchi, but we must suppose the disap- 
pointment refers to him. The letter is in 
every way charming, for, amongst her other 
gifts, Angelica included that of a refined 
letter-writer, expressing herself in English 
clearly and even elegantly. 1 

" To Mrs. Henrietta Fordyce, Putney Heath. 2 

"Dearest and most beloved Friend, — 

3 After all the hurry and preparation for my 

1 From the collection of Alfred Morrison, Esq. 

* Henrietta, wife of James Fordyce, D.D., author of 
the " Temple of Virtue." 

* This letter was sold in 1858 at Waller's, for 15*. On 
the superscription she has written " From Angelica 
Kauffmann, with seal. A charming specimen." From 
Anderdotis Academy Notes, 

174 Angelica Kauffmann. 

journey, here I am still — the cause of the disap- 
pointment is for me, melancholy — yet after all 
I have the comfort to be amongst my friends. 
My best friend, Dr. William, with his kind 
attention to my father, is to me the greatest 
consolation, and your last dear letter, my 
charming friend, revives my spirits though 
ever so much oppressed. I want words to 
express what I feel. All I can say is, that I 
shall ever esteem the continuation of the 
friendship of Henrietta, James and William 
Fordyce, the greatest honour that can be 
conferred upon me, and to merit your kind 
affection shall be my greatest care. Ah ! 
let me remain for ever, 

" Yours, Angelica. 

" Golden Square, 

" October 30th, 1780." 

" The fatal moment of parting is not so 
near as I thought it would have been. So 
that before years or months do pass, I may 
have the happiness of seeing you." 

That the fatal moment of parting did not 

Womanhood. 1 75 

take place for ten months after this letter was 
written, is evidence that Antonio was not a 
very ardent lover. Angelica spent the winter, 
as usual, full of work. For her elegant 
designs in house decoration she had long 
held a very high reputation, and some of her 
work is still to be seen fresh as on the day it 
was done. 

This is eminently the case in Sir John 
Leslie's fine house in Stratford Place, built by 
the brothers Adam for Lord Aldborough, for 
whom it was decorated by Angelica. Here 
are three ceilings in excellent preservation. 
That in the drawing-room represents the His- 
tory of Cupid, done with exquisite delicacy. 
The dining-room has only one medallion, in 
whichappears Aglala bound to a tree by Cupid, 
very charmingly executed. An additional in- 
terest is attached to this medallion, for looking 
at it induced one of our most charming 
novelists to write an idyllic novel. " Dining 
one day with us," writes Lady Constance 
Leslie to a friend, " Miss Thackeray's atten- 
tion was attracted to the ceiling. When she 
was told by Sir John the story of Angelica 

176 Angelica Kauffmann, 

Kaufifmann, it interested her so much that 
she was drawn to write ' Miss Angel.' " 

Other houses decorated by Angelica were 
those of Cosway, the Miniature painter, and 
Garrick in the Adelphi ; and this year, 
1781, she finished the adornment of Mrs. 
Montagu's new house in Portman Square, 
which is now the residence of Lord Port- 
man. 1 

To the exhibition of 1781 she sent " Venus 
attended by the Graces ; " " The Judgment 
of Paris ; " and the portrait of a Lady as 
a Muse. Of these pictures, the Earwig 
said : — 

11 This lady seems in all her works to have 
copied pictures, prints and plasters — perhaps 
she has been deterred by the delicacy of her 
sex from studying living models." 

As a proof of the correct judgment evinced 
in this criticism the two pictures named, 
both of which were commissions for her kind 
friend, Mr. Bowles of Wanstead, fetched 

1 For a list of houses decorated by Angelica, see Ap- 

Womanhood. 177 

large prices at the Rushout-Bowles sale in 


It will be remembered that when John 
Joseph joined Angelica in 1769, he brought 
with him a young girl, Rosa Florini, the 
daughter of his only sister, to whom he was 
sincerely attached. We would like to know 
more of Rosa : she was pretty, x gentle, and 
Angelica loved her as a sister, but she 
married in 1775, Joseph Bonomi, an able 
draughtsman and architect, and we hear 
little more of her. 

In the marriage column of the Gentleman f i 
Magazine for 1 781 appears — " September 8, 
Signor Zucchi to Senora Angelica Kaufif- 
mann, the celebrated historical paintress'* a 

I have now lying before me an old yellow 
parchment, which sets forth to be Indenture 
Tripartite (or Marriage Settlement) between 

1 She sat for Angelica's picture of " Faith," engraved 
by Kyland. Charles Goldie, Esq., has a pencil drawing 
of her by Angelica, a sweet face something resembling 
Angelica. For Bonomi, see pages 404 — 407. 

2 They were probably married in the city, there being 
no record of this marriage at St. James's, Piccadilly, nor 
would it be likely Angelica would have gone there. 


178 Angelica Kauffmann, 

Antonio Zucchi, of St. Ann's parish, Soho, 
painter, and Angelica Kauffmann, of Golden 
Square, Bloomsbury, painter, on the other 
hand, together with the signatures of her 
trustees : — 

" Deed of Trust and Marriage Settle- 
ment, executed on July 10th, 1781, 21st year 
of George Illrd, between Antonio Zucchi, 
parish of St. Ann, Soho, painter, 1st part; 
Angelica Kauffmann, of Golden Square, 
painter, Bloomsbury, spinster, 2nd part ; and 
George Keate, Esq., H. Peter Kuliff, 
merchant ; and Daniel Braithwaite, of the 
General Post-0 ffice, 3rd part — 

"To put in their hands as trustees the 
sum of 3350/. three per cent, consolidated 
annuities, and 1650/. three per cent, consoli- 
dated reduced bank annuities — 

" For the use and benefit of said Angelica 
Kauffmann, whether sole or covert. And to 
enable her to enjoy the dividends thereof, 
exclusive of the said Antonio Zucchi, her 
intended husband, ' who is not to intermeddle 
therewith,' nor is any part thereof to be sub- 
ject to his debts ; and is also to give her 

Womanhood. 1 79 

power to leave the said sums by will as she 
shall appoint. And is signed and sealed by 

" Antonio Zucchi. 

"Angelica Kauffmann. 

"George Keate. 

" Henry Peter Kuliff. 

" D. Braithwaite." l 

Angelica therefore did not come empty- 
handed to her husband ; her savings accumu- 
lated by her industrious life amounted to 
5000/. three per cents., bringing in one 
hundred and fifty a year. 

The restrictions in the marriage settlement, 
and especially the clause as to intermeddling, 
could hardly be pleasant to Zucchi: he sub- 
mitted to them at the time, but that he 
nourished a grievance against his wife was 
made evident later on. On his side he was 
not without means. He had a house in 
John Street, Adelphi, which he let at 90/. a 
year ; he had 150/. a year in short annuities, 

1 Mr. Braithwaite held a position in the Foreign 
Department of the Post-office. Angelica made him 
an executor of her will, and left him one hundred 
pounds. See Appendix. ' 

N 2 

180 Angelica Kauffmann. 

and he had divers sums at interest and 
one or two bad debts. 

Angelica and her husband left pictures with 
their man of business for sale, and every 
direction was given in a clear, business-like 
manner, every possible contingency being 
provided for. 

All this being done, the party sailed from 
England on July 19th, it being nearly to 
the month sixteen years since Angelica 
had arrived there with Lady Wentworthu 
It had been a shifting scene, brilliant, 
triumphant ; but the triumph was saddened 
by disappointment, blighted by the cruel 
fate which had shadowed the best years 
of her life, a fate, moreover, which falls to 
the lot of few women; She had borne it 
bravely, and now there remained nothing of 
the sunshine and the sorrow of the last 
fifteen years but the memory. So it is with 
most lives. 

Disraeli, the successful author, the great 
statesman, in his old age used to murmur, as 
he sat thinking of the past, " Dreams — all 


1781— 1785. 


The travellers went in the first instance by 
Ostend and Brussels to Schwartzenberg ; 
John Joseph had a restless anxiety to find 
himself once more in the Vorarlberg amongst 
his native mountains. He had all his rela- 
tions there, and at first the joy of seeing 
them and of being out of cold, damp England 
revived the old man. Soon, however, he 
began again to droop. The air of the Tyrol 
was too keen for his weakened condition, 
and he had to try a warmer climate. They 
brought him therefore to Venice, where they 
arrived early in October. Here Zucchi's 
family lived, all people of birth and cultiva- 

1 82 Angelica Kauffmaun. 

tion. Here, too, Angelica's pictures were 
well known, many of them having been 
engraved by Joseph Zucchi. 

At this time the grand Duke and Duchess 
Paul of Russia (afterwards Emperor and 
Empress) were staying in Venice under the 
name of Count and Countess du Nord. As 
soon as they heard of Angelica's arrival they 
expressed a wish to visit her studio, and 
at once conceived, especially the duchess, a 
friendship for her. Angelica had two pic- 
tures half finished, orders for an English 
nobleman ; one was from the old Saxon 
history, the other a replica of " Leonardo da 
Vinci dying in the arms of Francis 1st." 1 
The royal visitors admired both so much that 
nothing would satisfy them until Angelica 
let them have them. The grand duchess 
overpowered her with thanks, embraced her, 
and assured her these pictures should be the 
greatest ornament of her apartment, as well 
for their merit as because they would re- 

1 The original of this picture she had exhibited at the 
Royal Academy Exhibition of 1778. 

It was during her stay in Venice that she painted 
her own portrait as Design, listening to the suggestions 
of the Muse Clio, for G. Bowles, of Wanstead. 

Middle Age. 183 

mind her of her charming friend, " Madame 
Zucchi." l 

When these honours were known, all 
Venice flocked to Angelica's studio. 2 She 
had more orders than she could take, for she 
had brought with her many commissions 
from England. Nevertheless^ she painted 
several of the grand Venetian ladies, also 
the youthful Almoro Barbaro. 

This pleasant sunshine was, however, soon to 
be darkened. In Venice Angelica experienced 
the great sorrow of losing her father. The 
simple, kindly old man died January, 1782, 
feeling happy in leaving his daughter with 
so good a husband. Angelica felt his loss 
bitterly, and for a time nothing would rouse 
her from her grief, which was increased by 
the death in the following month of her aunt, 
Rosa Bonomi's mother, who had come to 
Venice to nurse her brother John Joseph in 
his last illness. Zucchi, seeing his wife 
overwhelmed by these two misfortunes, 
wisely considered that the best remedy for 

1 This is an odd phrase, but is in Rossi. 

1 "There was a regatta in honour of the Duke and 
Duchess ; every one saw the royalties coming out of the 
studio. The next day all Venice came." — Zitcchi's MS. 

184 Angelica Kauffmann. 

sickness of either mind or body lies in 
change of scene ; he therefore resolved to 
take Angelica away from a place which was 
now so full of sorrow for her. 1 

Their original plan, discussed before leaving 
London, had been to settle ultimately in 
Naples. They had arrived at this conclusion 
from different reasons, one being that for a 
permanent home. Rome, although it was 
"ever in Angelica's thoughts," was not the 
climate best suited for one of her delicate 

Already their heavy baggage had gone 
by sea to Naples, and thither, in the month 
of April, they proceeded, stopping for a short 
time at Rome. 

At Naples the old story was renewed. 
The queen, 2 who was herself an artist and 
whose apartments contained many engrav- 
ings of Angelica's pictures, overwhelmed the 
Zucchis with attentions. She wished to 

1 John Joseph left some money amounting to 3500/., 
which was inherited by his only child and heiress, Angelica 
Kauffmann Zucchi, together with all his pictures and 
personalities. He made no will. See Appendix. . 

1 Caroline, daughter to Maria Theresa, married to 
Ferdinand II., King of Naples 

MiddleAge, 185 

keep Angelica always with her, and offered 
her a post at court. This, however, Ange- 
lica, whose mind was full of her recent loss, 
and who at all times was adverse to a life of 
courtly etiquette, refused. 

She could not, however, get out of under- 
taking a large picture of the royal family. 
Angelica accepted the commission, but was 
wholly unequal to the task of completing it. 
Moreover, with the restlessness of grief, 
she had taken a longing to return to Rome, 
and there fix herself for life. It was the 
lodestar which had attracted her back to 
Italy, and there she felt she must live and 
die. The desire was shared by Zucchi ; 
they therefore left Naples, Angelica having, 
as was her manner, made studies only of the 
heads for the royal picture which was to be 
finished in Rome. 

At this time Rome (then in the very 
height of its grandeur) was full of celebrities 
from all countries. The English flocked 
there with pockets full of money, as eager to 
patronize artists and buy their pictures as 
the Americans are now. Most of these rich 
patrons found their way to Angelica's studio. 

1 86 Angelica Kauffmann. 

Many of them she had known during her 
residence in England, others brought intro- 

Her picture of the royal family of Naples 
attracted numerous visitors, amongst them 
the Emperor of Austria, Joseph II., who was 
highly pleased with the portraits of his 
family. He desired the artist to be presented 
to him, and when he heard she was German, 
or rather Austrian, by birth, expressed great 
satisfaction that she was'amongst his subjects. 1 
His Majesty gave a royal commission for 
two large paintings for the gallery at Vienna, 
with the express desire that they might be 
finished as soon as possible ; the choice of 
subject, size of figures, etc., being left to 
the artist. Angelica frankly confessed that 
she had to finish a large picture for the 
Empress Catherine of Russia, 2 which she 

1 Rossi says, " The success made by Angelica caused 
a commotion amongst the artists in Rome, whose 
jealousy was excited by seeing a woman carry all before 

2 The subject was " Servius Tullius as a child," a 
miraculous flame playing round his head. The picture 
was of gigantic size, the figures life-size. 

Middle Age. 187 

had promised should be put aside for no 
one. The emperor had therefore to wait 
for nearly two years. 

Karl Theodor, Archduke of Bavaria, and 
the Austrian Archduchess Amalia of Parma, 
also honoured her with commissions. Such 
an amount of work would have overpowered 
anyone not endowed with the supply of 
energy possessed by Angelica, who was 
never so happy as when her whole time was 
spent in her loved art. A letter she wrote 
this year to her friend Doctor William 
Fordyce is written with evident enjoyment of 
her busy life, and has all that tenderness which 
makes the charm of her correspondence : — 

" To Dr. Wm. Fordyce, 
" Warwick Street, 
" Golden Square, 
" Ingilterra. " London. 

" Rome, December 28th, 1782. 
1 u It is impossible to describe how very 
desirous I was to receive a line from the 

1 The orthography of this and all other letters remains 

1 88 Angelica Kduffmann. 

friend I so much value and respect, and 
whose kind attention to me and to those who 
were dear to me, I shall never forget. 
You cannot imagine, best of friends, with 
how much pleasure I peruzed your letter. I 
was surprized first of all to see from whence it 
was dated. I rejoiced to find you was at this 
side of the Chanel — I was in hopes you had 
resolved to cross the mountains — but ah ! 
all my hopes were over when I came to the 
part of the letter where you say that you were 
just returning to London. However, I hope 
it is written in the Book of Destiny that 
somewhere or other we shall meet once more 
upon this globe, the which I believe I could 
quit contented if once more I could pass a few 
happy hours with the all-harmonious Triad. 

" I am sorry to hear that your worthy 
brother James enjoys but indifferent health, 
pray remember me to him and to his most 
amiable consort, my charming friend. Mr. 
Zucchi and I never think of the happy 
moments we enjoyed with ye, without re- 
greting the time we lost in being so late 
acquainted with the most worthy, the most 

Middle Age. 189 

amiable of human kind, where good hearts 
and good heads are united together with 
which one so seldom meets. For the love 
of friendship do not forget us — believe me, 
tho we are so distant, our hearts and souls 
are frequently in society with yours. 

" I am more then I can say obliged to you 
for the kind notice you take of my couzins, 
the Bonomis. Mr. Bonomi tells me in every 
letter he writes, how much you are his friend, 
and that often he has the honour to be in- 
vited to your table ; that you assist them 
with your kind advize in their indispositions. 
The goodness of your heart has no limits. 
Mr. Zucchi and I have spent the whole 
somer at Naples, where I had the honour to 
paint all the royal family — the greatest atten- 
tion were shown to me, the queen in particu- 
lar in occasiones express'd herself much in 
my favour. The portraits of the royal family 
are all to be in a large picture which consists 
of the king, the queen, three princes and four 
princesses. Having finished all theliknesses 
at Naples, I shall finishe the rest at Rome, 
the residence of the arts. However, I have 

190 Angelica Kauffmann. 

promised to return to Naples as soon as I 
have finished that great work, to present it 
myself to the soverains according to the 
desire they expressed. In regard to health, 
thank God, I am well, but Mr. Zucchi has 
been troubled with feavers last summer, and 
the air at Naples deed not so well agree with 
him. He is much better since we returned 
to Rome, where we are just fixing ourselfs 
in winter quarter in one of the finest situa- 
tions, Sopra la Trinita del Monte, which 
I dare say you remember. Accept my 
sincerist wishes for the begining of a happy 
new year. May health, and every other 
happynes and contentment never leave you. 
Render my sincerist wishes acceptable to 
my friend, your brother, and his beloved 
companion, the charming Henrietta, the 
friend of my heart. Oh that I could begin 
the year with ye, that would be enough to 
end it happy — for a good begining brings a 
good end. 

" Now remember it is in your power to give 
me real satisfaction with a few lines by which 
I hope you will always have it in your power 

Middle Age. 191 

to tell me that you enjoy the most perfect 

" Mr. Zucchi desires me to present his 
sincerist thanks to you for your kind re- 
membrance of him, and begs you will render 
his compliments, indeed he says his most 
affectionate compliments acceptable to the 
two friends above-named. Remember us 
both to your friend Mr. Brithingam. Excuse 
a long tedious letter, but I found time always 
too short conversing with you : which pleasure 
I wish to live to enjoy again. Adieu, best of 
brothers and friend, let me hear from you as 
often as you can, and believe that I shall 
never cease to be 

" Your most affectionate friend, sister, and 
truely obliged 

" Angelica Kauffmann-Z. 

•' P.S. — A letter recomended to the care 
of Monsieur Baraszi, Banchiere a Roma, 
wil be safe delivered to me." 

In the spring of 1783, Angelica fulfilled 
her promise of returning to Naples. Jour- 

192 Angelica Kauffmann. 

neying thither with her husband, they 
brought with them the picture which she 
had painted of the royal family, which was 
duly admired by the court. 

The queen was overjoyed to have her 
dear " Madame Zucchi " back again, and 
made much of her, lending her for her use 
the Francavilla Palace, which was eminently 
suited for the abode of an artist. On one 
side there was a lovely garden, on the other 
the most splendid view over the far-famed Bay 
of Naples. Every day the most tempting 
offers were made to induce Angelica to re- 
main permanently, which she refused ; at last 
Her Majesty made a request that it was im- 
possible to decline, that during her stay the 
artist would give some lessons in drawing 
to the young princesses. The queen was 
always present at the lessons, and was more 
and more charmed with the sweetness of 
Angelica. When the royal party removed 
to Caserta, she again tried to induce the 
Zucchis to follow her there ; Angelica, how- 
ever, returned to Rome laden with presents 
of costly jewellery, and orders for another 

Middle Age. 193 

picture, 1 intended as a present for the queen's 
sister, the Archduchess Christina, and an 
historical portrait of the Duchess Corigliano. 
She likewise sent to England three pictures, 
which are set down in the catalogue of the 
Incorporated Society of Artists, and exhibited 
in their rooms in Suffolk Street under the 
following heading : — 

From Madame Kauffmann, Naples. 

A Lady and Child as Venus and Cupid. 2 
A Cupid and a Hebe. 

She returned once more to Naples in the 
summer of 1 784, and resumed her course 
of instruction to the princesses. This was, 
how r ever, her last visit ; the task of teaching, 
always irksome, became doubly so in her 
case, as after the hours spent at her easel she 
needed rest of mind and body. The worry 
of imparting to beginners the rudiments of 

1 She was given the title of Court painter to her 
Majesty of the two Sicilies. There was no fixed emolu- 
ment by Angelica's own wish, who left it to the Queen's 
generosity. She had a court carriage for her own use. 
— Zucchfs Memoirs. 

2 The portrait of Lady Northwick and child — a com- 
mission from George Bowles, of Wanstead. See Ap- 


194 Angelica Kauffmann. 

an art she loved so well, fretted her beyond 
endurance, it having the additional burden of 
being hedged in by all the trammels of court 
etiquette. The strain became unbearable, 
and, Angelica's patience growing exhausted, 
she laid the matter before the queen and 
besought her to release her from her engage- 
ment, assuring her that with a more patient 
and less preoccupied teacher the princesses 
would make greater progress. The queen 
acceded to her request with regret, and her 
young scholars parted with her in tears. 
Nevertheless she never returned to Naples, 
which is rather a significant fact, and would 
look as if her royal patroness had been some- 
what offended. Gering, however, relates that 
she always spoke of the queen and her sister-in 
law, the Empress of Austria, with the utmost 
affection and gratitude, and that her apartment 
in Rome, which was a museum of curiosities, 
was full of mementoes and gifts from the 
royal family of Naples. 1 From the time of 
her return from Naples, Rome was now her 

1 The Queen gave her a beautiful ornament with the 
name of her Majesty in brilliants. — Zucchi's Memoirs. 

Middle Age. 195 

abiding-place, and except for short absences 
she never left it, dying, as she had wished, 
within its walls. It was a strange love she 
ever had for this ancient city, which was, as 
she often said, mistress of her heart, and satis- 
fied all the artistic desires of her nature. Here 
everything noble and good in her seemed 
to blossom into greater perfection ; she was 
like a plant or flower which has been trans- 
planted from ungenial soil to air and sunshine, 
and both her art and her inner life flourished. 
As a wife she appears to have been in the first 
years of her married life tolerably happy. 
Zucchi, although morbidly sad and visionary, 
was a kind husband and a model of conjugal 
virtue. As is often the case with marriages 
contracted, as theirs was, from no warmth 
of love, but with a groundwork of mutual 
liking, both being of good disposition, 
their esteem for one another increased ; 
Angelica recognized his worth, while he 
surrounded her with much thoughtful care. 
Rossi says that Antonio reverenced his 
wife's talent, and knowing that time was 
infinitely precious to her, he took upon 
o 2 

196 Angelica Kauffmann. 

himself the care of all household matters, 
so that her mind should be free from 
anxiety, and that he was always at hand to 
give help and advice in her work. He 
had excellent judgment, and was possessed 
of great knowledge in the rules of art. 
Angelica consulted him as to the be- 
ginning, arrangement, and completion of her 

Every artist who possesses modesty 
enough will acknowledge how useful it is 
to have beside one an intelligent critic, who 
can decide whether an idea should be acted 
upon or abandoned, or suggest some improve- 
ment which will perfect the whole. Angelica, 
being rapid in grasping a situation, was 
much helped by the more solid judgment 
of her husband, and the improvement which 
is visible in her work in later years dates 
from the time of her residence abroad. 
There is more strength in the composition, 
the lines are firmer, the colouring not so 

The amount of work which Angelica got 
through must always suggest a certain hurry 

Middle Age. 197 

which is inimical to perfection of finish, but 
it must be remembered she had been accus- 
tomed to work from her childhood. Rossi 
says she commenced with almost (in summer) 
the dawn of day, and, with the exception of 
a light meal, continued until the light failed. 
She gave a certain portion of her time to 
religious exercises, being of a most devout 
turn of mind, and she would occasionally 
visit the antiquities of the city, or go for a 
few hours into the country. The evenings 
were always given to society, of which she 
had the choice of the very best in Rome. 
Her house in the Arco di Regina "was a 
museum," l being filled with paintings and 
objects of art, many of them the gifts of 

1 Goethe in his " Italienische Reise" says : " Angelica 
has given herself the gratification of buying two pictures, 
one by Tizian the other by Paris Bourdon, both at 
high prices. Since she is rich enough not to diminish 
her income, which every year increases, it is right she 
should have every pleasure." This is a mistake for Paris 
Bordone, and in the last edition of the " Italienische 
Reise " the error is corrected by the editor. The paint- 
ing represented a young woman standing between two 
old men who present her with a looking-glass. Angelica 
mentions it in her will, wherein she directed several 
paintings and objets d'art to be sold/^r the poor. 

198 A ngelica Ka uffma 11 11 . 

her royal patrons. Here came all the 
savants, artists and noblesse of Rome : the 
habitues were such men as Backert, the 
celebrated landscape painter, Volpato, the 
famous engraver, with his beautiful daughter, 
Raphael Morghen, the celebrated engraver, 
Cardinal Spina, Goethe, Gering, the 
Grand Duchess Amalie von Weimar, Rath 
Rieffenstein,M. Seroux d'Agincourt, writer of 
" L'Art par les Monumens," and many others. 
The circle was ever increasing through the 
fresh arrivals of distinguished strangers, 
who found their way at once to Madame 
Angelica. She herself had all the gifts which 
make a hostess successful ; she spoke four 
languages well, her imagination was lively, 
her wit keen. Yet her sweetness of manner 
was never betrayed into offensive severity, 
nor did she ever speak in decisive tones 
upon matters of art, but seemed always 
ready to listen to what others said and to 
learn from them, example worthy of imita- 
tion by some of the loud-voiced mattresse 
femmes of our own time. Gering, in his 
" Book of Italian Travels," talks of Angelica's 

Middle Age. 199 

amiability of manner and of her tranquil 
mind, which showed itself in her charming 
countenance, where every thought of her 
tender soul could be read. " She preserves," 
he goes on, " her true German nature whilst 
living under a foreign sky, and her memory 
tenderly cherishes her own country." 

Rossi, who was a constant visitor at the 
Zucchis, describes the society gathered at her 
receptions as comprising all that could make 
a salon successful for in addition her love 
for music drew round her the most dis- 
tinguished musicians. 

" I remember," he says, " to have heard 
there the greatest artists of the day com- 
peting with one another in the desire to give 
Madame Angelica pleasure. The two cele- 
brated Italian Improvisatrices, Fortunato 
Fantastico and Therese Bandettini, gave 
some of their most exquisite performances, 
encouraged by the appreciation of the artistic 
circle in which they found themselves." 

Goethe, however, who was Vami intime in 
the Zucchi household, gives a less pleasant 
account. "Angelica," he says, "is not 

200 Angelica Kauffmann. 

as happy as she deserves to be, or as her 
great talent merits, and with the fortune 
which she daily earns she is herself weary of 
painting for sale, but her old husband finds 
it profitable that she should do so. She 
would prefer to have more leisure to prepare 
her work with more care and study, and she 
ought to have it. They have no children 
and have no necessity to save, and she 
should have only a certain quantity of work 
to do every day. This, however, is not the 
case, and never will be. She speaks very 
openly to me, and I have given her my 
opinion and my advice, and I try to cheer 
her up when I am with her. Those who fear 
want and misfortune when they have sufficient 
do not know how to enjoy good fortune." — 
Goethe's " Italienische Reise" vol. ii. 


1785— 1789. 


The year 1785 brought a fresh influx of 
work. The Emperor Joseph's order had been 
completed. The subjects of the two pictures 
being left to the artist's choice, were of course 
drawn from a classical source : ' The Return 
of Arminius, welcomed by Thusnelda after 
his victory over Varus," and "The Lament 
of the youthful Pallas." 1 The figures were 
two-thirds natural size, and the emperor, 
being much pleased, paid for them with 
royal munificence. 2 

1 Both pictures are in the Belvedere Gallery at Vienna. 

2 He sent Angelica a beautiful diamond ornament 
with his cypher in diamonds ; also a gold snuff-box highly 

202 Angelica Kauffmann. 

From Moscow she received a fresh com- 
mission. Catherine II. was a magnificent 
patron of art ; she wished for a companion 
picture to " Servius Tullus," which had arrived 
in Russia, and met much commendation, and 
for her Angelica painted "Achilles discovered 
by Ulysses in the disguise of a Woman," a 
picture which has been engraved, and is 
to be met with often. Prince Poniatowski, a 
well-known virtuoso, sat for his portrait in an 
allegorical character, which so pleased his uncle, 
the King of Poland, that he ordered a large 
picture. Angelica chose for him as subject, 
u Virgil Reading the ./Eneid before Augustus 
and his sister Octavia." 

Up to this, by some strange omission, 
Angelica had received very little patronage 
amongst the Italians ; a circumstance which 
was noted by her fellow-artists, and which 
caused no little mortification to herself. 
The portraits of the Duke and Duchess of 
Ceci, that of Volpato, the eminent engraver, 
and his daughter-in-law, "Nathan and David" 
for Cardinal Zelado, and two or three por- 
traits was all of her work to be found in 

Middle Age. 203 

the Roman States. In this year, however, 
Cardinal Ignatius Boncompagni was ap- 
pointed Secretary of State to Pope Pius VI. 
The cardinal was a man of great talent and 
artistic tastes, and as his post gave him all 
powers, he wished to beautify the holy 
house of Loretto, and for this purpose 
employed the best artists in Rome to con- 
tribute pictures of their own design. 
Amongst them he included Angelica, who 
received the commission joyfully, although 
the price given was small in comparison to 
what she was in the habit of receiving. It 
was, she thought, a gratifying proof of the 
esteem in which she was held, to be selected 
amongst the native artists, and, in addition, 
the place in which her work was to be 
placed was so celebrated as to ensure its 
immortality. The painting was to represent 
Saint Joachim and Saint Anna, with Mary as a 
child ; the figures were to be life-size. Ange- 
lica has given a Grecian character to the 
picture. She represents the Holy Child as 
watering a bunch of lilies, her eyes raised 
to Heaven, while a halo plays upon her head. 

204 Angelica Kauffmann. 

Joachim, struck with astonishment, points 
out the miraculous appearance to Anna, who, 
full of pious rapture, praises the Almighty. 

The work was well received by the public, 
and the Pope expressed himself gratified. 
He wished to visit Angelica in her studio, 
but Rossi says he was deterred by the 
jealousy of the inferior artists, who envied 
the popularity of one who belonged to 
another nation. 

Four years had now passed since she had 
left England. During this time, with the 
exception of a small picture, " Modesty," 
exhibited in 1782, Angelica's name had not 
appeared in the catalogue of the Royal 
Academy. In the May of 1786 we find 
the following : — 

86. Cornelia, the Mother of the Gracchi, pointing to 

her children as her treasures. 
196. Virgil Writing his own Epitaph. 
214. Pliny the Younger at Misaenum. 1 

1 These three pictures were commissions for George 
Bowles of Wanstead. (See catalogue.) A replica of 
the " Mother of the Gracchi " was painted for Prince 
Poniatowski, as a companion to " Brutus passing 
Sentence on his own Son." 

Middle Age. 205 

"Cornelia" had a great success; it was 
warmly praised by the critics. Goethe, 
who saw it in the artist's studio, calls it a 
most natural composition — a happy inspira- 
tion. Sternberg, on the other hand, falls 
upon it with more than his usual acrimony. 

"In this way," he goes on, "did she 
paint her famous (famous only in England) 
' Mother of the Gracchi,' which raised her 
fame to the highest point, and which is, in 
fact, nothing more or less than a cold 
unfaithful representation of a fine subject, 
dressed up with modern sentiment, and 
presenting, as the Roman Matron, a modern 
drawing-room lady, The ' Mother of the 
Gracchi ' has the most striking likeness to 
Lady Wentworth, the friend and patroness 
of our artist ; the children are the sons of the 
Duke of York, only without powder and 
breeches, nevertheless their hair dressed and 
their limbs most respectably draped. The 
lady with the jewels, who leans negligently 
against an Ionian pillar, is undoubtedly the 
Queen's Mistress of the Robes; the scene is 
a park in Regent Street." 

206 Angelica Kauffmanu. 

Some, justification of Sternberg's hard criti- 
cism will be found in the prices realized by 
these pictures. At the sale of the Bowles- 
Rushout collection in 1879, the " Mother 
of the Gracchi " was sold for 47/., " Virgil 
Writing his own Epitaph," for 99/., and 
" Pliny" for 59/. 

That the mere monetary value is not a 
legitimate standard for art is no doubt true. 
Many a good work has been before now 
knocked down for half its value by the 
auctioneer's hammer, but this would be 
where there would be an ignorant crowd, 
not in the case of a choice collection, such 
as was the Rushout. At this same sale Lady 
North wick's portrait, also by Angelica, fetched 
the large price of 850/. It would therefore 
seem to be clear that the judges of to-day 
supported Sternberg's opinion as to the 
" Mother of the Gracchi." 

In 1788 and 1789 she was full of work as 
ever: an altar piece for the town of Bergamo, 
the family of the Duke of Holstein Beck, from 
which Morghen made a splendid engraving, 
and the Princess of Anhalt Dessau were 

Middle Age. 207 

amongst the subjects undertaken. She sent 
to the Royal Academy, 1788, " Bacchus 
teaching the Nymphs to make verses." 
Zucchi, who was getting anxious for the 
health of this zealous bread-winner, now 
took for her, as a surprise, a villa at 
Castel Gandolfo, a most charming summer 
residence, 1 in the hope that she would with- 
draw occasionally from her work, and 
enjoy perfect rest. Angelica liked the 
idea in theory, but found it impossible to 
put it into practice ; she made little or no 
use of her husband's present, and finally it 
was resold. 

1788 was marked by the beginning of a 
friendship with Goethe, which soon developed 
into a warm attachment. The young Ger- 
man, then in the zenith of his creative power, 
had come to Rome suffering from one of his 
unfortunate attachments. He lived a hermit's 
life, calling himself by another name. Like 

1 Goethe, in his " Italienische Reise," gives a pleasant 
account of this watering place, " where one leads the 
life usually led at such places ; there are lively girls and 
agreeable women. In the evening we go to the play 
tout comuic chcz z'ous, only under a delicious sky." 

208 Angelica Kauffmann. 

all poets, he wanted sympathy. This Ange- 
lica readily gave him. "It was natural," 
says a charming German writer, "that he, 
the favourite of the Graces, should be, so 
soon as he came within her spell, attracted 
by this sweet impersonation of womanly 

There is no doubt that Goethe was 
attracted in a great degree. He " schwarmt," 
to use a German expression, in all his letters 
home, over this u charming creation," whom 
he calls Angelica, or Fra Angelica. 1 " She is 
so dear, so good to me," he writes. " I go 
often to her, especially when I am in a 
thoughtful mood, and have no one to whom 
I can open my mind. It is now settled that 
I go there every Sunday ; after dinner we 
visit the galleries. You cannot conceive 
what real enjoyment there is in seeing 
pictures with her. Her eye is so educated, 
and her knowledge of the mechanism of art 
so great, her feeling of the beautiful so pro- 
found, and she is so inconceivably modest." 

Again he says, " She has something of 
It is written thus in Goethe's letters. 

Middle Age. 209 

the nature of Fra Angelico, whose mind was 
so full of heavenly images, which he 
depicted with such fidelity, that it was im- 
possible for him to give any idea of a demon. 
So it is with Angelica, a villain she could 
not, for the life of her, convey to her canvas. 
Her works are the outcome of a lovely 
imagination, a pure soul — for the rest, she is 
mistress of her pencil, excels in colouring, 
which is much appreciated here." 

In another of his letters home he gives an 
account of a party he gave in her honour. 
"Angelica," he says, "never goes to the theatre, 
for what reason I do not inquire, but as we 
talked much to her of the music of Cimarosa, 
and she desired ardently to hear it, we 
resolved, Bury * and I, to procure her as much 
satisfaction as could be got from a musical 
representation. Bury, who knew many 
artists, and Kapell-meister Kranz, from 
Weimar, a violinist of much merit, studying 
now in Rome, arranged the representation. 

1 A young German artist who lived in the same apart- 
ment with Goethe. He became later a distinguished 
portrait painter. 


210 Angelica Kauffmann. 

I had in the upholsterers and confectioners, 
and we had a charming concert on the 
loveliest summer's night. Madame Angelica, 
her husband, Hofrath Rieffenstein, 1 Volpato, 2 
Jenkins, 3 and all who have been civil to us, 
were invited ; under the windows a crowd 
collected and applauded the different mor- 
ceaux as if at the opera." 4 

Poets, of all men, need sympathy, and 
Goethe, whose nature was more highly strung 
than was even Byron's, found in the company 
of his gifted countrywoman the rest and the 
help he required. The sentimental tendency 
of her mind, which has been so found fault 
with, was to him an additional charm, and 
the pleasure he experienced in her society 
was all the greater ; he made her the 
confidante of his poetical dreams, and the 
judge of his works. In his correspondence 

1 Johann Friedrich Rieffenstein, the guide and coun- 
sellor of all strangers visiting Rome, his knowledge of art 
: nd antiquities qualifying him for the office. He stood 
equally well with the German and Russian courts. 

2 An eminent Italian engraver. 

3 An English commission agent and art dealer. 

4 From Goethe's correspondence. 

Middle Aee. 2 1 1 


there is constant mention of his reading 
his pieces to her ; he read to her his " Iphi- 
genia," which had been talked of amongst 
his friends, '' and this coming to the ears 
of Angelica and Herr Rieffenstein, nothing 
would content them but I should give them a 
reading. I had to read the whole piece, 
which pleased my audience far better than I 
had hoped ; even Herr Zucchi, from whom I 
had expected little or no sympathy, gave 
most cordial approval. This shows me 
plainly that the piece is constructed in the 
manner which has been long acceptable to 
the Greeks, Italians, and French, and which 
suits these nations best. The English alone 
have not accustomed themselves to these in- 

On another occasion he writes to her one 
of his charming little notes : — 

" Pour Madame Angelica. 

" It seems that in the studio of the 

Tedeschi we go from one extreme to the 

other. Last week we drew men as God 

created them, this week they are to be 

p 2 

2 12 Angelica Kauffmann. 

clothed in iron and steel ; with this preface, 
I introduce, dearest friend, a request. Do 
you possess a copper-plate which represents a 
hero in complete armour, that is, armed from 
head to foot ? If so, I beg you will lend it 
to me for a few days. 

" I am working at a tale of enchantment, 
which I hope to read to you on Sunday, if I 
am fortunate enough to find you at home. I 
do not ask you to forgive me, for I know I 
have a general pardon. 

11 Farewell, my best friend, 

" Goethe." 

The tale of enchantment referred to is 
" Egmont." He describes reading it to her 
and Rath Rieffenstein. " Herr Zucchi was 
pressed to stay, and did so, because his 
wife wished it. Angelica's impressionable 
soul was deeply touched — she has such won- 
derful perception and delicacy of mind." 
He paid her the high compliment of con- 
sulting her as to the vision seen by Egmont 
in his dream. 1 

1 Egmont, who headed the revolt of the Netherlands 
against the Spaniards, is condemned to death by the 

Middle Age. 213 

" On Sunday," he says in his " Italienische 
Reise," " I went to Angelica and laid before 
her my doubts as to the vision. She has the 
piece, and has been studying it, and, oh, how 
I wish you could have seen how tenderly, 
and with what womanly tact she went into 
the whole subject. She says she is convinced 
that it is right that Clarchen should express 
what is taking place in the hero's mind, and 
that no words could give greater force or 
testify more clearly how much he loved and 
cherished her, than did this dream in which 
the beloved one appeared to him. Yes ! it 
must have gladdened his heart, that she, 
whose whole life had been a waking dream 
of love, should now keep watch over him in 
this, his last sleep." 

"There is no denying," says Sternberg, 
"that it was a great honour for the artist, 
that Goethe should have taken her judgment 

Duke of Alba, the Spanish Governor. The night before 
his execution he sees in a dream Clarchen (who has 
killed herself not to survive him), who places a crown of 
laurel leaves on his head and gives him to understand 
that his death is not in vain, for that his country will 
recover its freedom. 

214 Angelica Kanffmann. 

upon so critical a point. Nevertheless, what 
can we think of her comprehension of the 
matter, when we have before us the incom- 
prehensible frontispiece, 1 which she produced 
for this same ' Egmont,' of which she spoke 
with so ' much tenderness and womanly tact ' ? 
Her mind," he goes on, " was not capable of 
retaining a deep impression, or of producing 
it upon others. She was emotional, if you 
will, but too feeble to be capable of conveying 
that emotion to her canvas." 

Before he left Rome, Goethe sat to the 
artist for his portrait, which was not success- 
ful. "It is a very pretty fellow, but it has 
no trace of me," wrote Goethe to his friends, 
" and Angelica is much vexed at the failure." 

Wesseley remarks "that the high estimation 
in which she held the divine gift of the poet, 
very likely interfered with her reproduction 
of his genius on her canvas." 

When the time for saying farewell to 
Italy came, Goethe seems to have had the 

1 Goethe dedicated the first copies of "Egmont" to 
Angelica, and she designed the frontispiece. See page 

Middle Age. 2 1 


tenderest feelings towards the artist, who 
preserved all her charm, although she was 
in her forty-eighth year. 

u Now that I am leaving Rome," he writes, 
" I feel that I could wish to bind myself by 
closer ties to this fascinating woman." x 

This is rather a strange expression, con- 
sidering that Angelica was already bound in 
matrimonial ties, but license must always be 
given to a poet's language. 

Oppermann, in his " Bregenzer Wald," 
says, " that it was well known that Goethe's 
admiration for Angelica was such, that, had 
she been free, he would have made her his 
wife, and that a marriage with her would have 
given that repose to his life which was want- 
ing in his union-with the Vulpina, but that such 
was not possible, as the artist was, at the 
time of Goethe's visit to Rome, the wife of 

1 In the " Italienische Reise " he says : 

" 2 March, 1788. 

"My departure grieves three persons. I quit them, 
too, with sorrow. In Rome I have, for the first time, 
found my real self. I have been happy, and these three 
have worked in their different ways to this effect." 

216 Angelica Kauffmann. 

Stolberg, in his characteristics of Angelica, 
says, "that the relations between Madame 
Angelica and Goethe, during his visit to Italy, 
require to be more clearly denned. There 
is no doubt," he goes on, " that in a love 
episode, in which the poet played the principal 
part, Angelica filled the role of go-between ; 
and in consequence of this affair, before her 
death, she burnt any correspondence which 
would throw light on that or any other delicate 
subject." x 

It would seem, therefore, that although Stol- 
berg was right, in so far as the love episode 
was in question, Oppermann goes nearest the 

1 This is an allusion to a certain love episode of 
Goethe's with a pretty Milanese during his stay at Castel 
Gandolfo. The girl was engaged, but the poet took to 
teaching her English, and evidently won her affections. 
In his journal he tells the story in his usual frank fashion 
of dealing with his love affairs, adding, " Angelica is good 
and obliging as she always is." Later on, in Rome, he 
meets the Milanese in company with Angelica, who was a 
friend of hers. He says he was amused at Madame 
Angelica's efforts to show off the girl to advantage ; but 
already the fickle poet's fancy had passed. It revived 
again, however, when he paid the Milanese a farewell 
visit. Although it shows the nature of the man, there 
was in all this nothing serious or that would necessitate 
burning letters. 

Middle Age, 2 1 7 

truth as to Angelica. Some letters, which have 
been lately published by the Goethe Society, 
and which include fifteen from Angelica 
to Goethe, prove only too clearly how deep 
was the attachment on her side. Though it 
was half due to admiration for his genius, and 
wholly platonic, it nevertheless seems to have 
coloured every thought of her mind for 
years. The more extraordinary perhaps, is it, 
that she, in the maturity of her charms, should 
have attracted a man seven years younger 
than she was ; such things, however, are not 
unknown, and do not bear argument. The 
poet's fancy was not lasting, he was by nature 
inconstant, and Angelica's efforts to keep her 
memory green in his heart are painful read- 
ing. For the rest, these letters are most inter- 
esting : they give us an insight into the inner 
life of this gifted and unhappy woman. 1 
That her marriage had been one of con- 
venience and mutual arrangement, explains 
much. Zucchi, although admirable as a 
major-domo, was not a husband to suit a 

1 Unhappy in the sense of not being suited to 

218 Angelica Kauffmann. 

woman of Angelica's sensitive nature ; she 
wanted sympathy — he had none to give ; he 
was gloomy, silent, prematurely old. Rossi, 
who stands up for his countryman, says he 
adored Angelice, not as a wife, but as an 
artist, therefore he surrounded her with every 
care and comfort ; he nursed her in fact as he 
would a commercial speculation. She was the 
bread-winner, and should be kept in good 
health ; he even allowed her now and then to 
make purchases, but it was all a matter of busi- 
ness. It cannot be wondered at that Angelica 
felt she had made a mistake, and that after 
she came to know Goethe, who was then in 
possession of all his wonderful gifts, her life 
seemed to grow, as she says, insupport- 

The letters, which are all interesting, would 
nevertheless be too long to find place in this 
volume ; a selection has therefore been made, 
the first being written immediately on Goethe 
leaving Rome : — ■ 

"Den ioth May, '%%. 
"Dearest Friend, — Parting from you 

Middle Age. 2 1 9 

has penetrated my heart and soul with grief; 
the day of your departure was one of the 
most sorrowful of my life, only for the dear 
lines you wrote to me before you started, 
and for which I have already thanked 

" Now again I thank you from my heart 
for your letter from Florence, which I looked 
for with longing. A few nights ago I dreamt 
that I had received letters from you, and that 
I felt consoled and said, ' It is well that he 
has written, else I would soon have died of 

" I am content to know you are well ; may 
heaven continue to keep you thus. I live 
such a sad life, and because I cannot see what 
I most desire, all and everyone is indifferent 
to me, except perhaps our good friend, 
Rieffenstein, with whom I can speak of 

" The Sundays, which once were days of 
joy, have become the saddest days — they seem 
to say we return no more, but I will not believe 
this ; the words ' return no more,' sound too 
hard. Now I will say not another sorrowful 

220 Angelica Kaiiffmann. 

word. Do you know I have something of 
yours upon which you bestowed great care ; I 
have to thank the good Schiitz ' for this trea- 
sure. Your little pine tree stands now in my 
garden, and is my dearest plant. One thing 
more I have, which I destined for you before 
it was mine — the figure of which I have 
spoken to you — the Muse. 2 I am only wait- 
ing for a good opportunity to send it to 
you. You will help me in this, for it would 
be a thousand pities if it should meet any 

" I have made some alteration in the design 
for the title page, 3 also I have made it some- 
what larger. I recollected that I had said to 
you that I could myself engrave it on the 
copper ; it is, however, a long time since I 
have done etching, and I know not how it 
might succeed, and the proofs would take a 
long time before I could be sure of success, 
consequently I should be glad to know if the 
design, which will be finished to-day, should 

1 Johann Georg Schiitz, landscape painter. 

2 See pages 226, 233. 

3 Of " Egmont," engraved by Lips. 

Middle Age. 2 2 1 

be given to Herr Lips, 1 or sent to you. I 
shall wait your directions. 

" In Florence you have seen many beautiful 
things which you will one day tell me of. 
Zucchi thanks you heartily for your kind re- 
membrance of him, and desires to continue in 
your regard ; we speak every day of you." 

She then goes on to mention some com- 
missions Goethe had entrusted her with, and 
winds up with these curious words : — 

" Give me the only satisfaction I can now 
enjoy, that of hearing from you often. 
When I know that you are well and content, 
I will try and reconcile myself to my fate. 
Farewell, my dear friend, keep me in your 


Here is a second letter, conceived in even 
more passionate language, and written on the 
1 7th of May : — 

" I thank you a thousand times, my dear 
friend, for the joy your letter from Florence 

1 Painter and engraver. Studied under Lavater. 
Professor in the Academy of Weimar. 

222 Angelica Kauffmann. 

has given me. Your commissions I have 
handed over to our good Rath Rieffenstein, 
and I have made your excuses to him and 
Abbate Spina ; both love you dearly, but who 
can help doing that ? I am not at all pleased 
with Herr Kayser ; l he has left you very much 
alone, and evidently prefers the library to 
your society. Ah ! if I were in his place ! 
and how I envy him ! It is true that in spirit 
I am often as near you as your own shadow, 
but let the power of imagination be ever so 
strong, it yet remains only an imagination. 
If I had known your address I would have 
written to Florence. You will find my answer 
to your first letter at Milan, but I cannot 
leave your last without an answer. I forget, 
however, what has happened since you left. 
When I think of you I grow confused. I sit 
with the pen in my hand, have much to say, 
v/ould wish to say much to you — every pulse 
of my heart suffers and complains. But of 
what use is all this ? nothing I can say will 

1 Christoph Kayser, a German composer of merit, 
came to Rome to write the music for the opera of 
" Egmont." 

Middle Age. 223 

bring you back to me ! It were better that 
I remained silent ; your feeling heart can 
imagine the rest. 

" Since the 23rd — that last and fatal day 
— I have been in a dream, out of which 1 
cannot rouse myself — the lovely sky, the 
most lovely scenery, alas ! even the divine in 
art, excites nothing in me — I am indifferent 
to all. I really believe I am on the outer 
edge of that folly, of which we often talked. 
In the other world I hope it will be arranged 
that all dear friends meet never more to 
part, and so I look for a happier life 

" I hope to hear that you are comfortably 
lodged in Milan ; everything about you 
interests me. Your health and well-beino' is 
as near to my heart as my own. . . . 

" This evening, the 28th, when I came 
home, I found your dear letter upon the table. 
How my heart beat as I opened it, and how 
much I thank you for the contents and for 
your friendship, of which you gave me a 
proof, by sending me those dear lines which 
will help to make my weary days less hard 

224 Angelica Rauffmanii. 

to bear. May Heaven, my dear friend, 
reward you for this, and keep you from 
everything that may annoy you. 

"The 'Motet of Cristofero Morales,' 1 
which you picked up in Bologna, and also the 
book of 'Gvidetti,' I have stretched upon what 
little gum-paper I have. I have many times 
reminded Signor Carlo Albacini, and begged 
of him to do what is possible ; he puts me 
off with fair promises. One cannot be con- 
tent with these, so I shall try in another 

" Your ' Tasso ' will be received by me with 
love and joy, ' yet it is joining new links to 
the chain ; ' nevertheless, every word you 
have written is precious to me, because it is 

" Some days ago I went with Zucchi to 
visit your apartment (what I saw there I will 
tell you after I have seen it again under 
better circumstances). We went up into your 
cabinet. I felt as if I were in a sanctuary or 
shrine where one dwelt whom all honoured. 

1 Cristofero Morales, a Spanish composer of the 
sixteenth century. 

Middle Age. 225 

I could hardly tear myself away — I remem- 
bered what lovely music the excellent Kayser 
played once here for you and me. Ah ! 
those dear happy days. I must stop and beg 
your pardon for allowing my pen to run on 
so wildly. Zucchi desires his most friendly 
remembrance, also our good Herr Rath and 
the Abbate Spina. Whenever we meet we 
speak of you. I am looking forward to the 
letter from Milan, which you have promised 

There is a postscript to this letter dated a 
fortnight later, June 7th : — 

" Pray forgive the length of this letter and 
the disorder with which it is written ; my 
mind was half distracted when I wrote. 

11 Not a line from you from Milan ! Have 
you forgotten your kind promise ? It fills 
me with anxiety ; it may be that Herr Rath 1 
had letters from you by yesterday's post, but 
he is in Frascati with his housekeeper, who 
has been ill, but now gives every hope of 

1 It would seem from this that the correspondence 
between them was carried on through good Rath Rieffen- 

226 Angelica Kauffmann. 

perfect recovery. I shall not see him until 
next Monday ; I shall, therefore, wait no 
longer ; as you gave me permission to address 
you at Weimar, I shall do so. I trust you 
have already happily arrived there, and that 
you have met all your friends. Happy 
Weimar, and thrice happy those who are 
blessed with your presence there ! The only 
consolation left to me is the hope that you 
keep me in your remembrance. That you 
may be always well and happy is the sincerest 
wish of your devoted " A. 

" Please remember me and Zucchi and other 
friends to Herr Kayser. I told you in my last 
that I had the ' Muse ' in my own hands, and 
that I was only waiting an opportunity to send 
it to you with the help of Herr Rath, also 
the finished design for the title page, about 
which I expect an answer from you. Dearest 
friend, pardon this long letter, which for the 
rest is the answer to two of yours with which 
I was made happy. 

"To-morrow will be Sunday — once such a 
longed-for day. Farewell, your commission 
as to the Intaglio shall be looked after." 

Middle Age. 227 

On the 5th August she writes to tell him 
of Herder's arrival ; the letter is interesting 
from many points of view. 

" Rome, 5th August, '88. 

" Dreaming again, you'll say. 

"But I know you forgive me. 
. " I dreamt last night you had come back. 
I saw you a long way off, and hastened to 
the entrance door, seized both your hands, 
which I pressed so closely to my heart that 
with the pain I awoke. I was angry with 
myself that my joy in my dream should have 
been so great, and that in consequence my 
happiness had been shortened. Still, to-day 
I am content, for I have your dear letter 
written July 19th. That in spite of your 
many distractions and occupations, with 
friends and acquaintances around you, you 
are in spirit often in Rome — this does not 
surprise me ; but that you think of me is a 
proof of your goodness for which I am in- 
finitely grateful. I rejoice that you are well, 
and wish you an unbroken course of happi- 
ness and content. For me, / live only in the 
hope of a better life. And now a word of art 
o 2 

228 Angelica Kauffmann. 

and especially of ' Daniele da Volterra.' The 
portrait is now mine} How it cametobe mine, 
how it got into the house, what a piece of 
work there was to persuade Tischbein to 
sell the picture and to share the profits — all 
this you already know. I could not bear 
the thought of letting such a treasure leave 
me. I talked the matter over with Zucchi, 
and decided to write to Tischbein and have 
the whole thing out. I made him an offer 2 — 
and now the portrait, 3 which is a veritable 
masterpiece, is ours, wholly and entirely, and 
so long as I live I shall look at it. It shall 
be given all honour and placed with ' all 
dignity ' in the big ' Saal ' ; the ' Mercury ' 
must give way, and come in the middle of 
the hall ; ' Venus and Adonis ' on the same 

1 It is curious that in her will she makes no mention 
of the Volterra, so it is probable that either Tischbein 
claimed the picture or that Angelica sold it. 

2 She gave six hundred pounds for it. 

3 " This fine picture of the ' Burial of our Lord,' by 
Daniele da Volterra, was discovered by Tischbein in the 
convent of the Porta del Popolo. The monks were 
willing to sell it for one thousand scudi, which Tischbein, 
being only a struggling artist, could not muster. He 
therefore made a proposal to Madame Angelica, to which 
she consented. She advanced the sum and the picture 
remained with her ; later, Tischbein, by an agreement, 
could repurchase it. : ' — Goethe's I. Reise, 

Middle Age. 229 

side where ' Ganymede and Apollo ' are. 
The picture remains in its case, and only those 
shall see it who are capable of seeing it. I 
give you all these details, because I know 
that they will give you, dear friend, pleasure. 
When shall zve see it together ? I live con- 
tinuously between fear and hope — alas, 
more fear than hope — but I must be silent ; 
of what use are my complaints ? 

" You want to know what I am working at. 
I have the following pieces finished, I think : — 
The portrait of • Lady Hervey,' the picture 
of ' Cardinal Rezzonico before the Senate.' 
To-day I am finishing ' Virgil,' the subject 
you will remember. I am very well pleased 
with the effect of the 'Chiaroscuro' — this 
picture has a great deal of strength and the 
colours have become very brilliant. I have 
also commenced the two for the Shakespeare 
Gallery, 1 and a picture for the Duke of Cour- 
land. 2 Soon I must consider the subject of 
my large picture for Catherine of Russia. 3 I 

1 The Boydell Shakespeare. For Angelica's letter to 
Boydell see Supplement to Appendix. 

2 Peter, Duke of Courland. 

3 Catherine II., who gave Angelica several orders. 
This one was " Achilles " ; it is now in the Hermitage at 
St. Petersburg. 

230 Angelica Kaujfmann. 

have as yet done nothing, and I want to make 
it as good as possible. To do this, I must 
imagine it is Sunday, and that you are coming 
to my studio. Ah ! the dear past. It does 
not do to think of that. 

" My portrait, or it would be better to call 
it the painting, which I presented to^ the 
gallery in Florence, has been accepted. I 
received the letters a few days ago, and 
that they have placed me in a good light and 
beside a very famous man — no less than 
Michel Anofelo Buonarroti. 1 I wish I could 
stand near him, not in effigy alone, but in 
his works ; but this is too ambitious. The 
Grand Duke, as a proof of his kind acceptance 
of the portrait, has honoured me with the 
gift of a large gold medal. Now it is time for 
me to stop speaking of myself; I have already 
said too much. If you had not sent me the 
promised sketches of the neighbourhood, I 
should have most certainly reminded you. 
Now that I have them, I find my thoughts 
often, often, very often there. Dear friend, 

1 This portrait of Angelica has been removed from its 
juxtaposition to the great painter ; it now hangs in 
the Artists' Room. 

Middle A?e. 2\\ 


Rome is beautiful, but no more so for me. 
Let me be still, let me once more be the 
master of my pen. 

" The letter from your young friend has 
given me much pleasure ; also I am glad 
to know Herr Kayser is coming back, and 
that Herr Herder is coming, but you are not 
coming ; that is my everlasting sorrow, and 
my lamentation. 

" Farewell, be happy and do not forget me. 
I honour and esteem you with all my heart. 

" Angelica." 

One of the results of Goethe's visits to 
Rome had been to excite the imagination of 
the intellectual circle in Weimar, which had 
a reputation for art and learning. It included 
such men as Wieland, Herder, Bode, Hackert, 
Emondel, Knebel, likewise Frau von Secken- 
dorff, Amalie Trieshoff, and others. The little 
duchy went by the name of the modern 
Athens ; after Goethe's return a regular pil- 
grimage set out for Rome. First came Her- 
der, accompanied by Domherr von Dalberg 
and Frau von Seckendorff. Great efforts 
had been made to induce Goethe to join this 
party, but the poet, although in full measure 

232 Angelica Kauffmann. 

artistic, was German first of all. He wanted 
to improve his own country, and to raise it 
from an artistic point, and to do this it was 
necessary in the first place to make a bridge 
between the north and the south. From 
Weimar he directed all the movements of the 
art pilgrims, bringing them in contact and 
friendship with his Roman friends, so that they 
might see all to the best advantage. From 
Constanz he writes to Herder the fullest 
directions, and again on his arrival, he 
says, — 

" I am rejoiced that you and Angelica 
have so many pleasant hours together, that 
you like Bury. Be very nice to Herr Rieffen- 
stein ; commend me to him and tell him how 
much I value his friendship." 

Herder did not care much for the society 
of Goethe's antiquarian friends, but he was 
charmed with Angelica. He cannot praise 
enough her grace, her elegance and her 
kindness of heart. " She is true heavenly 
music," he says in letter 25 of the series. 
Angelica gives her opinion of the philosopher 
to Goethe in the following letter : — 

Middle Age. 233 

" 21st September. 
" How joyful I am on the days that your 
letters come, and that I hear of your well- 
being. I thank you for your letter of 4th 
August and 1st September, and from the last 
I know that the ' Muse ' x has at last reached 
you. I am very pleased that my little re- 
membrance has given you pleasure, and that 
you consider it as a small proof of 7ny true 
and timitterable estee7n for you. Before this 
reaches your honoured hand you will have 
received the title page, together with the 
Vignette ; the shortness of the time and the 
confined space did not allow of adding any- 
thing. Fall in love, do, with the figure 
Simplon, and grant me the honour to make 
up for other deficiencies on another occasion. 
The drawing I would have willingly sent, only 
it was too large. Herr Rath will send it by 
another opportunity. 

1 Shortly before he left Rome a dealer offered Goethe 
a statue taken from the court of the palace Carafa 
Colombano in Naples. He was all anxiety to buy it, 
but the money was not forthcoming. Tischbein proposed 
an arrangement like the " Volterra," but Angelica was 
afraid of her husband and refused. The statue is now in 
theMuseumproClementina. Itwas a copyshe sentGoethe. 

234 Angelica Kauffmann. 

"On the 1 9th this month, when I came home 
at my usual hour, I found Bury in the draw- 
ing-room with Herr Herder. It crave me 
joy to see this excellent man, your friend. 
I gave him your letter, the questions about 
which you are anxious he could scarcely 
answer, as he had only just arrived. The visit 
was short, but he has given me the hope that 
he will come often. The Duchess-Mother 
will arrive at the end of the month. 1 You 
know already, my dear friend, how much I wish 
to do honour to those whom you like, and to 
be of use to them if I can ; it rejoices me that 
your friends have come at the best time to 
enjoy the neighbourhood. It will soon be 
the season when we were together at 
Castel Gandolfo — every place where you 
sketched will be dear to me, all will remind 
me of what is past, and with such a memory 
can I hope for enjoyment in the present ? 
In my imagination I will see you everywhere. 
We shall only spend a few days there this 
year, as we intend to make a short tour in 

1 The Duchess-Dowager of Weimar, who was preparing 
to make an art pilgrimage to Rome. 

Middle Age. 235 

October. You console me with the hope of 
a future. I will try and hope the best, it 
may make the present less unbearable. 
That my little offering, which you so kindly 
have accepted, should have arrived at a time 
and on a day which shall be ever sacred to 
me ! this coincidence makes me happy. May 
I live to keep that day with you again. 
'Tis Sunday, and instead of going to fetch 
you, I am writing to you these few lines with 
the little pen which I stole from you. Here 
comes good Herr Rath, 1 with whom I can 
talk of you, and wish that our wishes might, 
for once be fulfilled. 

" I have seen Herr Herder again ; what a 
worthy man he is, and speaks as he writes. 
We showed him your bust, which pleases your 
friend much. I am content with the likeness. 
When I wanted to pay Herr Trippel 2 my debt, 
he said you had paid him, consequently I 
have to thank you infinitely for such a dear 
and precious present. I spend many moments 

1 Rieffenstein. 

2 Trippel, the sculptor, executed a marble bust of the 
poet for the Prince of Waldeck. 

236 Angelica Rauffmann. 

in the day looking at it. I am at present 
occupied with ' Troilus and Cressida ' from 
Shakespeare. It is somewhat heavy, the 
subject in itself calls out very little imagi- 
nation ; nevertheless, I will do all that is_ 
possible to overcome the difficulties. 1 The 
drawing-room is now arranged : ' Daniele da 
Volterra' in his case is placed where the 
great architectural picture of Zucchi's used to 
hang. This same picture-frame, instead of the 
doors of the case, preserves and encloses the 
treasure, and serves as before to the decora- 
tion of the salon — in the middle of which 
1 Mercury ' is well placed for light. The large 
table has been made smaller, so as to give 
more space, and the ' Daniele da Volterra' can 
be better seen in the distance. Herr Herder 
has not seen the picture nor our little collec- 
tion, for he came in the evening, accompanied 
by Herr Dalberg. The garden has pro- 
duced nothing wonderful this year, not a 
single monstrum. The dear pine grows, 

1 Troilus was much the best ; Ulysses and Thersites 
have the usual Greek profiles ; Cressida is firmly drawn 
and fills the picture well. 

Middle Age. 237 

I have not transplanted it. You would 
laugh over my anxiety when the sky is 
darkened with clouds and there are signs 
of a storm. I run into the garden and 
place the young plant under cover for fear it 
may be injured; all the rest I leave to their 
fate. 1 

" Pardon, dear friend, the length of this 
letter, and the disorder with which it is 
written. You know it is well meant. Fare- 
well, my dear friend, forget me not. To 
know you live content is my dearest wish. 

"A. K. Z. 

" I hear ' Tasso ' has advanced very far 
towards completion, as also another work of 
which you have said nothing to me. I 

1 Goethe says, " I planted the pine cutting from the 
Botanical Gardens ; it had begun to grow, and was a 
miniature of a future tree. It grew and flourished for 
many years in Angelica's garden. It reached a respect- 
able height, as I heard with much content from many 
friends who visited the garden, of which I retained so 
perfect a recollection as to be able to represent to myself 
the little tree ; but, alas ! after the death of my much- 
valued friend, new people entered into possession, who 
considered the pine detrimental to their flower-beds, and 
the latest visitors to Rome have brought me news that 
no trace of its existence remains," 


8 Angelica Kauffmann. 

remember the happy time when you read 
to us your manuscript ; those days will 
never, I fear, come again ; the very thought 
fills me with sadness." 

In these words there is a slight touch of 
reproach, or as if a foreboding had come to 
Angelica that a change had come over the 
ever-changing spirit of the poet ; his whole 
thoughts, indeed, were now concentrated 
on the journey of the duchess-dowager to 

Anna Amalie, a princess of Brunswick 
Wolfenbiittel, and the widow of Duke Ernest 
II. of Weimar, was a woman of extraordinary 
gifts, great cleverness, and brilliant qualities. 
She patronized art generously, was the 
friend of Wieland, Goethe, Herder, and from 
her visit to Rome great things for Weimar 
were expected ; the expectations were ful- 
filled. She came accompanied by a large suite, 
and during her two years' residence in Italy 
gathered round her all who were remarkable 
for gifts of science and wit. Her circle in- 
cluded the Pope, cardinals, and bishops, foreign 
ambassadors, Italian nobles, savants, artists 

Middle Age. 239 

and musicians ; and there was a refreshing air 
of freedom and absence of court etiquette 
which completed the charm of this pleasant 
society. During her stay in Rome, Angelica 
seems to have gradually recovered her 
serenity. Drawn together by their common 
admiration for Goethe and their love of art, 
the two women became dear friends. In 
one of his first letters to the duchess, Goethe 
strikes the key-note of this friendship : " You 
have seen Mad. Angelica by this time, and 
this excellent woman must from many differ- 
ent points be interesting to you ; " and the 
duchess immediately responds : "1 go to 
Angelica as often as I can, and she comes 
to me ; she is in every way eine herzliebe 
frau} Next Friday I am to sit to her for 
my portrait, certainly not as a model, but I 
like to have something of hers. Old Zucchi 
has given me some of his drawings." 

The first letter Angelica writes after 
the duchess's arrival is in a joyous tone. 

1 A lovable woman. 

240 Angelica Kauffmann. 

It begins : " Do you know, my dear friend, 
that I am coming to Weimar ; have you ever 
dreamt of such a thing? Her excellency 
the duchess has invited, in the most cordial 
manner, good Rath Rieffenstein, Zucchi and 
me to either accompany her back or to 
follow her. Fraulein von Gochhausen l and 
Herder were present and added their en- 
ireaties. Was it possible to refuse such a 
gracious proposal ? The promise has been 
given if circumstances permit. Blessed 
Weimar, which since it has given me the joy 
of knowing you, I have so often envied, 
where my thoughts fly so constantly, shall I 
really see it and see you there ? Oh, most 
beautiful dream, and still I hope that even 
before this journey comes off we may see you 
in Rome. That the duchess has shown 
herself so gracious to me, I have to thank 
you, my best and dear friend. 

"This gracious princess honours me 

with a visit constantly, and she allows me to 

go to her. We often speak of you, and then 

what joy fills my soul. A few evenings ago 

1 The lady-in-waiting to the Duchess, 

Middle Age. 241 

her Excellency visited the museum, attended 
by her whole suite, that is, Herr baron 
von Dalberg, Frau von Seckendorff, Herr 
Herder, etc. Zucchi and I had the honour 
of accompanying them. It was quite a 
festival for me. Nevertheless there was 
something wanting to make me perfectly 
content. Your name was repeated in the hall 
of the Muses, but I looked about me and 
only saw you in spirit. When we all stood 
before the Apollo, some one proposed that 
we should offer a prayer to the god. Herr 
Herder said we should each ask for some- 
thing. My prayer to Apollo was that he 
would inspire you to come to Rome. Oh 
that my wish may be granted ; but it must 
be before I go to Weimar. 

"The duchess's circle is exceedingly 
pleasant, and what a kindly dear creature 
is Fraulein von Gochhausen. So intel- 
ligent and so lively, and she does everything 
so well. The princess seems quite satisfied. 
The weather is beautiful ; everything looks 
to the best advantage. Madame von 
Seckendorff desires to be remembered to 


24- Angelica Kauffmann. 

you. I am glad that you like the title page. 
Herr Rath is sending the design, perhaps 
to-morrow, with other things to you. I hear 
much in praise of your ' Tasso.' I am 
rejoicing over the hope you have given me, 
that you may still read it to me. It is a 
consolation for much . May Apollo strengthen 
you in this good purpose. I thank you 
meanwhile for having thought of me. 

" Zucchi and I often talk of you, but alas ! 
that is not the same as being with you. Ah, 
the happy time ; the dear Sundays which I 
will think of so long as I live. Her Excellency 
the duchess seems to wish that I should 
paint her portrait. Next week I shall have 
the honour to commence it. I hope my 
work will please. I have just finished the 
two Shakesperian pictures. 1 A mass of 
things are waiting for me to begin. One 
after the other they will gradually get 
finished. It is all well so long as health 
lasts ; but on that score I cannot complain 

1 For Boydell's Shakespeare. 

Middle Age. 243 

at present. I am anxious about you, and 
trust you take care of yourself. 

" The other day I chanced on a good 
specimen of an Intaglio. It is surely a 
Tolomeo cut in Hintzint, which I rather 
fancy. I send you an impression, which I 
hope may reach safely. The stone is very 
fine, and cut in a masterly manner in my 
judgment, only I have a doubt on account of 
the subject, because under the four antiques 
there seems to be the head of a philosopher. 
A word from you will settle this matter and 
be a guide for me in the future. 

" I am glad that you like your present 
situation, and that you have time to prosecute 
your work. May you live always happy 
and content, and if you have an idle moment 
think of me. Farewell, best of friends. 

"A. K." 

In several of the duchess's letters to 
Goethe there is most kind mention of 
Angelica. " I have sat twice," she says, " to 
Angelica, and the picture promises to be 
a splendid success. The last time I sat 
r 2 

244 Angelica Kauffmann. 

Herder read for us your poems. The good 
Angelica was so inspired, that the portrait 
seemed to grow under her fingers." And 
again Herder writes : " Angelica is a lovely 
Madonna ; only she lives in herself and feeds 
upon her own branches." Fraulein von 
Gochhausen also gives her meed of praise : 
" Angelica has such a beautiful soul, there 
are few like her, and out of love for her one 
grows better when near her. She loves the 
duchess, and yesterday she wept tears of 
sorrow at the thought that our quiet evenings 
were over. We cheer her up with talking 
of her visit to Weimar, and so scatter the 
ghost of melancholy which hangs about a 

The pleasant party had now left Rome 
for Naples, and Angelica writes sadly to 
Goethe : — 

" Rome, 24th January, 1789. 

" Her Excellency is very well satisfied 
with Naples. I had letters yesterday from 
our good friend, Rieffenstein, who has taken 
for the duchess the villa which was next 

Middle Age. 245 

our little garden ; you remember it ? Who 
would have thought that we should have 
visited that lovely spot together ? Herr 
Herder is also to live there. And why not 
you ? Why do you keep away from Rome ? 

" Her Excellency is so well, I trust we 
may soon have her back. In the meantime 
we are making cur preparations for the 
journey to Weimar. You think it is only 
a joke, this visit ; but it is so much in my 
thoughts that I am constantly dreaming of 

"You must have nearly finished your 
1 Tasso ' by this time. I am longing for and 
rejoicing over the appearance of this work. 
I have finished my two l Shakespeare pictures 
and several other bagatelles. The ' Achilles ' 
comes next, a fearful undertaking. I have 
made a small sketch of the design, 2 and with 
thought, time, and trouble I do not despair 
of the result. 

1 Horace Walpole did not consider any painter equal 
to the work. " His commentators have not been more 
inadequate," he said ; adding " Lord help Alderman 
Boydelland the R.A. !" 

8 For the Empress Catherine of Russia. 

246 Angelica Kauffmann. 

"The portrait of her Excellency is already 
far advanced, it will be nearly ready by 
the time she returns from Naples. She 
is expected in the middle of the next 

The duchess did return to Rome, and 
there were more sittings for the portrait. 
Amalie wrote privately to Goethe that 
" Angelica was a noble, charming woman, 
but not an artist, . . . and more parties to 
Frascati, Albano, and to old curiosity shops, 
looking for fossils and stones, until," writes 
the sprightly Fraulein Gochhausen, " I feel 
like a fool, but Angelica's greater intellect 
takes pleasure in all that concerns art, and 
she elevates our minds and makes us enjoy, 
so far as we are capable of doing, the 

But this, too, came to an end. 

On the 23rd May, 1789, Angelica writes 
to Goethe that his friends have left Rome 

" I must acknowledge," she writes, " that 
I was happy when I had so many of your 
friends near me. We spoke so constantly 

Middle Age. 247 

of you, and her Highness showed herself 
always so extremely gracious towards me ; 
also her suite were full of kindness. 

"On the 19th her Excellency left for 
Naples to spend the summer. It seems to 
me now that I have been in a dream of 
pleasant companionship, and have just awoke 
to resume my solitary life again. Also the 
good, excellent Herder is gone. This day 
fortnight I spent with the Respectable 
Society at Tivoli at the Villa d'Este ; under 
the great cypress trees Herder read to us the 
portion of ' Tasso ' which you have sent. 
I cannot tell you with what pleasure / 
listened. I think of all your beautiful works 
it is the most beautiful. Who can read such 
a masterpiece and not long to hear the rest ? 
Herr Herder gave me the manuscript, for 
which I thank you warmly. 

" For a long time I have been intending 
to write and thank you for the eight volumes l 
of your works which you sent me. I delayed 

1 Goethe presented her with a splendidly bound edition 
of all his works, " that she might renew her acquaintance 
with her native language." That she had forgotten how 
to spell in German is evident in her letters to him. 

248 Angelica Kauffjnann. 

because I feared you would say I wrote too 
often. Silence, too, is not forgetfulness. 
How could / forget a friend whom I honour 
so much as I do you, and shall ever continue 
to honour so long as I live ? My industry is 
much as usual ; but who is so industrious as 
you are ? the research, and the writing itself 
is far more useful than mere handiwork. It 
is good to cultivate all knowledge, and who 
does that — does well. Continue to enjoy 
yourself in every way that can make you 
happy. I wish I could write to you of art or 
of artists or of any other agreeable subject. 
It had been my intention to make amends 
for my silence by a long letter, but the 
absence of my good friends makes me feel 
so sad, that I can only say that I live and 
hope to live in your memory as you do in 
mine, where your remembrance will always 
and for ever be dear. 

"A. K. Z." 

The Duchess Amalie seems to have con- 
ceived quite as tender a friendship for 
Angelica as the impressionable artist had 

Middle Age. 249 

for her Durchlaucht. In September we find 
her writing the following little note : — 

" An Madame Angelica. 
" Napel, den 7th September, 1789. 

" The love and friendship which I feel for 
you, dear Angelica, makes me confident that 
you will forgive my disturbing your occupa- 
tions with this letter, but it is intolerable to 
be so long without hearing from you. How 
is your health, my dear little woman ? and are 
you always busy — always at your easel ? Ah, 
come to Naples — come to us. Tell dear old 
Zucchi to bring you ; and put before him, in 
your own sweet way, what splendid designs 
and beautiful new ideas he will find here. 
Goethe is going to send you his ' Tasso.' 
Perhaps you have it already. When you 
read it think of the little room in the 
Villa d'Este — there one could enjoy it 

'' I will no longer take up your time, which 
is so much better employed at your delightful 
art ; so farewell, dearest, best of little women ; 
think of me often as I do of you. 

"Your Amalie. 

250 Angelica Kauffmann. 

" Give my remembrances to Herr Zucchi 
and Herr Rieffenstein." 

The moment of the final parting was close 
at hand, Herder had already returned to 
Weimar. Angelica, writing to Goethe on 
1 st August, says : — 

"You have your worthy, excellent Herr 
Herder with you again. Greet him warmly 
from me. Oh, that for once I could see you 
all together, and spend the evening with you. 
Rome, now that I am losing all my friends, 
is fast becoming a desert. Paintings and 
statues are beautiful to look at, but to 
live surrounded by true friends is better : 
these are thoughts I must not dwell on — 
they disturb my rest, and sadden my heart. 
I try to occupy myself as much as possible, so 
that the hours may slip away unnoticed until 
a better time comes. 

"The duchess is remaining so long in 
Naples, that she will have only a short time 
here. The happy hours I have spent in her 
company belong to those memories which can 
never be forgotten by me. I am longing for 

Middle Age. 2 5 1 

the arrival of your ' Tasso,' and rejoice in 
anticipation over such a splendid work. 

" May you be always well and happy, and 
grant me sometimes the happiness of a few 
lines. The pine is in full growth, so also the 
other plants which you brought out of the 
Botanical Garden. Once more I recom- 
mend myself to you, my honoured friend, 
and remain, as always, with great esteem, 

"A " 

There is a ring in these words of parting, 
The old time has passed away, and a new and 
a colder season has set in. The key to this 
is to be found in the fact that Goethe was 
now preparing to come to Italy. Under the 
orders of his patron, the Duke of Weimar, he 
was to have the honour of conducting the 
Duchess Amalie on her return journey. What 
more natural than that he should grasp such 
an opportunity to revisit Rome and his dear 
friends there? Strangely enough the capri- 
cious poet made it a condition of undertaking 
the journey, that he should not be asked 
to proceed further than Venice, where he 

252 Angelica Kaujfmann. 

awaited the princess. His letters to Herder 
show how much against the grain the whole 
journey was — he was longing to be back in 
Weimar, to his newly-made home there. 
The entreaties of his friends in Rome not to 
remain at such a tantalizing distance he 
totally disregarded — he, who only a year 
before, at Easter-time, could hardly restrain 
his longing to be in the holy city. In Venice 
he led a solitary, almost hermit-like, life, the 
only person in whose society he took any 
pleasure being Angelica's brother-in-law, 
Joseph Zucchi. The duchess joined him in 
Venice, May, 1790, and on June 25th she 
writes to Angelica of her safe arrival at 

" From the Duchess Amalie von Weimar. 

" I have been intending and wishing, for a 
long time, dear Angelica, to give you news 
of myself, but my journey, and my unsettled 
life, up to the present, prevented my doing 
so. Now that I am again quiet, my first 
thought is to tell you, best of women, of my 
safe arrival in my own home. I am once 

Middle Age. 253 

more amongst my own good people, whom I 
love, and who love me ; still, Italy, enchant- 
ing Italy, holds me so firmly that as yet I 
cannot feel happy or content. Your portrait, 
dear Angelica, which I found here is an 
epoch for Weimar. I am afraid of offending 
your modesty, else I would tell you of the 
praises it receives, and how everyone marvels 
at your astonishing skill. Nothing more 
perfect has ever been seen here. 1 Goethe will 
write to you of it himself. To me it is a real 
blessing as a loving remembrance of you, the 
best and most delightful souvenir of those 
happy days which I spent with you in 
beautiful Rome. Think of me sometimes 
as amongst those who love you. 

" Your sincere friend, 
" Amalie.' 
" P.S. — Mille salute to Signor Zucchi and 
the Abbate Spina." 

In connection with this portrait, and as a 
proof of the fugitive nature of the brilliant 
colours Angelica used, which in many 

1 She wrote to Goethe that Angelica was a noble 
woman, but not an artist. See page 246. 

254 Angelica Kauffmann, 

instances faded so rapidly, an extract from 
one of Goethe's letters is given here. The 

whole letter, in proper chronological order, 

finds a place later on : — 

" Weimar, i 797. 

"The excellent likeness which you painted 
oi our duchess, which 1 believe is t<> be 
placed in .1 new summer palace just built l>y 
the duke, has somewhat changed its appear- 
ance, the cause, I imagine, being that the 
varnish has either flown <>r sunk into the 
picture, so that the brightness of the colour- 
ing ami the harmony of the whole is 
manifestly injured. It will be easy, by means 
of re-varnishing, to restore the portrait to its 
original freshness, but I am afraid lest a 
wrong varnish ignorantly applied might do 
more harm than good, and irretrievably ruin 
the work. Will you, therefore, have the 
kindness to tell me what varnish I should 
use, and what medium 1 should employ to 
secure it ? " 

Another letter from Wieland, one of 
Germany's most celebrated poets, may also 

Mid'dle Age. 255 

find place here, although it bears date some 
four years later ; it is written in the very 
highest strain of compliment : — 

" A very welcome visit which my gracious 
duchess received from our agreeable country- 
man, Herr Consul Haigelin, from Naples, 
has procured me the long-wished-for oppor- 
tunity of assuring the artist of all the graces 
of my entire devotion to her, a devotion which 
I may say is ever on the increase, and which 
I find it almost impossible to express, every 
glance I give to her immortal works re- 
newing my admiration." 1 

This is very well for a beginning, but soon 
Wieland is divided between his want of 
capacity to express his feelings and a fear that, 
in so doing, he might be supposed to consider 
his voice of any importance to one at whose 
feet has been laid the applause of Europe ; 
" And, Angelica," he goes on, " it is this fear 
which has kept me so long silent, and has 
stayed the most ardent wish of my heart. 
Ah ! when our beloved duchess returned 

1 This letter was sent to me by Professor von Geb- 
hardt, King's Library, Berlin. 

256 Angelica Kauffmann. 

from Italy and told me that I was not so un- 
known as I had imagined, and that you would 
receive a letter from me (nay, even grant a 
request, the purport of which was known to 
her Grace), why was it then, by what accident 
did it happen, that I, at that very moment 
did not write to you ? when, too, I had just 
seen your incomparable likeness of our 
duchess, which has been painted by the hand 
of Apelles, which has conveyed to the canvas 
the soul which animates that lovely form ? 
This splendid apotheosis of one so good 
and so artistic as our duchess, is likewise a 
standing memorial of the cultivated taste 
of her whose work it is. This portrait 
has, for the last two years, afforded me the 
highest enjoyment the human mind is capable 
of, the enjoyment of perfection ; and no man 
of feeling can consider it without being pene- 
trated with reverence for Amalie and love 
for Angelica — and nevertheless I have been 
for two years dumb, why ? It is a peculiar 
feeling, and difficult to express the process 
that has gone on in my mind. It was no 
caprice that kept me silent, but a deep-rooted 

Middle Age. 257 

conviction that I could only express to 
Angelica the feelings that filled my heart 
and mind, in the same language in which she 
spoke to me, through her works. She spoke 
to my mind and heart. I should paint, and 
paint like Angelica, to convey to her what 
my feelings in her regard are, and how 
I beg of the invisible powers that they 
may grant her every blessing and happi- 

"With such thoughts and feelings, nothing 
could be more natural than the wish to have 
some share in the friendship of an artist, who, 
through the properties of her mind and heart, 
and if possible, even more through her extra- 
ordinary talents, is considered one of the 
greatest ornaments of her sex and of the 
century in which she lives. 

" But am I not a little indiscreet, dear 
Angelica, and having gone so far may I go 
further, and, concluding you have granted the 
first of my wishes, may I now venture on one 
still bolder, which, I may add, in my own 
eyes seems pardonable enough ? for why 
should not a man, who for forty years has 


258 Angelica Kauffmann. 

aimed at living in future ages through his 
work, why should such a one not desire 
ardently to be associated with Angelica 
Kauffmann ; she who, not alone by her 
own contemporaries, is honoured, but shall be 
reverenced by posterity ? And now for my 
request. Goschen, of Leipzig, is bringing 
out a new edition of my works. Of these 
' Oberon,' in the judgment of the public, in 
which my own coincides, is the one least un- 
worthy of immortality. It surely must attain 
this high place if Angelica deigns, with her 
divine pencil, to illustrate one or two of the 
most striking - scenes. To me this would be 
the most perfect, the truest reward. 

" We flatter ourselves with the hope of 
that which we desire most ardently. I there- 
fore make bold to present to you, by Herr 
Haigelin, a copy of my 'Oberon.' In the 
before-mentioned collection of my works this 
will appear in November, 1793. Herr Lips, 
whom you have known in Rome, charges 
himself with the task of producing the illus- 

" This page is full and your patience is 

Middle Age. 259 

exhausted. I therefore conclude with the 
assurance that the sentiments of reverence I 
entertain for you will cease only with my 
life, and when that shall cease will follow me 
in a better world. 

"C. M. Wieland.' 

S 2 



In a pleasant paper upon biography, lately 
written, the question is asked, " How far is a 
biographer justified in exhibiting the frailties 
and defects of the subject of the memoir ? " 
The answer is, " The whole man or woman, 
or none at all." And this even at the risk 
of dethroning a popular hero such as was 
Carlyle. If this principle is allowed (and we 
must acknowledge it to be a right one), it is 
perfectly justifiable to lay bare to the reader 
the smaller imperfections, which can hardly 
be called frailties, which made part of the 
really excellent character of Angelica ; one 
of these being her exceeding vanity which in- 
clined her to accept homage wherever and 
however it was offered, together with the 

Middle Age. 261 

feminine weakness of being all things to all 
men. Hence we find from Herder's letters 
to his wife l that after Goethe's departure 
from Rome, a friendship, on precisely the 
same half-sentimental, half-platonic lines, grew 
up between himself and Angelica ; and of 
this friendship no word is spoken by her in 
her letters to Goethe, laid before the reader 
in the last chapter. This reticence on her 
part will easily be understood by her own 
sex, but it nevertheless implies a want of 
sincerity. Herder, on the other hand, is 
wonderfully frank in the confession of his 
feelings in regard to her, especially when 
we take into consideration the fact that his 
confidante was his wife, who could hardly 
have relished his devotion to another than 
herself. For the rest the letters are interest- 
ing, as showing the singular influence 
Angelica exerted over men's minds, even at 
an age when such influence is supposed to 
cease ; and likewise as giving an insight into 

1 Caroline Flachsland. Her correspondence with 
Herder before her marriage is a most charming contri- 
bution to literature. 

262 Angelica Kauffmann. 

her life, adding a testimony to that of 
Goethe that she was overtasked to provide 
money for the household. Zucchi was un- 
doubtedly avaricious, as the future disclosed. 
He was saving his own money and spend- 
ing hers, hardly earned as it was. " Der 
alte Zucchi ist geizig," x writes the Duchess 
Amalie in one of her letters, and Herder 
alludes several times to her being a victim 
sacrificed in every way to the greed of her 
father and husband. 

It will be remembered that the German 
philosopher arrived in Rome after Goethe 
had left it. He came in the company of 
Baron von Dalberg and Frau von Secken- 
dorff. He travelled at the charges of the 
baron, and the story of his many discomforts 
and his final rupture with his friend is pleasant 
to read. One of his first visits was paid to 
Angelica, and he gives his impressions of 
her in a letter to his wife : — 

" September 21st. 
" Rome. 

" I have just been to Angelica ; she is a 
1 " Old Zucchi is stingy." 

Middle Age. 263 

delicate, tender soul, artistic to her finger 
tips, extraordinarily simple, ivithout any 
bodily charm, but extremely interesting. 
Her principal attraction is her simplicity 
and extreme purity ; she reminds me of a 
Madonna, or a little dove. Alas ! for the 
sake of art and the world generally, she is 
growing old. She lives retired in an ideal 
world in which the little birds and the flowers 
dwell. Poor old Zucchi is a good sort of 
man in his own way ; he resembles a Vene- 
tian nobleman in a comedy." 

By-and-by he grows more eloquent : — 
" These last few weeks have been purified 
and brightened by my friendship with 
Angelica. Oh ! what torments might I have 
spared myself had I only known earlier this 
noble creature, who lives shy and retired as 
a heavenly being. Since my return from 
Naples, I have drawn nearer to her, and she 
is dearer to me than all in Rome. I am so 
happy with her ; she on her side regards me 
with the deepest reverence, while of thee she 
speaks tenderly and with a certain timidity. 
She looks upon thee as one of the happiest oj 

264 Angelica Kauffmann. 

women. The impression this gifted creature 
has made upon my mind is indelible ; it will 
last my whole life, for she is utterly devoid of 
envy, free from vanity, and incapable of in- 
sincerity. She knows not what meanness is, 
and, although she is perhaps the most culti- 
vated woman in Europe, is full of the sweetest 
humility and the most angelic innocence. I 
tell thee all this, my own, because I know 
that from thee I need hide nothing, and be- 
cause thou wilt rejoice with me that after my 
bitter months of solitude, I have found this 
pearl, or rather lily, which heaven has vouch- 
safed to me as a blessing and reward. It is 
in this light that I regard her." 

Madame Herder was no doubt an amiable 
woman and an excellent wife ; her letters 
prove this; but it must be acknowledged she 
was sorely tried as post after post brought 
her rhapsodies of this sort over the perfection 
of another woman. Here is another follow- 
ing close on the last : — 

" Rome, — 14th. 

" Angelica sends thee a tender souvenir — it 

Middle Age. 265 

came on Easter Day ; a little ring, which I am 
to put on thy finger, and with it I now seal 
this letter. On this side of the Alps I may 
look on it as mine own, and on my return 
give it to thee from thy sister. No one 
knows of this little present except the good 
Rieffenstein, who ordered it for her. 1 It is, 
indeed, a faithful symbol of her pure tender 
soul, for truly Friendship and Love are one. 
So she represents her little soul (see/chen) as 
a tiny sparrow resting upon a branch of 
myrtle, a type that our union shall exist 
absent or present. Do not say anything of 
this to anyone, but take the remembrance as 
it is meant, in good part. A purer, more 
exquisite creature does not exist on earth. 
Like to a pious victim, she has all her life 
been sacrificed to her art, for it she has lived 
and still lives ; now she is nearly fifty years 
old, and it is still the same. She loves me 
with a warm affection, and I love and honour 
her as a saint. Do not, however, believe, 
my dearest wife, that my affection for her 
would keep me one day longer in Rome than 
1 Rieffenstein is again enacting the part of Mercury ! 

266 Angelica Kauffmann. 

it is right for me to remain. Angelica would 
be the first to advise me to go, if she saw me 
inclined to stay, for, with all her tenderness, 
she has a strong and almost masculine mind. 
Therefore, it is that I reckon so strongly 
upon her sympathy, and see such a wonder- 
ful dispensation in this friendship. I regard 
it as the germ of far more in the future, and 
neither time nor absence shall interrupt it. 
It is, I think, a reward for my undertaking 
this journey, a panacea for all I have under- 
gone, and thou also, my dearest, must look 
upon it from this point of view. The birth 
of this friendship has awakened in me a tardy 
prudence and a resolution to live henceforth 
for thee and my dear ones, for now I feel more 
strengthened in good than I have ever been." 
In a letter dated the 20th April, he makes 
allusions to her lonely life unblessed by chil- 
dren, and adds : " But she is, indeed, an angel 
of a woman, and her goodness sets the 
balance right between me and others of her 
sex, who have done me bad turns. She has 
the activity of a man, and has done more 
than fifty men would have done in the time. 

Middle Age. 267 

In goodness of heart she is a celestial being. 
I gave her thy kiss as it stood in thy letter, 
without transferring it to her lips. Once I 
did kiss her on the forehead, and once she 
unexpectedly seized my hand and would 
press it to her lips. There, that is all 
between us ! I thank my God that He made 
me to know this pure soul, and that through 
her I carry away one pleasant memory from 
Rome. She is with us constantly, sometimes 
with the duchess, who loves her on account 
of her great modesty. I am with her every 
moment I can spare. She came unexpectedly 
to Frascati, and I do not know if she will 
also come to Tivoli. 

"Thou must love Angelica for my sake, 
for she deserves it, the strangely tender, 
loving soul j she knows thee, and we speak 
of thee often, and then she says softly she 
esteems thee to be very happy. The story 
which you heard from Frau von Stein 1 is 
false, although I myself do not know the 

1 Frau von Stein had told Madame Herder that in 
her youth Angelica had married a villain who thought 
she was rich, and had run away with her money and 

268 Angelica Kauffmann. 

exact circumstances of the true story. Once 
she began to tell it to me, but her grief at 
the recollection would not let her finish. 
Take the letter she sends thee kindly ; she is 
not strong in words, but in deeds a most 
honest soul. English and Italian she speaks 
and writes beautifully, German is to her 
almost a strange language. 1 Her best 
wishes accompany me when I go, and her 
friendship for us both will last as long as we 
live. This is the confession of my heart's 
feelings while in Rome, written only for thee, 
for I must and always shall write to thee 
what fills my heart." 

This ingenuous confession of his heart's 
feeling, together with the kissing passages, 
did not quite please Madame Herder. She 
writes to her husband that she feels like 
Ariadne deserted by Theseus, and urges his 
return to his home and family. Herder's 
answer is an amusing effort to calm any little 
jealousy that may have arisen in his wife's 
mind, and impress upon her Angelica's friend- 
ship for her. 

1 Her letters to Goethe are full of mistakes in spelling. 

Middle Age. 269 

" I count Angelica amongst my true 
friends. She in years is much older than I 
am, and she is more a spiritual than a cor- 
poreal being. She is, however, such a true 
heart, so few like her, and through hearing 
constantly of thee from me, she loves thee 
also. So in every way she is worthy of 
being joined to us by a close bond of friend- 
ship. She often says to me that the whole 
happiness of her life depends upon the con- 
tinuance of this bond ; that she would wish 
to die now, since she has (and truly only for 
such a short time) seen and known me ; it is 
to her as a dream. I write to thee, my 
dearest, everything, because it is my habit so 
to do. Thou knowest that these words of 
hers do not make me vain, but rather humble. 
I look upon the friendship of this dear and 
noble woman as a gift that Heaven has sent 
me, which has turned me from all else, and 
in a theoretic manner has elevated my 
thoughts and improved my whole being, for 
she charms the mind, purifies and softens it, 
and is a good tender creature. Do love her 
for my sake, dearest ; she is so good, and her 

270 Angelica Kauffmann. 

life is not happy. For the remainder of our 
poor lives we shall do all things to please this 
willing victim to art. She sends you a 
thousand greetings. I told her yesterday 
when I saw her for a few moments, that this 
day would be the anniversary of our wedding- 
day, and so, if it be possible, I am to go to 
her this evening, and we will bear you and 
the children in remembrance." 

In the postscript to this same letter, he 
adds the following : — 

"When I went this evening to Angelica, 
she with infinite grace slipped upon my 
finger a little gold chain as a remembrance 
of to-day ; she said it was for us both. She 
is in every way a sweet, angelic and pure 
woman. Thou must promise an eternal 
friendship to her, and with me render thanks 
to Heaven who has given her to me to know 
and to love." 

On the 9th May, Herder writes to his 
Caroline an account of an expedition to 
Tivoli, to which Madame Angelica came un- 

1 This was the party to Tivoli already mentioned in 
Angelica's letter to Goethe. 

Middle Age. 271 

" Her silent, modest grace," he says, 
"gives the tone to the company she is 
amongst ; like to a chord of music she is in 
harmony with all. Oh, what an exquisite 
nature is hers — a nature like to thine own, 
my dear one ; like thee, she makes no claim 
upon our admiration, but is full of sympathy 
and tender feeling for others. I leave Rome 
content, now that I have been to Tivoli." 

Then he goes on about Caroline's journey 
to Carlsbad, and concludes with : — 

" My best and dearest, do not constrain 
thyself, if thou would prefer to remain at 
home. Thou hast received by this time my 
letter, and wilt know how best to decide. It 
was thy remark as to being ' Ariadne ' 
which gave rise to the idea in my mind. 
But fear not. Where could I go but to thee ? 
Everything draws me to thee, and thou 
wilt no longer find me rough and fierce, 
but gentle, tender, forbearing. Oh, I have 
learned, if I never knew it before, what I 
have in thee. Also fear nothing from the 
Angelica friendship. She is the best woman 
in the world ; the most thoroughly honest ; 
besides, her mind and mine are turned to 

272 Angelica Kauffmann, 

other things. As I have many times re- 
peated, she is truly modest ; she honours 
thee as a sort of divinity, and loves me in a 
spiritual manner. She greets thee affection- 
ately, and you can receive this greeting from 
my hand. She is in truth an angel. At 
Tivoli her silhouette was taken, which I shall 
send you in my next." 

His next is the last of this remarkable 
series of letters : — 

" 13th May, 1789. 

" Well then, in God's name, my trunk is 
packed. All is ready ; to-morrow I leave 
Rome for Pisa. I am well, and, all things 
considered, have had a time in Rome of 

which few strangers can boast. 


,( Angelica, who is dear and good beyond all 
expression, greets thee cordially, and sends 
thee her silhouette. Take it with feelings of 
love and kindness. The angel has made me 
during these last weeks inexpressibly happy. 
I would I had known her earlier ; the good, 
excellent, tender, beautiful soul. She likes 
me as much as I do her ; our friendship will 

Middle Age, 273 

grow stronger year by year, for it is founded 
upon the purest esteem and love. So too, 
must thou, if thou wilt please me, take her 
heartily to thy heart. Thou wilt do so when 
thou knowest her better, the tender, loving 
creature. The duchess esteems her highly ; 
so do all who come in contact with her, for 
she lives and acts as a beneficent beingr 
To-day I dine with her, and to-morrow we 
take our last drive together. May Heaven 
bless and preserve this sweet woman. Fare- 
well, my good soul, no longer to be a 
desolate Ariadne. Farewell ! think joyfully of 
my return. I am far happier than I deserve 
to be." 

Herder's hopes as to the continuance of 
this friendship do not seem to have been 
realized. Whether Madame Herder, as a 
wife sometimes does, put her foot down upon 
the intimacy founded upon the " purest lines 
of love and esteem," or whether Herder him- 
self, with the erratic nature of a genius, grew 
tired of his worship of this beneficent being, 
does not appear. The letters which he may 
have written shared the same fate as those 


274 Angelica Kauffmann. 

of Goethe. The one quoted in the next 
chapter is written in a cold strain, very unlike 
his former rapturous expressions. In his 
case it is evident that, contrary to the poet's 
idea, absence did not make his heart grow 
fonder. All through this curious correspond- 
ence of Herder's, allowance, however, must 
be made for the nature of the poet-philo- 
sopher, which was highly strung, sensitive 
and altogether Teutonic. His seelen senti- 
mentalitdt meant very little, certainly nothing 
dangerous ; neither can it be gainsaid that 
the friendship and admiration of such men as 
Herder and Goethe is a rare testimony to 
the worth and attractions of Angelica. 



The parting with her German friends had 
saddened Angelica, whose spirits were already 
depressed by the state of the political horizon. 
Already the first grumblings of the storm 
could be heard, which in a few years burst 
with such tremendous violence over the 
whole continent of Europe, uprooting in its 
course all old institutions, and wrecking social 

No thinking mind could contemplate, 
without grave fears for the future, the 
power of the revolutionary party, which 
was increasing every day in violence, and 
would end in general chaos. Angelica was 
especially concerned for her beloved art. 
She feared the time was at hand when all 
that was refined would be dragged down and 
T 2 

276 Angelica Kanffmann, 

degraded. As the years went on this fear 
strengthened, as the dangers which had 
only existed in the imagination of the more 
thoughtful became sickening realities. It 
was fortunate for Angelica that her work, 
which was ever on the increase, gave her so 
much occupation, that her mind could not 
dwell on the horrors every day occurring, 
which filled her tender heart with pain. 

So far, Angelica had suffered from no 
diminution of income. In the earlier portion 
of the social revolution, the area was confined 
to France, the way to Italy remaining open. 
Travellers, especially the English, continued to 
flood Rome, and to give large orders to the 
artists. In 1790 the Miss Berrys and their 
father travelled all through Italy, and in 1 791 
there came to Rome the lovely Lady 
Hamilton, Emma Lyon, whose story is 
stranger than that of any fiction, not the 
least strange portion being the infatuation of 
her doting husband, who believed in her to 
the end. Madame le Brun, in her amusing 
reminiscences, tells a characteristic trait of 
this " refined" 1 gentleman, representative 

Last Years. 277 

of his gracious Majesty of England. 
Nearly all the portraits of his beautiful 
Emma were not so much proofs of his 
affection and admiration as commercial spe- 
culations, as he sold them to her dif- 
ferent admirers at a far higher price than 
he gave for them ; and when Madame le 
Brun made him a present of a beautiful 
" Bacchante," for which Lady Hamilton had 
sat as model, he sold this likewise to the 
Due de Bracas. 

Angelica painted the lovely Emma, in 
a half-length, as the " Comic Muse " ; 1 not a 
happy selection, considering it would have to 
run the gauntlet of comparison with Romney's 
exquisite production of the same subject. 
The picture was not successful, and was the 
cause of a quarrel between her and the cele- 
brated Italian engraver, Wilhelm Morghen — 
who, in his reproduction, changed some 
portion of the original, which annoyed 
Angelica so much that she would not allow 
her name to be put to it as the artist. She 
was seldom known to show so much irrita- 

1 She painted Lady Hamilton twice as a Bacchante. 

278 Angelica Kauffmann. 

tion as at this liberty being taken with her 
work, one which had never been attempted 
by such engravers as Bartolozzi, Schiavonetti, 
or others. On another occasion, Raphael 
Morghen, brother to Wilhelm, took a greater 
liberty. In engraving the portrait of a gentle- 
man after one of her pictures, he altered, or, 
according to his idea, improved upon it, by 
adding to the figure in length. Angelica, 
indignant at such audacity, made an addition 
not much to his satisfaction. She wrote at 
the foot of the portrait : — 

" Non e di Angelica Kauffmann." 

There was no doubt the artist had justifi- 
cation for her anger. The painter looks upon 
the engraver as the author does upon the 
translator of his book, who should make 
a faithful version, and take no liberties with 
the text. Two large pictures for the 
Duchess of Courland formed part of the 
work of these years : — " Telemachus and 
Mentor on the Island of Calypso," a very 
pleasing picture (this subject had already 
been painted for an English lady) ; the 

Last Years. 279 

other was " Adonis going to the Boar Hunt." 
Horace's words, x " Bacchum in remotis 
carmina rupibus Vidi docentem," gave her a 
subject for another picture. 2 For the Princess 
of Anhalt- Dessau (besides her portrait full 
size) she painted " Psyche swooning when the 
vessels were opened, in which were contained 
the ointment for beautifying Proserpina," 
also " Cupid drying the tears of Psyche with 
her own hair." Sternberg calls this a 
beautiful creation, but adds that the artist 
herself thought very little of it, believing 
herself called to the grand historical style, 
for which no painter of her time was less 

Sternberg as usual has truth in this 
criticism. He forgets, however, that the large 
canvases in which Angelica indulged were 
in a measure forced upon her, being mostly 
commissions, the purchaser wishing, it would 
seem, to take the worth of his money in 
quantity more than quality. That the classics 

1 From Horace's Ode to Bacchus, ii. 19. 
8 She also painted this year the infant children of the 
Duke and Duchess of Gloucester. 

280 Angelica Kanffmann. 

should have been ransacked for subjects 
appears to us, in this day, a strange fancy, 
when the tales of classical history have be- 
come almost obsolete. 

Our ancestors and their wives, and 
daughters too, were much better read in these 
matters than we are, learned as we think 
ourselves. (One notable lady, Mrs. Eliza- 
beth Carter, translated " Epictetus " ; Miss 
Berry wrote papers on " Xenophon " ; Mrs. 
Thrale composed odes in the style of Horace.) 
Most of them could have passed an examina- 
tion in classical history, whereas it would 
puzzle some of us to tell who was Germanicus, 
whose ashes were held in a golden vessel, 
and what was the nature of Papirius Praetex- 
tatus's little joke with his mother. 1 

1 Prsetextatus, being entreated by his mother to dis- 
close the secret of the Senate, told her, to escape impor- 
tunity, that it had been debated whether it would be 
more useful to the republic for the husband to have two 
wives, or the wife two husbands. The following day the 
Roman ladies went to the Senate to request that wives 
might have two husbands. The amazement of the 
Senate was great, when Prretextatus, being present, con- 
fessed his joke, and was much applauded for his in- 
genuity. — Roman History. 

There is a very charming engraving (very rare) of 

Last Years. 281 

Angelica's classicalities must therefore have 
been acceptable to her public, which accounts 
for her persistent choice of such subjects. 
Thus we have again : — " Agrippina holding 
the golden vessel which contained the ashes 
of Germanicus " ; " Pyrrhus," a very fine 
picture bought by Count Brown ; " Praxiteles 
presenting the little Statue of Cupid to 
Phryne " ; " Phryne seducing the Philosopher 
Xenocrates " ; and the " Nymph Egeria 
showing Numa Pompilius the splendours of 
the Celestial Shield " : the last three were 
in her best manner. " The Redeemer at 
the well, conversing with the Woman of 
Samaria," and "The Prophet Nathan re- 
proaching David," were half-lengths of in- 
different merit. 

In 1 79 1 she sent to the Royal Academy, 

" The Death of Alcestis," who purchases her 

husband's life with the sacrifice of her own, 

subject taken from the tragedy of Euripides ; 

also "Virgil reading the y^neid to Augustus 

the nine muses of Great Britain. It is an oval, with Mrs. 
Carter, Mrs. Barbauld, Mrs. Angelica Kauffmann, Mrs. 
Sheridan, Mrs. Lennox, Mrs. Macaulay, Mrs. More, 
Mrs. Montagu, and Mrs. Griffith. 

282 Angelica Kauffmann* 

and Octavia," for Prince J osepoff. She worked 
up the " Story of Venus advising the wife of 
Menelaus to love Paris," and the melancholy 
history of " Ovid's Banishment from Sulmo." 
From the Prince of Waldeck she received a 
commission to paint the first meeting of 
Hero with Leander ; amongst the Vestals 
who accompany Hero, she represented the 
affianced bride of the Prince. The Duke of 
Sussex, who was then in Rome, making love 
to the luckless Lady Augusta Murray, had 
his portrait painted in a Highland uniform 
with a large mastiff ; and for Lord Berwick, 
who also sat for his portrait, she painted 
two large pictures, " Euphrosyne wounded 
by Cupid," and " Ariadne mourning over 
the desertion of Theseus." " Euphrosyne" 
was exhibited in 1796 at the Royal 
Academy, and excited considerable admira- 
tion. '"Euphrosyne and Cupid,'" says an 
art critic of the day, Pasquin, "are designed 
by the pencil of fascination ; the Goddess of 
Love (Venus) is not so happily represented 
either in attitude or featural expression ; 
the extravagance of the Grecian model 

Last Years. 283 

is happily avoided throughout this picture, 
and the colouring is in the chastest Italian 

So far back as 1790 a new inmate had 
formed part of the Zucchi household. 
Antonio had up to this period taken upon 
himself all business arrangements, as well 
as the management of the establishment, 
Angelica's constant occupation affording her 
no time, as we have seen, for being what is 
called mistress of the house. So far this 
joint arrangement had worked excellently ; 
but now Antonio's health began to give way. 
For a long time one of his hands had been 
troubled by a paralytic affection, so that he 
found it difficult to paint, although he tried 
to do so on a peculiarly constructed table. 
The state of the Continent, too, affected his 
spirits, which were at all times of a gloomy 
type. The horrors passing in France would 
soon shake all Europe, and threaten all 
commercial interests ; and in the bad days 
coming, he felt it would be well for 
Angelica to have a male protector of her 
own kith and kin. He therefore wrote 

284 Angelica Kauffmann. 

to a young cousin of hers in Schwartzen- 
berg, Anton Joseph Kauffmann, to come and 
undertake the work to which he no longer 
felt himself equal, and in which he in- 
structed him. In every way Anton Kauff- 
mann proved himself worthy of the choice, 
and Angelica, later on, had good reason to 
thank her husband for his provident care. 

Through the surrounding gloom occasional 
glimpses of the life she loved best would 
come to Angelica, as when her friend Herder 
wrote to her, heralding the arrival of a sister 
artist : — 

" To Madame 

" Angelica Kauffmann-Zucchi, Rom. 
"Weimar, den 10th Sept., 1795. 

" Madame Le Brun, from Copenhagen, a 
lady of singular talent, both in art and poetry, 
and possessed of many accomplishments and 
agreeable qualities, is desirous on her ap- 
proaching visit to Italy to make the acquaint- 
ance of the charming Angelica, and who is 
there, who visits Rome, be he virtuoso or 
artist, who does not desire her friendship ? 

Last Years. 285 

" Madame Lebrun is sister to Doctor 
Miinter, who was in Italy some years ago. 
Her father, 1 a very worthy man, died lately. 
Her knowledge of Italy surprises me, and, if 
the climate suits her, it is her intention to 
establish herself in that interesting country 
for a residence of some years. 

" Will you permit, my honoured friend, 
that this note should act as a Mercury to your 
antechamber, and introduce to you Meyer, 2 
who leaves this in a few weeks for Rome, and 
will present himself charged with a long 
letter from me ? 

" Farewell, gentle mistress of the new art 
and of modest beauty. 

" My wife desires her devoted remem- 
brance. It is so long since you have written 
that you must have forgotten us, but we have 
not forgotten you. 

" Once more farewell. My kind regards 
to Herr Zucchi. 

" Herder. 

1 Dr. Miinter, collector of coins. The lady in 
question was the celebrated artist, Madame Vigee 
Le Brun. 

2 Heinrich Meyer, a Swiss artist. 

286 Angelica Kanffmann. 

" I do not know if Herr Lebrun accompanies 
his wife. He is a very worthy man, of con- 
siderable property and great speculations 
with half Europe. Farewell." 

Meanwhile, the outlook was growing more 
and more gloomy, there was no security for 
either life or property, and those who had 
not suffered themselves, were trembling for 
what was to come. 

Angelica felt for her friends' misfortunes 
acutely, and was harassed with doubts and 
apprehensions as to her own future. 

Already the number of visitors to Rome 
was diminishing. Soon they would alto- 
gether cease, and with them the orders for 
which they paid so handsomely. There was 
another source of anxiety, in the transport of her 
finished orders to their different destinations, 
which involved immense risk. Stolberg, 1 
writing to her about this time, speaks of this 

1 Count Leopold Stolberg, a dilettante of the first 
class— poet and artist. He wrote an ode to Angelica, 
beginning — 

" Immortality embraced thee, 
Wisdom was thy teacher, 
Aurora baptized thee." 

Last Years. 287 

danger, which he says will last until the 
French, those enemies of God and man, 
are properly humbled, or some means are 
found to protect the sea from their robberies. 
There was another danger ; that the interest 
of money invested in English or other funds 
would not be regularly paid, or, if it were, 
might not come safe to hand. 1 In October, 
1795, we find Angelica writing in great 
anxiety to her trustee and solicitor, Mr. 
Kuliff, in London, as to goods despatched 
nearly a year previously : — 

" Rome, October, 1 795. 

" Dear Sir, — I hope my letter, dated 
November iSt/i, has reached your hand before 
now. I acknowledged in the same the re- 
ceipt of my dividend, paid to me by your 
orders by our friend Mr. Cavaggi. 

" I had also the pleasure to learn the other 
day from Mr. Jenkins, that the ships upon 
which my pictures were loaded escaped 
being taken by the French. I hope to have 

1 See Supplement, for an account by Zucchi of 
Angelica's income. — From ZitcchVs Notebook. 

288 Angelica Katiffmann. 

this news soon confirmed. With this oppor- 
tunity I thank you kindly for your attention 
and goodness towards me. 

" With my most affectionate compliments 
to Mrs. Kuliff, I remain, with the sincerest 


" Sir, 

" Your most obliged humble servant, 

" Angelica K.-Z. 

" P.S. — It is a very long time, I have not 
heard from my worthy friend Mr. Braithwaite. 
I hope he is well. Should you happen to see 
him, pray give him my kindest compliments." 

This letter was accompanied by one from 
Zucchi, written in a querulous, anxious 
tone, as to the sale of his house in John 
Street, Adelphi, and also as to different 
loans he had made, one of 600/., a bad 
debt, another of 80/. or 100/. to an 
Italian artist, Locatelli, a sculptor of very 
indifferent reputation. Antonio's health 
had been giving way for some time, and 
his naturally gloomy temperament was even 
more impressed by the miserable prospects 
around him, than Angelica's more sensitive 

Last Years. 289 

disposition. His illness naturally intensified 
what was worst in the situation, and his 
constant anxiety hastened his end, inducing 
a severe attack of jaundice, from which he 
died, after a short illness, in December, 1795. 
A marriage on the lines of this rather ill- 
assorted union could not have been supposed 
to have been one where the survivor would 
feel the loss very keenly. Zucchi made so 
little mark in Angelica's life, that her 
biographers make little mention of his death, 
beyond the mere fact. It therefore rather sur- 
prises one to find that she was overwhelmed 
with affliction at the blow, and was inconsolable 
for " der alte Zucchi;" neither did his will, 
which is a standing record of his want of re- 
gard for her, in any way alter her sentiments, 
or abate her grief. It is singular and unac- 
countable that Zucchi should have behaved in 
such a manner to a woman who had been the 
bread-winner for so many years, unless it were 
that his gloomy, jealous, Venetian tempera- 
ment had nursed all through their years of 
married life, as a grievance in his mind, the 
stringent terms in which Joseph Kauffmann had 


290 Angelica Kauffmann. 

secured to Angelica the use of her own fortune, 
without " intermeddling " on the part of her 
husband. He, in his turn, now left her 
nothing but a miserable pittance of fifteen 
pounds a year short annuities ; all the rest of 
his property, amounting to more than four 
thousand pounds in the funds, and the house 
in John Street, Adelphi, he devised to his 
brother and nephews. 

In apprising the English solicitors of her 
husband's death, Angelica gave a short 
synopsis of this will, and in the affidavit, 
of the 26th December, 1795, declares that 
" Ant. Zucchi, on the 24th March, '95, had 
deposited his will and that A. Z. at nine 
o'clock * last night had departed this life." 

2 In another affidavit made later she states 
that he bequeathed 68/., Locatelli's debt, 
to his nephew Frs., son of Pietro Zucchi. 
The 30/. short annuities, one-half to Ang. 
Kauffmann, one-half to his brothers Joseph 

1 This seems somewhat extraordinary, but perhaps 
she had to make the affidavit the day after Zucchi's 

2 The papers connected with Zucchi's will were sent 
to me by Mrs. Thackeray Ritchie. 

Last Years. 291 

and Pietro and his nephew Frs. to be enjoyed 
equally ; 4800/. in money also to them 
subject to survivorship, with liberty to 
invest it mutually into any other stock. 
The value of the house to be invested in 
the bank of Venice. 

In the following February Angelica wrote 
the following letter to Messrs. Kuliff and 
Greller, which is undoubted evidence of the 
sweetness and generosity of her disposition : — 

"Rome, Feb. 17th, 1796. 

" Gentlemen, — I received your kind favr. 
dated the 15th of January, the 10th of this 
month, when at the same time Mr. Cavaggi 1 
paid me by your orders 50/. 5s. for the deed 
ye paid oi 3350/. I kindly thank ye for 
your punctuality and attention and beg the 
continuance of your kindness. 

" I daresay ye have before now read my 
last, written in January, I forget the date, by 
which letter I announced to you my mis- 
fortune, the irreparable loss I sustained by 
the death of my worthy husband, friend, 

1 The banker and man of business of the Zucchis. 
U 2 

292 Angelica Kauffmann. 

and best companion, but such was the 
will of God, to which we must submit. I 
find in your last favour that the affair about 
disposing of the house is still in agitation. 
What is done in that is now the business of 
Mr. Zucchi's heirs in Venice ; perhaps it will 
be necessary to inform them what steps are 
necessary they should take to come into pos- 
session of what was left to them by my 
deceased husband. To me he has left only 
the half interest of his short annuity, the 
other half goes to his nephew. What I must 
do to come to the possession of my little 
share ye will be so good as to tell me, as I 
am totally ignorant about these matters and 
melancholy affairs. 

" I am glad to hear from you that all the 
pictures arrived safe to their destiny. I 
hope my two friends, Mr. Keate and Mr. 
Braithwaite, are both well ; when ye see 
them remember me to them, I am sure they 
take part of my misfortune, but chiefly 
my good friend, Mr. Kuliff, to whom I 
beg to present my best and most affectionate 

Last Years. 293 

" I repeat my thanks for all your kindness, 
and remain, gentlemen, 

" Your most obliged servant, 
" Angelica Kauffmann-Z." 

To this letter she adds the following some 
days later : — 

" Tuesday, February 20th. 

" This was to have been sent by last 
Wednesday's post, but as I expected letters 
from Venice the day following, I thought to 
defer presenting this to this day, in case I 
should have anything particular to mention 
about the affairs now pendant with Mr. 
Zucchi's relations. I find that Mr. Joseph 
Zucchi, eldest brother to my deceased hus- 
band, has written to ye, but at the same 
time he begs me to recommend him to your 
kindness, which I do with the sincerest 

" The best I think will be to transact 
business issues immediately with him, it will 
save time and a little trouble to me ; how- 
ever, in whatever my assistance is necessary 
I shall be very ready to give it. 

294 Angelica Kauffmann. 

f< I have a high regard for the family of 
my deceased husband, and approve what he 
has done in favour of them. 

" Pardon me, my worthy friends, for giving 
you so much trouble." 

This letter, in which there is not a word 
of reproach or a touch of bitterness, exempli- 
fies the extraordinary generosity of Angelica's 
disposition, which would not see a fault in 
the conduct of one she esteemed as she did 

On his tomb in the church of St. Andrea 
delle Fratte she had inscribed this touching 
inscription : — 

" To my sweetest, kindest husband, 
Not as I had prayed." 

There was no insincerity in these words. 
To one of Angelica's tender loving nature 
the outlook of a lonely life, widowed and 
childless, was so terrible that death would 
have been infinitely preferable. Writing to 
a friend shortly after Zucchi's death she 
says : " It is not poverty I fear, but this 
dreadful solitude." Her health and spirits alike 
suffered, a hopeless depression seemed to 

Last Years. 295 

settle upon her once bright nature. Her 
friends, alarmed at the continuance of her 
melancholy, made every effort to rouse her, 
and to induce her to return to her work. 
There were imperative reasons why she 
should do so, for not only was her income 
considerably reduced by the death of Antonio, 
but her money in the English funds was 
threatened by the war which was general 
all over Europe. Necessity, therefore, was 
added to the entreaties of her friends, and, 
to their gratification, she resumed her usual 
occupations- In after years she would re- 
joice that she had been so necessitated, saying 
that she had two consolations — one that her 
hands were left to her, the second that she 
had lived in the past- 

Once she had taken up work she remained 
constant to it, never laying down the brush 
so long as health was left to her, and in those 
last years some of her best work was done. 
The Revue Contemporaine says her faults 
of composition disappeared, her colouring 
was more subdued. In 1797 she exhibited 
(for the last time) at the Royal Academy "The 

296 Angelica Katiffmann. 

Portrait of a Lady of Quality." This was 
probably Lady Harcourt, a very fine por- 

Orders, however, came in very slowly. 
Rome was deserted by visitors, and money 
was scarce. The Bishop of Miinster gave 
her a commission for two large altar-pieces ; 
one of the "Annunciation," the other "The 
Saviour Calling the little Children to come 
to Him." 

Rossi says she executed both with the 
utmost delicacy and devotion, and to the ex- 
treme satisfaction of the Bishop- We may, 
however, be allowed to doubt this. From 
some cause, Angelica found it impossible 
to portray religious subjects. She was, 
however, of a most pious mind. " In 
her moments of solitude," says Rossi, 
" this excellent lady was in the habit of 
occupying herself with holy thoughts, 
which, according to her custom, she wrote 
down on little pieces of paper, which she 
preserved in her pocket-book." Some of this 
trouvaille the good Rossi collected, by which 
it will be seen how constantly she turned to 

Last Years. 297 

God as the only source of comfort and con- 

" Oh ye, who fear the Lord, 
Believe in Him, hope in Him and love Him ; 
His divine mercy will descend and console ye. 

" Expect in patience that thou dost expect from God. 
Remain united to God in order that thy life may be more 

Confide in God, and He will lead thee into the port of 


" Oh, holy Religion ! 
Guide of poor mortals into peace everlasting, 
Ah ! kindle in my heart fervent love for thee, 
And be my comfort and my stay in the bitter pains I 
now endure." 

This year she undertook a large picture 
of Religion, with all her lovely train. 
Rossi said she did this as a sort of protest 
against the infidelity which was now growing 
rampant, and from the pious hope that the 
representation of the divine emblems, Faith, 
Hope, and Charity, might rekindle the faith 
amongst the believers, " for," he adds, " An- 
gelica was in all manner of her life a perfect 
Christian, and the attacks made upon religion 
and the desecration of all holy objects was 
one of her bitterest trials." 

That Rossi is wrong in ascribing these 

298 Angelica Kauffma?in. 

high-souled motives to Angelica, is made 
evident from the following account given by 
Mr. Forbes, an English gentleman, then visit- 
ing Rome, for whom the picture was painted. 

He says: "During my stay in Rome in 
the year 1 796, I enjoyed the greatest 
pleasure in cultivating the friendship of 
Angelica Kauffmann ; I had at all times free 
access to her studio, where I passed many 
delightful hours. 

" I was with her when she put the 
finishing touches to her picture ' Suffer little 
Children to come to Me.' I gladly em- 
braced this opportunity of introducing the 
sublime description of ' Religion ' and her 
lovely train, which I had copied from a 
sermon by Doctor Home, of Norwich, 
before I left England, in the hope that I 
should engage Angelica to paint me a 
picture upon that exalted theme. She 
entered deeply into the spirit, and said she 
had every hope of giving me satisfaction. 

" On my leaving Rome in 1797, she had 
only made the first sketch of her picture; 
she favoured me with a small copy to let me 

Last Years. 299 

see what I might expect, but in a few weeks 
after, the French entered Rome, the Arts 
and Sciences dropped, and she was involved 
in the general distress." 

In Rome itself a Republican govern- 
ment had been established, and every- 
thing was in utter confusion. For Ange- 
lica it was a terrible moment ; all the 
money she had in the local banks lay 
there useless. An annuity, which she against 
her will had bought, shared the same fate ; 1 
a money changer took advantage of her in- 
experience and gave her, instead of an order 
on the London bank, paper money, which 
was for some time of no value. A letter she 
wrote at this time to the firm of Kuliff shows 
how harassed she was at the situation in 
which she found herself. 2 

" Messrs. Kuliff, Greller and Company, 
" London. 

"Rome, July 23, 1798. 
" Gentlemen, — I have yesterday, the 22 

1 See Supplement. 

2 This letter was kindly procured for me by Messrs. 
Sotheby & Co. 

300 Angelica Kauffmann, 

of this, receivd your very obliging favour, 
dated May the 18, by which I understand 
that you have receivd my dividend on the 
5000/., and given orders to Messrs.- Donald, 
Ord and Son at Florence to hold that sum 
at my disposition there. Friends have very 
punctualy informed me of the order they 
had, forwarding me your kind letter. With 
this day's post I write to the sadye 1 friends 
returning them the quittances signed for the 
76L 15^., enclosing to them at the same time 
this in answer to yours, being at this present 
moment the securer channel. 

" It is fair that ye reimburse yourself for all 
expenses ye may have on my account. I am 
glad that the trust deed is settled, and that 
my little affaires are in the hands of friends 
who take my interest and my advantage so 
much to heart. I have no words sufficient 
to express ye the sentiments of my gratitude ; 
it is indeed a great happiness to have such 
friends in these very critical circumstances. 
I have thus far been unmolested till now, but 
I sustained, for one in my situation, very 
considerable losses in paper money, in which 
1 The original spelling is preserved. 

Last Years. 301 

I had considerable sums now reduced to next 
to nothing. This is the fate of most of the 
inhabitants of this place, so that I leave ye 
to consider the consequences and misery of 
the greatest number, some few except who 
had the managt of affairs. . . . May God 
Almighty save Engd from such distress. 

" Amongst the many unavoidable vexations 
and troubles, thank God, my health continues 
well till now. A cousin-german, who has 
now been with me this 6 years past, a very 
honest man, takes care of my affaires, of which 
I have but little notion, being used to other 
occupations. Times, at present, tho, are 
everywhere unfavourable to the fine arts, 
yet I endeavour to occupie mysellf as much as 
I can to deviate melancholy ideas — all friends 
I had in this place are dispersed, and all is 

"It makes me happy to know that my 
worthy friend, Mrs. Kuliff, and Mrs. Henry 
are both well. I beg ye will present my 
kindest compts to them both. 

" Nothing else remains to mention at 
present, except to ask your pardon for giving 

302 Angelica Kauffmann, 

ye so much trouble. My obligations to ye 
are infinite, and all deeply impressed on my 
heart. I beg the continuance of your friendly 
attention, to which I shall endeavour to prove 
my gratitude as far as it lays in my power. 
Assuring ye that I am, and ever shall be, with 
the greatest estime, gentlemen, 

" Your most obliged humble servant, 

"A. K. 
" P.S. — I thank ye kindly for the letter ye 
was so kind as to forward to my friend at 
Brussels, it is sufficient to me to know that 
it reached your hands." 



The beginning of the year 1 797 was heralded 
by a disappointment. Goethe, who had held 
out hopes of visiting Rome once more, now 
definitely gave up the idea, the state of 
the Continent being such that it was im- 
possible for him to cross the Alps. Perhaps 
it "was as well. A friendship like theirs, 
once it is dead, cannot be rekindled. 

"Weimar, 25 June, 1797. 
" The hope I had entertained, most honoured 
friend, of seeing you in the coming year, is 
through this most miserable war at an end, 
as the way to Rome is completely barred, 
at least for the present. Professor Meyer, 1 
whose continued residence in Rome is the 

1 Heinrich Meyer, an artist following the footsteps of 
Winckelmann and Rafael Mengs. 

304 Angelica Kauffmann. 

groundwork for me still to cherish the hope 
of revisiting that delightful city, tells me that 
he has had the honour of waiting upon you — 
he has gone for the moment to Florence, but 
returns to Rome shortly. 

"Will you pardon me a question ? A friend 
of mine, a most respectable tradesman l in 
Leipzig, has prepared a catalogue with in- 
finite care of the engravings which have 
been taken from your paintings. This work 
has occupied him many years, and he is now 
bringing it out. He desires nothing more 
ardently than to have a short account pre- 
fixed of the life of the artist (whom he 
esteems so highly and about whose works 
he has been so long occupied).. When he 
told me this very natural desire, I re- 
membered that Herr Zucchi, when he was 
collecting information about his own family, 
had also made a notice of the life of his 
distinguished wife. If you will allow me to 
have this to communicate to my friend, you 
will confer on me a new proof of your friend- 
Probably Andresen u. T. O. Weigel, of Leipzig. 

Last Years. 305 

ship, and you will likewise rejoice the hearts 
of your many adorers. 

" Not many days ago your excellent picture 
of " Cupid and Psyche," l which I saw in 
Dessau, gave me the most exquisite pleasure. 
You cannot conceive the impression these 
heavenly creatures make, when seen amidst 
the snowflakes of the icy north, which are 
only suited to a wild beast or a dull hunts- 
man. 2 

" Farewell, and kindly answer either your- 
self or through others. 

" Goethe." 3 

1798 and 1799 were naturally not very 
fruitful in work, the times being too dis- 

1 This is the " Cupid Drying Psyche's Tears," to which 
Sternberg gives such praise. 

2 " It is not necessary to remind you that these words 
do not apply to the Dessau country. The Luiseum in 
which the painting is kept is for the rest in a garden. 
Such a background cannot impair its beauty." — Extract 
frotn Professor von Gebhardfs letter to the compiler. 

3 So far as is known this is the last of the Goethe 
correspondence. Two significant circumstances are 
worth noticing in this matter : one that Rossi makes 
no mentioti of the Goethe friendship ; the other, that 
in her will Angelica is equally reticent, leaving no token 
to her once dear friend. 

306 Angelica Kauffmann. 

turbed for any settled employment. Already 
foreign troops were filling the city, and rough 
soldiers were billeted in every household. 
The idea of such guests being introduced 
into her quiet home was in itself a tor- 
ture to a mind like Angelica's. She had, 
however, friends in high quarters ready to 
interest themselves for her, and the leader 
of the French army, General Espinasse, 
showed himself in every way desirous of 
paying honour to so distinguished a woman. 
He gave a written order, by which she was 
exempt from all such visitors or imposts. 
In return for this act of courtesy, Angelica 
presented the General with his portrait. 
She also painted another ^distinguished 
officer of the French army, taking care to 
place him standing amidst some old ruins, 
as a reminder of the antiquity of Rome. 

Being left undisturbed in her studio, 
Angelica occupied herself unceasingly ; not 
that large orders came to her. Still she 
had a multiplicity of smaller commissions. 
Amongst these was " Ariadne holding the 
Thread of the Labyrinth to Theseus ; " a 

Last Years. 307 

subject she treated very gracefully. For the 
Countess of Solms she painted a charming 
subject taken from " Ossian." 

In consequence of her necessities l she was 
obliged (and to a spirit like hers this must 
have been her hardest trial) to have recourse 
to her friends for pecuniary assistance. 
From'a letter written at this period to her 
kind patron, Mr. Forbes, we find her asking 
for advances on the unfinished picture of 
<( Religion." 

" October, 1799. 

" All these circumstances, my much- 
honoured and respected friend, to which a 
total suspension in the art I profess, must be 
added, induce me to a boldness unusual to 

" When you honoured me with your 
commands respecting the picture of 
' Religion,' you generously offered me half 

1 Writing to a friend, she says : — " I have suffered 
nothing in my person, but there was no want of dis- 
tresses of all kinds and the prospect is gloomy beyond 
expression : the losses I have sustained are considerable 
and at a time of life when I hoped to enjoy comfort and 

X 2 

308 Angelica Kauffmann. 

its amount, which I then declined, and told 
you how much I wished my situation 
was such that it might only be given and 
received as a pledge of my esteem and 
friendship, and that no money might be 
mentioned ; nor do I forget your kind reply ; 
but I could not bring myself to accept it, 
having at that time several commissions for 
pictures from Germany, but the unfortunate 
war in which that country has also been 
overwhelmed, has occasioned a suspension of 
these orders, and I have therefore given all 
my time and attention to your picture, and I 
flatter myself, have, by frequent renewed 
touches, brought it to a greater perfection 
than I once thought of: indeed, I have the 
satisfaction to hear it approved by all who 
see it, and that even the French generals 
have bowed before ' Religion.' Oh ! how I 
do long for peace, that I may send x you your 

1 " Religion," with five others, reached Mr. Forbes in 
]8o2. See catalogue. 

From the engraving by Burke one can see how 
crowded the canvas is with figures. " Religion," a hard- 
featured woman, seated on a throne, is surrounded by 
her attendant maidens, Faith, Hope, and Charity. They 
have all Greek profiles. Hope has her anchor, Faith 
has her arms crossed on her breast, while Charity 

Last Years. 309 

picture, and when you see it, I flatter myself 
it will give you satisfaction. I was delighted 
with the subject, and most sincerely respect 
the friend who honoured me with the com- 

" Angelica Kauffmann." 

At one moment a gleam of hope promising 
peace came to the harassed minds of those 
living in the shadow of those troublous days. 

During this pause a few strangers came 
once more to Rome ; bold travellers, who 
ventured to cross the Alps for a sight of the 
great city beyond. 

Amongst these was Lord Montgomery and 
his friend Colonel Macdonald. Both- of these 
were painted by Angelica in their national 

For some time Angelica had been revolv- 

sprawls on the ground, embracing a small family of naked 

"The inspiration," says Miss Thackeray, in "Miss 
Angel," <c is something like the apotheosis of Madame 
Tussaud, and yet a certain harmony redeems it." 

Waagen says it displays warm colouring and careful 

After Mr. Forbes's death the picture was presented by 
his widow to the National Gallery. Up to 1870 it 
hung on the walls of that institution, but it is now in the 
cellars ! 

310 Angelica Kauffmann. 

ing in her mind the idea of presenting her 
native canton with a picture by her own 
hand. In 1800 she fulfilled this cherished 
scheme, and executed for the parish church 
of Schwartzenberg 1 a large canvas of the 
" Blessed Virgin crownedby theThree Persons 
of the Blessed Trinity." She was so much 
impressed by the magnitude of the concep- 
tion, and the difficulty, above all, of portray- 
ing the Almighty, that she often wished she 
could throw a veil over the head and so conceal 
the features. 

This year, too, she painted that very 
charming picture, " Omnia Vanitas " : a 
young girl, tired with gathering flowers, 
sits down to rest upon a newly-made monu- 
ment, upon which is this inscription : — 

"All is vanity." 

The maiden drops her flowers, which lie 

scattered around. Also " Coriolanus in the 

midst of his Family " was begun this year. 

It was during the completion of this work 

that she was attacked by a severe illness. It 

1 Schwartenzberg was her father's native canton ; it 
must be supposed she considered it the home of her 

Last Years. 31 1 

was of a pulmonary nature, and although she 
recovered from it, her lungs and breathing 
were seriously affected. Work for a time 
was forbidden by her doctors, who strongly 
recommended a complete change of air and 
manner of life. Although it was a hard 
struggle, Angelica followed this advice, and 
tore herself away from her beloved easel and 
a circle of devoted friends. Accompanied 
by Johann Kauffmann, her cousin, she left 
Rome in July, 1800, and went to Florence, 
from whence she undertook a still longer 
journey to Bologna and Milan. 

It was now nearly twenty years since she 
had left Rome for more than a few weeks. 
The change was most beneficial to her, re- 
newing her youth and. strengthening her 
body. Everywhere she was treated with 
the greatest distinction, the highest person- 
ages vieing with one another in doing her 
honour. From Milan she went to Como. 
Here Johann Kauffmann left her, going to 
pay a short visit to his relations in the 
Bregenz. Angelica had not been in Como 
since her childhood, when she had painted 
the Cardinal Bishop Nevroni. 

3 1 2 Angelica Kauffmann. 

Writing now in the sere and yellow leaf of 
her old age, she says : — 

"You ask me why I care for Como. It 
was here that in my childish days I ex- 
perienced the first joys of life ; there 1 saw 
for the first time magnificent palaces, villas, 
and a splendid theatre. It was like paradise 
to me. There, too, I saw Love pointing his 
arrows at me, but in my innocence and un- 
consciousness I turned aside and evaded the 

This passage would appear to hint at some 
youthful attachment. Oppermann, however, 
says this is an error, and it would seem mani- 
festly one, as the young heroine was barely 
fourteen. Nevertheless, in the same letter 
from which I have just quoted, she goes on: 
" Many years after, I was led by Fate back 
to this charming spot. I enjoyed to the 
fullest the pleasures of my ripened years. I 
enjoyed the society of friends ; I breathed 
again the breezes of the immortal lake. 

" One day, wandering with some chosen 
companions through the delightful woods 
belonging to a friend's villa, in a shady spot 
I came once more upon Love. He was 

Last Years. 313 

asleep ; I drew near to him ; he awoke and 
smiled in a friendly manner at me. He re- 
cognized me — albeit time had silvered my 
golden hair. 

" Suddenly he rose, mischievously de- 
termined to revenge the slight he had re- 
ceived from me in my early years. He 
pursued me, and, taking deliberate aim, 
threw his arrow at me ; I had all the trouble 
in the world to escape the dart." 

It is not quite easy to understand this allu- 
sion, and Rossi makes no effort at explaining 
it. Ill-natured people did talk of an attach- 
ment between her and her cousin Johann ; but 
he was at Bregenz during her stay at Como. 

From Como Angelica made her way to 
Venice, where she wished once more to see 
her husband's relations, whose kindness to 
her at the time of her fathers death she had 
never forgotten. She had in particular a 
great esteem for her brother-in-law Joseph, 
who had collected art mementoes of her life. 
After twelve days' stay in Venice, she re- 
turned to Florence by Padua and Bologna, 
thence to Perugia, where she was the 
honoured guest of Cardinal Cesari, and on 

314 Angelica Kauffmann. 

the 30th of October was once more in 

Her friends made a festival of her arrival, 
giving parties in her honour ; and the pleasure 
of being so welcome was very dear to 
Angelica's heart. At this moment of her life 
she seems to have been really happy. From 
Schwartzenberg, where her coronation picture 
had arrived, she received an account of the 
reception given to her present. Such crowds 
had come from all parts to see it, that the 
pastor had erected a temple for it outside the 
church, where the multitude could behold it. 

Here is a letter which is full of that kind- 
ness of heart which was one of Angelica's dis- 
tinguishing characteristics. It is written to 
her cousin Casimir's son, to whom she left 
her sketches and drawings later, together 
with some of her letters. 1 

" Rome, 29, 1801. 
" Much Beloved Cousin, — I thank you 
from my heart for your letter, which I 
received with pleasure ; your good conduct 

1 These were nearly all sold in London. 

Last Years. 315 

and diligence in your trade has at all times 
given me joy. I hope that you will always 
continue striving to turn to account the years 
of your youth, applying yourself perse- 
veringly to all matters connected with your 
business, and that you will specially seek to 
fulfil, to the best of your power, your duty 
towards God, from whom we derive our 
being and from whom we receive everything ; 
as also your duty towards your parents. He 
who turns to good account the years of his 
youth, will, in his old age, enjoy its fruits. 
The present times are unhappily very 
dangerous for those who have little experi- 
ence ; one must commend oneself to God 
and seek association with good and pious 
men, and avoid idleness as much as possible 
by the reading of good books, such as serve 
to educate the heart and intellect, and teach 
scientifically ; and in this matter the advice 
of a righteous man is very necessary, for 
how many have been deluded by the writings 
of the philosophers of our day. I do not 
doubt that you will strive to attain perfection 
in your trade as much as possible. 


1 6 Angelica Kauffmann. 

" Cousin Johann will add some lines. 

Herewith I conclude with the assurance that 

I shall at all times take the greatest interest 

in your welfare. God give you his blessing. 

" I remain, your devoted cousin, 

"Angelica Kauffmann. 

" P.S. — From a letter of your good father, 
Cousin Casimir, which I have recently 
received, I learn that he is convalescent, at 
which I heartily rejoice." 

Immediately on her return, Angelica had 
resumed her beloved art, and with intense 
joy found that the cunning of her hand had 
not deserted her. She finished "Coriolanus," 
which had been interrupted by her illness, 
and soon sitters began to crowd into her 
studio as of old. At this moment the devout 
King of Sardinia, Charles Emmanuel, and his 
excellent consort happened to be in Rome. 
The queen, hearing of Angelica's talent and 
devotion, asked to be allowed to visit her 
studio, an honour which much gratified the 
artist. In this year, too, she made the ac- 
quaintance of Canova, who executed from her 
designs some exquisite " Cupids " in bas relief. 

Last Years. 3 1 7 

These peaceful days were, however, to be 
again interrupted. The eighteenth century 
had run its course, and the nineteenth was 
ushered in with a fresh outburst of war. A 
newconqueror had arisen. Already the cannon 
of Toulon had rilled the astonished world with 
Napoleon's name. Victory followed victory. 
Trumpets blew, drums beat, standards waved 
over battle-fields. Armies of soldiers filled 
the streets and market-places of every town 
on the Continent of Europe. The Alps were 
echoing with the cry of battle ; a thousand 
voices took up the cry along the Italian frontier. 
In Rome, all was in confusion ; Canova fled, 
taking with him the three " Naked Sisters," the 
little frozen "Cupids," and his poor wounded 
" Psyche," all his dear children, his entire 
marble family. Statues were wandering in 
every direction, paintings and frescoes 
changing places. The "Venus de Medici" 
travelled to Paris, and greeted, with a curve 
of her lovely Grecian mouth, the Alexander 
of the nineteenth century. 

Poor Angelica! this new outbreak shat- 


tered her already weakened nerves. Again 
was her income diminished, her credit in 

318 Angelica Kauffmann. 

England interrupted. It was a cruel blow 
in her feeble condition and advancing years. 
Still she struggled bravely on. Despite 
harassing care and ill-health she worked 
through 1803, J 804, and even 1805, when 
her health mended and she was back at her 
easel. Her spirits revived, her strength 
returned, as is shown in the following 
letter : — 

" Albano, 20th Sept., 1806. 1 

" Much Respected Friend, — Before this 
reaches you Mr. Bonomi, to whom I wrote 
this month, I hope, according to my request, 
has informed you that I have in due time 
received your obliging favour. 

" I find myself in this delightful place since 
August 20th last. This change of air was 
necessary for the better restoration of my 
health, which has suffered so much by the 
long, lasting rheumatic pains suffered in my 
breast, but now, thank God, the air has been 
so beneficial to me that all my complaints 
are vanished and my spirits recovered. 

1 This may have been addressed to Mr. Bowles of 

Last Years. 3 1 9 

(l I hope this will find you and all those 
dear to you in good health. Remember me 
to them most affectionately. All hopes of 
peace are, I fear, vanished. I am sorry for 
it, for many reasons. The picture was and 
is ready for exportation. I shall remain in 
this place all this month, if the weather 
continues good, and perhaps part of the 
next. The situation is beautiful, but we are 
now and then visited with some shocks of an 
earthquake, which have done considerable 
damage in most of the neighbouring places. 
Here they were not very sensible, thank 
God ! I should have been much alarmed. 

" Pardon me for being thus tedious to you 
before I conclude, repeating my sincerest, 
kindest, warmest thanks to you for all your 
kindness, for all the attention you have for 
me, which I do not know how to deserve, nor 
have I words to express the sincere attach- 
ment with which I am, and shall be as long 
as I exist, 

" Yours truly obliged humble servant 
and affectionate friend, 

"Angelica Kauffmann." 

320 Angelica Katijfmann. 

But soon again she was beaten down by 
fresh attacks. 

Sternberg, with his usual ill- nature, declares 
that she was surrounded by interested friends, 
dependents and flatterers, and that these care- 
fully kept from her that her artistic power 
was gone. 

" Old age," he continues, "requires to be 
caressed, especially aged painters and poets ; 
therefore, in consideration of Angelica's con- 
dition, these friends thought it only kind to 
deceive the failing artist with imaginary 
orders. Some of them were supposed to 
come from France and England. This pious 
fraud was most successful. Angelica, lying 
on her sick bed, would seize her brush, and, 
with a joyous smile upon her pale lips, com- 
plain of this rush of commissions." 

" Is there no other painter?" she would 
ask ; and the chorus of friends would answer, 
" No, there is none to equal you. If you 
die, art is indeed an orphan." 

This is amusingly told, but on turning to 
Rossi we find, like many smart things, it has 
no grain of truth. He distinctly says, " From 

Last Years. 321 

the year 1803 Angelica neither received 
nor would undertake any large order, but 
she finished some portraits, and even com- 
menced some fresh ones, all of strangers then 
in Rome ; as, for instance, that of the Crown 
Prince of Bavaria, also that of Count Pappa- 

She was so charmed with the beauty of 
the little daughter of the Duke and Duchess 
of Miranda, that she painted the child for 
the parents who were friends of hers. It is 
a lovely picture, something in the style of 
Sir Joshua Reynolds. The last work un- 
dertaken by her was a charming " Magda- 
lene " for Count Pezzoli of Bergamo, which 
was engraved on copper by Folo. Consider- 
ing the extreme weakness of her health and 
her reduced condition, this is a wonderful 
piece of work, the same lightness of touch 
and brilliancy of colouring which was her 
attraction in her youthful days. 

An excursion made into the country about 
this time seems to have benefited her. She 
writes in her old charming style to a friend 
in England, probably Mr. Forbes : — 


3.22 Angelica Kauffmann. 

" My kindest and warmest thanks have 
this time been longer delayed on account of 
a little excursion made into the country. I 
passed near three weeks at Tivoli, about 
twenty miles from Rome, a charming place, 
so much sung and praised by Horace, where 
he had his villa, of which, however, little or 
nothing remains. More is yet to be seen of 
the villa of Maecenas and the villa Adriana 
and some others, but destructive Time has 
reduced all to the pleasure of imagination — 
perhaps a melancholy pleasure, to see only 
poor remains of the greatest magnificence. 
Oh ! that you, my friend, could see this place, 
or that I could once more have the happiness 
to see you in dear England, to which my 
heart is so much attached, and where I 
should once more see you, my worthy friend, 
with the greatest joy. Too happy should I 
think myself to be the bearer of the picture 
I had the pleasure of executing for you. In 
peaceable times it would not, perhaps, have 
been amongst the impossible things ; could 
I, however, find in the meantime a safe 
opportunity of getting it conveyed to you, I 

Last Years. 323 

shall certainly not lose it, as I long you 
should have at least this token of my grati- 
tude for the many and numberless obliga- 
tions for all the favours you continue to 
bestow on me. It makes me very happy 
that you and all your family are well. Be so 
kind as to remember me to them in the most 
respectful manner. 

. " I beg for the continuance of your friend- 
ship, and have the honour to be with the 
greatest esteem and gratitude, 

" Your most obliged humble servant 
and friend, 

"Angelica Kauffmann." 

The year 1807 showed a great diminution 
of strength. The author of" A Dead Man's 
Diary," who was in Rome that year, mentions 
seeing her drive along the Corso, and being in- 
troduced to her. Although aged and ill, she 
was full of charm. She was called, he says, 
" The Mother of the Arts." Soon, however, 
the malady gaining on her, she was unable to 
leave her bed. The deepest melancholy took 
possession of her, in spite of her efforts to 
y 2 

324 Angelica Kauffmann. 

appear cheerful, by which amongst her friends 
she succeeded in gaining some appearance of 
gaiety. She would make them play games, 1 
and evinced the greatest interest in all their 
pursuits. Still it was evident how much this 
struggle cost her. In these last days she 
occupied herself in going through her papers, 
and burning those she did not wish should 
fall into strange hands. When this was 
done, she arranged all her affairs, and made 
presents to many of those who visited her, 
and were kind to her. 

By the end of the summer her weakness 
had increased so much, that she could not 
leave her bed. Her face was like that of a 
corpse ; her eyes alone retained something of 
their former brightness. Her friends were 
devoted to her, and to humour her fancy not 
to be left alone, her visitors would come 
for the day, and carry on their occupations 
in an adjoining room. One at a time would 
sit with her, and she had always something 
kind to say, an expression of gratitude or 

1 M. Seroux d'Agincourt lived near to her, and 
visited her constantly in her last illness. 

Last Years. 325 

affection on her lips. In October, her ill- 
ness taking a most serious turn, there was no 
longer a shade of hope. She received the 
last Sacraments, and from that time took 
farewell of the world, her only consolation 
being the visits of her spiritual adviser. 
Some of her friends, fearing that the minis- 
trations of this priest, who was rather 
of the rough-and-ready order, were not 
suited to a person in her weak condition, 
tried to induce her to have one of the monks 
whose especial office it was to attend the 
dying. " No," said the sick woman, " my 
good pastor would be hurt if I sent for 
another, and it would be a bad return for his 
goodness to me." 

On the 5th November, her cousin Johann ! 
was sitting by her bedside. She asked him to 
read her one of Gellert's " Hymns for the 
Sick." By some mistake he began one of the 
hymns for the dying, but this choice did 
not please her ; either she preferred the 
other, which breathed a more Christian 
spirit, or a spark of hope still lingered in 
1 Anton Johann Kauffmann. 

326 Angelica Kaujfmaun. 

her breast. She interrupted him quickly: 
" No, Johann," she said, " I will not hear that. 
Read me the ' Hymn for the Sick,' on page 
128." Her cousin sought the place, found 
the desired hymn, and began to read. But 
after a few moments he found that Angelica 
had passed peacefully away, without a 
sigh or pain. She was sixty-six years of 

There was general mourning in Rome 
when the news was known, and the desire to 
do honour to the artist who had passed 
from amongst them was universally felt by 
all. A funeral service was organized, con- 
ducted in the manner by which in the golden 
days Rome delighted to glorify art. The 
architect, Uggieri ; the sculptor, Albaggini, 
and her cousin Johann undertook the ar- 
rangements, which were of a most splendid 
character. It took place on November 7th, 
in the Church of Sant' Andrea delle Fratte. 
Canova received the invited guests, who 
were of the highest rank. The Brothers of 
St. Luke, and the virtuosi of the Academies 
of Science and Art, walked in the procession, 

Last Years. 327 

which was swelled by every one of rank and 
distinction then in Rome. Canova and 
Pazetti (directors of the French and Portu- 
guese Academies), Le Thiere and Le Rossi 
carried the coffin. 

In the church the scene was most impos- 
ing. Two of her pictures, religious in 
subject, were placed on each side of the 
altar, and, in the centre, her bust in Carrara 
marble, the work of Canova, only finished 
a month before her death. Her body, by her 
own especial desire, was laid next to that of 
her husband in the smaller chapel. Over 
the grave, Johann Kauffmann and her heirs 
erected a handsome monument with the 
following inscriptions : — ■ 

Antonius. Petrus. Franc, f. Zucchius. 
Venetus. in. Deum. Amore. in. Pauperes. 
Picturae. Laude. concelebratus. 
H. S. E. 

Vix. A. 69. M. 7. D. 26. ob. VII. Kal. Jan. 
ab. orbe. servato. 1795. 
Angelica. Kauffmann. 
Lachrymis. et. tristitiae. damnata. Marito. 
dulcissimo. et. benignissimo. 
contra, votum; pofuit. 

328 Angelica Kaujfmann. 

H. S. E. 

Angelica. Joannis. Josephi. f. Kauffmann. 
Dorao. Schwarzenbergio. 
Cui. summa. Picturae. Laus. 
Cenotaphium. in. Aede. Panthei. pro- 
meruit. sed. ipsa. se. in. hoc. Monumen- 
to. quod. Antonio. Zucchio. posuerat. 
inferri. jussit. 
ut. cum. Viro. concordissimo. 
post, funus. etiam. habitaret. 
Annos. nata. 66. dies. 6. 
obiit. Romae. Non. Nov. 1807. 
Ave. Mulier. optima, et. vale. in. pace. 

A year later, her bust, executed by Peter 
Kauffmann, was placed with all ceremonial 
and honour in the Pantheon. 

Nothing could prove more distinctly the 
sweetness of her disposition, and the 
generosity of her mind, than the provisions 
of her will, which were of the most just 
character. No one was forgotten; her 
servants were well remembered ; x so were 
the poor. 

To her cousin, Rosa Bonomi, wife to the 

1 To her maid, Maria Pericoli, who had served her 
thirteen years, she left one thousand silver thalers, the 
bedstead she used, and all belonging to it, as also her 
entire wardrobe. 

Last Years. 329 

architect, then living in London, and with 
whom she had kept up constant relations, 
she bequeathed all her money standing in the 
English funds, amounting to five thousand 
pounds, besides the best of her jewels and 
plate. 1 Her remaining capital of three thou- 
sand pounds she devised to her cousins 
Johann and Casimir Kauffmann, who were 
with her at the time of her death, together 
with her pictures, furniture, etc. To her 
relations in Schwartzenberg she left seven 
hundred pounds. To her husband's family 
she bequeathed, with many kind words, 
several remembrances, together with all 
Antonio's plate, pictures, and everything 
which had come to her through him. All 
that was left in her studio of unfinished 
pictures, etc., she desired might be sold, 

1 The jewels consisted of some fine pearls, seven rows 
for bracelets, the clasps being miniatures set in brilliants 
of her father and husband ; a diamond ornament for 
the head ; and earrings of fine brilliants, clasps of dia- 
monds j a necklet of fine brilliants ; two emerald and 
diamond rings. Also a tea service of silver and silver tea- 
chest with a Chinese man on the lid." — From the Will. 

33® Angelica Kmiffmann. 

and the proceeds distributed amongst the 

As she lived, so she died ; even her 
enemy Sternberg calls her " a sweet creature 
— her very faults were lovable — and she, 
was above all. most womanly." 

Letter from Signor Joseph Bonomi} to George 
Bowles, Esq., of Wans tead Manor. 

" Dear Sir, — This morning I received a 
letter from my correspondent in Rome, Dr. 
M. A. Borsi, concerning the death of Mrs. 
Angelica Kaumnann, which I shall transcribe 
word for word. 

" ' Dear Sir, — What I foresaw for some 
time, after twenty days' confinement to bed, 
with the greatest tranquillity of spirit, always 
present to herself, having twice received the 
blessed Sacrament, and two days before 
Extreme Unction, perfectly resigned, coura- 
geously met the death of the just Thursday 
last, 5th instant, at half-past two, the great 
woman, the always illustrious, holy, and 
most pious Mrs. Angelica Kauffmann. 

1 The original spelling and construction are preserved. 

Last Years. 331 

" ' I shudder in acquainting you with such 
unfortunate news, knowing the grief it will 
cause to you and Mrs. Bonomi. I shall now 
relate the particulars of her illness and 
funeral. During her severe illness, her 
numerous friends did what they could [to 
restore her, and everyone was grieved in 
apprehension of losing her. You may easily 
believe, more than I can express, how much 
their grief increased at her death. I only, 
therefore, shall mention that they vied with 
each other in endeavouring to perform the 
last duties in the most decorous obsequies 
celebrated this morning in the Church of S. 
Andrea delle Fratte, conducted by Canova 
and other virtuosi friends. The church was 
decorated as is customary for nobles. At 
ten o'clock in the morning the corpse was 
accompanied to the church by two very 
numerous brotherhoods, fifty capuchins and 
fifty priests. The bier was carried by some 
of the brotherhood, but the four corners of 
the pall by four young ladies properly 
dressed for the occasion. The four tassels 
were held by four first Gentlemen of the 
Academy ; these were followed by the rest 

S3 2 Angelica Kanffmann. 

of the academicians, and virtuosi, who 
carried in triumph two of her pictures, and 
everyone had wax tapers lighted.' 

" This is the melancholy account I thought 
it my duty to transmit to you as one of her 
most intimate friends. I shall take the first 
opportunity of communicating to you any 
further intelligence I may receive on the 

" I have the honour to be, 

" Dear sir, 
" Your obedient, humble servant, 

"Joseph Bonomi." 

" At the general assembly of Academicians, 
the President announced the demise of a 
celebrated member of the body, Mrs. Ange- 
lica Kauffmann. Her name was then taken 
off the roll of the Academy." 

Extract of a letter from Johann Kauffmann, 
dated Rome, November i^tk, 1808, to 
Madame Bonomi. 

" In these days is celebrated in the church 
of the Rotunda (Pantheon) the anniversary 

Last Years. 333 

of our Cousin Angelica, and her bust will be 
placed as suggested by your late husband. 
A memorial marble will also be erected in 
St. Andrea delle Fratte with an inscription. 
A similar one, but of greater expense, is 
actually executing in her own country, with 
every function suitable to the occasion. Here, 
likewise, a magnificent requiem has been 
made with about two hundred Holy Masses 
in suffrage of her soul, besides many other 
things performed in her honour, so that since 
the death of Raphael Urbino till now a 
similar funeral has not been made at Rome. 

"On Thursday, 29th November, 1808, the 
marble bust * in the Pantheon was uncovered. 

1 A writer in the Atheneeum, 13th March, 1880, who 
had visited Schwartzenberg, speaks of the bust set up to 
her honour in the church : — 

" It is a medallion bust of Italian workmanship in 
marble. Below is an inscription of which I send you a 

" The words of the inscription are most curiously run 
together, but, I believe, are correctly copied : — 

"Deredlenam V. Nov. mdcccvii. Im lxvi jahre ihres 
alters in Rom Gestorben Frau Angelica Kauffmann Der 
Ersteninder Mahlerkunst der Grossen Wohlthaeterinder 
Armen Und Kirche zu Schwartzenberg, der Zierde 
ihres Vaterland des Zum steten Andenken Von ihren 
Freunden under Bendank vollstgewidmer, den xn. Jum, 


334 Angelica Kauffmann. 

On this occasion a solemn funeral service 
was celebrated, at which the academicians of 
St. Luke assisted. 

" Sie war als Mensch als Christ 

Als Kunstler gross ane Erden 
Willst du Hie, und dort, dirund 

Andern nutzlich Werden ? 
Wie sie Ehre Ruhm Reichtum 

Ruh Vergnugen haben ? 
Schaetze Tugend, Benlitz Talent 

Des Schopfers gaben." 


To Angelica Kauffmann, who departed this life in 
Rome in the year 1807, and in the sixty-sixth year of her 

She was an ornament to her Fatherland ; the first of 
artists, a benefactress to the poor and to the church 
at Schwartzenberg. This monument has been raised to 
her memory by her friends on June xn., mdcccix. 

She was great as a woman, a Christian, an artist. 

Would'st thou thyself and others serve, 

Would'st thou Honour, Fame, and Peace deserve, 

Then must thou Virtue prize, 
And use the talents God provides. 


Gering says : — 

" Her discretion, which is the parent of all 
merit, was extraordinary, and this, together 
with the peculiar blending of her colours, 
raised this artist to a high place. In all her 
pictures there is made evident the workings 
of a tender soul." 

Nagler says : — 

"The tenderness and amiability of Angelica, 
which tinged her work with a certain softness 
and tenderness which was most pleasing, to- 
gether with the facility and certainty of her 
method of painting, caused her historical 
pictures to be most popular, especially 
amongst the English. In portraits she at- 
tained a well-deserved reputation, as she not 
alone made an excellent likeness, but also 
gave the mind and character of the sitter. 

336 Angelica Kauffmann. 

Her portrait of Winckelmann is a proof of 
this. Her subjects are always well-chosen, 
and her figures marked by dignity and grace ; 
this last applies especially to her women. 
Her men are timid-looking fellows. 

" Heroes and dramatic situations being 
alike foreign to her gentle nature, she was 
unable to depict them. Nevertheless, 
Angelica, together with Mengs and Fiiger, 
must not be judged by the present day- 
standard. She appeared at a moment when 
all was dark in the horizon of art, as a mes- 
senger of better times that were at hand, 
and if she herself failed in accomplishing all 
she might have done, so did the two before- 
named artists. She is blamed for a certain 
incorrectness in the outlines, monotony in 
her backgrounds, and for the use of too bril- 
liant colours." — Nagler s Kunstler-Lexicon. 

Sternberg, her hardest critic, acknowledges 
" that she had a sweet nature but a feeble 
talent. Her reputation never could have 
risen to the level of a national artist, it was 
confined to drawing-room coteries ; and such 
fame as she attained was due to the vanity 

Critical Notices* 337 

of the amateurs amongst whom she lived, far 
more than to any artistic merit she possessed. 
From England her trumpet was blown most 
loudly, and there her patrons filled their 
houses with her pictures. Everyone knows* 
however, that in matters of art this little 
Island has no claim to be listened to!' 

Goethe pronounces decidedly in her favour. 
" Her paintings are full of thought, beautiful 
in form, composition and colour, and their 
treatment is excellent. These are the prin- 
cipal characteristics of this artist, whom no 
living painter can approach in taste and light- 
ness of touch." He adds : " For a woman 
she has a really wonderful talent, and one 
must judge her by her success, not by her 
failures, for how few artists would stand the 
test, if one takes into account their failures or 
shortcomings ? " 

Herder, in his Kunst Literatur, speaks 
highly of Angelica's talent. The article 
should be read for its clear definition of the 
Grecian forms of art. " How can we suffi- 
ciently admire," he says, " the beauty of their 
figures — how body and soul seem to unite in 


338 Angelica Kauffmann. 

perfect harmony without one discordant note ; 
and where there is more than one figure, 
how perfect is the attitude of both ; how they 
look at one another ; how they listen to one 
another ; persuasion dwells upon their lips, 
although no word issues from their mouths. 
When their hands touch their soft arms inter- 
twine and their eyes meet : what sweet 
harmony directs every motion. I have never 
seen a group, such as 'Orestes and Pylades,' 
or ' Orestes and Electra,' without observing 
this tender union which exists between each 
figure. So it is with the few paintings left 
of their work, and also in the numerous basso 
relievos which adorned every Greek dwelling- 
house. There we find that repose which is 
so wanting in the tumultuous compositions of 
our days. Raphael imbibed much of this 
spirit, and Mengs shows somewhat of it in 
his picture of ' Jupiter and Ganymede.' In 
Angelica's compositions, too, there is an effort 
to attain this harmony. Her men and women 
have this innate moral grace ; her young men 
are more like Genii walking this earth ; a 
savage even becomes gentle in her hands. 

Critical Notices. 339 

So far as a pure and innocent mind may, she 
has gone to the depths of humanity, and her 
fine intelligence has so arranged the whole 
as to develop each portion like a growing 
flower." — Kunst Literatur, vol. vii. 

Waagen in his " Treasures of Art," while 
giving a side thrust at her sentimentalities, 
speaks of the warmth of her colouring and 
careful execution. 

A French critic says: " Her heads have 
much of the majesty and divinity of Guido, 
with a mixture of the light school of Albano 
and Correggio. She was capable of express- 
ing all the elevated and tender passions. 

"An examination of her style, however, 
obliges us to acknowledge that there is a lack 
of energy underlying her elegance and no- 
bility of thought, and therefore it is that she 
always avoided any strong or terrible situa- 
tions, in depicting which she would have 
utterly failed. In subjects of domestic 
interest, calm and not heroic, she is at her 
best, that is to say, full of tenderness and 
inexpressible grace. Her exaggeration in 
colouring was greatly modified during her 

z 2 

34° Angelica Kauffmann. 

residence abroad ; and, in her later pictures, 
her style is broader, less brilliant and more 
vigorous. Her touch was large, her know- 
ledge great, and she possessed in a high 
degree a feeling of the picturesque as also 
of the art of grouping, having acquired a 
habit of seizing the best attitudes in which 
to place her models. She arranged her 
draperies with such consummate art that, as 
one of her admirers remarked, ' Your figures 
could walk without disarranging their 
garments.' " — Biographie Nouvelle. 
A writer in the Art Journal says: — 
11 She was a woman, and therefore an 
optimist ; she believed in the possibility of 
regenerating art, and, womanlike, she would 
be satisfied with nothing but the highest 
motives, and loftiest aims. There was to be 
no truckling to expediency, no half-hearted 
compromises with indifference and a public 
taste, which has gone to the bad. High art, 
art of the highest, was her model." He, 
however, adds some strong words of criticism, 
principally directed against her colouring, 
which has "a tendency to vinous tones, which 
is often unpleasant." 

Critical Notices. 34 1 

Anthony Pasquin says : " That connecting 
her beauty with her knowledge, and her 
sweet disposition with both, she was, perhaps, 
the most fascinating woman in Europe." 

Seguier gives a lengthened notice, the gist 
of which is that Angelica Kauffmann loved 
to make a composition of her portraits, and 
this she did remarkably well. The figures are 
generally about three feet high, and when the 
subject is an interior the children are generally 
represented naked or as cupids. One great 
point of beauty is the grace of the attitudes 
and the care she bestowed upon the hands. 
He adds, " In her faces she has the man- 
nerism of bringing the nose and chin too near 

Miss Charlotte Knight, the authoress of 
u Dinarbas," and whose memoirs are such 
pleasant reading, gives a charming picture of 
the artist, whom she classes amongst those 
who have ennobled the profession, and whose 
works are intended not merely to please the 
eye, but to elevate the mind. " She was great 
as an artist, engaging and amiable as a woman. 
In her house, her garden, her domestic estab- 
lishment, all was most proper and unostenta- 

342 Angelica Kauffmann* 

tious. Her choice of books was excellent, and 
with her all was harmony and grace." 

A writer in the Dictionary of National Bio- 
graphy suggests that her personal attractions 
partly account for the exaggerated praise 
showered on her art by her contemporaries. 

This view, although it is somewhat un- 
sympathetic, seems to have been in a measure 
the true one, with this difference, it was not 
Angelica's charms, for she was not beautiful, 
but it was her personality that had to do 
largely with her success. It was that strange 
complex nature of hers, a mixture of simplicity, 
goodness, shrewdness, deep thought, infinite 
tenderness, and childlike gaiety ; artistic aims, 
and homely affections : all these combined 
to make up an amount of fascination which 
worked as a spell upon all who came under 
its influence, and blinded the clearer judg- 
ment of those who should have corrected, by 
judicious criticism, the glaring faults which 
disfigure her artistic productions. We can in 
no other way account for the infatuation (for 
we can call it by no other word) which in- 
duced Mr. George Bowles, of Wanstead, 
Lord Exeter, Mr. Parker, of Sal tram, Mr. 

Critical Notices. 343 

Forbes, and others, to fill their houses with 
her enormous canvases. It seems as if they 
could not have enough of them. This, too, 
at a moment when the matchless works of 
such artists as Gainsborough, Romney, Rey- 
nolds, were to be had for almost the same, 
perhaps less money. It must be owned that 
the descendants of Angelica's admirers have 
some cause to grumble. 

That the present century should have re- 
versed the judgment of the last is only 
natural, for to us her pictures are somewhat 
uninteresting, reproducing, as most of them 
do, the fables of ancient mythology, the taste 
for which had died out even in her day. The 
result of Count Calonne's sale of Angelica's 
pictures in 1825 marked the decadence, and 
the Bowles- Rushout sale in 1879 was con- 
clusive as to the estimation set upon her best 
work. Angelica has been dethroned from 
her position as popular idol, perhaps with a 
precipitancy that will ultimately produce a 
reaction, of which indeed signs are not want- 
ing. At every sale there is fierce competition 
for Bartolozzi's mezzotints, and who can tell 
when an equally strong desire may grow up 

344 Angelica Katiffmann. 

for the original pictures by Angelica. Her 
earlier works have a freshness quite delight- 
ful ; the composition, too, is graceful ; but the 
colour, that dull red, is decidedly crude and 

For the moment, however, any effort at 
just criticism of her paintings would be more 
than useless. The fin de siecle is realistic, 
not to say matter of fact : criticism is, as it 
should be, hard, and to the point, and little 
or no allowance is made for sentiment ; 
whereas, in Angelica's time, it was all senti- 
ment ; there was a cloud of romance floating 
in the air, men fought for a lady's flower or 
ribbon, if she dropped it ; cupids were the 
fashion, so, too, was the gift of tears. Women 
wept prettily (an art now forgotten) over every 
trifle, from the sorrows of Clarissa Harlowe, 
to a dead bullfinch ; the magazines of the day 
were filled with maudlin verses sickening to 
read. If we reflect, it is easy to understand 
how this strained sentiment came about. 

Making due allowance for the exceptional 
and pre-eminent powers of Hogarth, English 
art had been, for more than a century, 

Critical Notices. 345 

singularly barren of anything approaching to 
what might be termed artistic feeling. "It 
was," says a well-known writer, " nakedly 
and narrowly Protestant ; it hadn't even the 
relaxation of a good historical painter, who 
may, if he be a man of thought and purpose, 
infuse a spirit almost religious into his work." 
From the time of Charles II. there had been 
cold realism, and now, under the Georges, 
romance was fashionable. Angelica was, 
therefore, in keeping with the generation in 
which she lived. She was not a whit too sen- 
timental for the sentimentalists, and we must, 
or we ought, to take this into account, when 
judging her work. Likewise, it may be, that 
we of this century are going a little too far 
in the opposite direction. Is it not the case 
that we are losing touch of those delicate 
perceptions which should underlie all art 
criticism ? Technical skill, form, colour are 
excellent qualities in a picture, but should 
there not be feeling as well — feeling that 
should stop short of sentimentalism ; but sen- 
timent, a certain phase of fervid balmy deli- 
cacy of emotion, this is a natural development, 

34 6 Angelica Kauffmann. 

and should accompany every true artistic 
effort, and when present should merit appro- 
bation, albeit it be accompanied by faults 
which mar the general effect. 

Those who appreciate this sweetest quality 
can find much to admire in Angelica's work, 
in the colour, in the grouping, and in that 
indescribable charm which she herself pos- 
sessed, and which she infused into most of 
her pictures. Over such judges as these last 
she still holds her sway. To them the feel- 
ing which underlies the ill-drawn shepherds 
and shepherdesses of Arcadia compensates, 
in a measure, for the lapses in technical skill: 
they see the soul of the woman shining 
through the picture ; they mark the elevated 
tone, and they honour her effort, although 
they cannot but blame its execution. 

These men are, however, idealogists ; in 
the strong army of critics we meet but few 
of them. It must be owned they would be 
unsafe guides to our young artists, to whom 
nothing could be more fatal than the develop- 
ment of a sentimental school. Still, it should 
never be forgotten that the proper aim of all 

Critical Notices. 347 

art is to elevate the mind. That Angelica's 
aim was a high one, that she failed in giving 
it always effect, was due to a multiplicity of 
causes, some of them beyond her control. 
That she was aware of her shortcomings is 
certain, and that she strove to cover her de- 
ficiencies by overcrowding her canvas, and 
so heaping fault upon fault, was an error in 
judgment much to be deplored ; that she like- 
wise was injudicious in selecting historical 
subjects is evident : she possessed neither the 
technical knowledge necessary for grouping 
a crowd of figures, nor the grasp of mind 
for seizing the most dramatic point in the 
situation ; hence her inability to impress the 
spectator, who sees a confused mass of arms 
and legs, to say nothing of the difficulty of 
discriminating the sexes by the test of facial 
contour and energy. 

Some of her smaller classical pieces are 
better drawn, and the difference between men 
and women more clearly defined. Thus, 
Telemachus at the Court of Menelaus is a 
most pleasing picture ; the attitude of the son, 
who hears for the first time of his father's 

348 Angelica Kauffmann. 

supposed death, is full of pathos. There is 
much dignity in the figure of Menelaus, while 
Helen, who advances to console the sorrowing 
youth is perfectly charming; it will be noticed 
*" that the burden here falls upon the three 
principal figures. The same judgment must 
be passed by even an adverse critic on "La 
bergere des Alpes," one of Angelica's best 
pictures ; here there are only two figures. 
Exception may be taken to the somewhat 
womanly air of Fonrose, but one loses sight 
of this in looking at the delightful shepherdess, 
who approaches with her flock of sheep un- 
seen by the disguised Marquis. Such a 
dainty figure, exquisitely graceful ; there can 
be no cavilling over this picture, it is admir- 
able in every detail. On the other hand, we 
may take her large canvas of Religion as a 
specimen of her at her worst. With its sprawl- 
ing figures of Faith, Hope and Charity, it 
purports a representation of what is meant to 
elevate the mind, but which is, in fact, more 
likely to produce a feeble nightmare than to 
raise the thoughts of the beholder heaven- 

Critical Notices. 349 

These examples go to prove that Angelica 
mistook her vocation when she consecrated 
her brush to the delineation of classical or re- 
ligious subjects. Nature had intended her 
for portraiture, there lay her true talent. If 
she had been wise enough to cultivate this 
branch of art more closely, and had not 
looked upon it merely as a means of subsist- 
ence, to be accomplished hurriedly, and con- 
sequently carelessly, she might have achieved 
a lasting success, and have left a reputation 
akin (with a difference) to that of Reynolds. 1 
She had many qualifications for the task ; 
imagination, sympathy, and that quick, search- 
ing insight into the character of the sitter 
which goes to make a good artist. This 
was the secret of the extraordinary success 
achieved by Reynolds, and, to a certain 
extent, Angelica might have followed in 
his footsteps. What was said of him could 
be applied to her ; that her portraits of women 

1 Seguier says : " There is such a Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds-like feeling about her groups as to lead us to think 
that she must have studied his works very carefully, but 
the reader must not suppose she imitated him more than 
did Cosway." 

350 Angelica Kauffmanu. 

are sometimes so charming that we, for a mo- 
ment, lose the familiar idea of the person in 
their elevation to a muse or a goddess ; how- 
ever this applies to her mythological disguises, 
which, to our ideas, are tiresome masquerades, 
too often repeated. But there are many 
portraits of hers which are graceful, carefully 
executed compositions. Amongst these may 
be named Mrs. Bates, 1 a really fine picture, 
formerly in the Burghley Collection. Lady 
Eardley, 2 as a portrait of an elderly lady, is 
excellent, and there are some of her groups 
of children charming in finish and delicacy. 
A portrait of herself, now at Messrs. Dowdes- 
well's Gallery, should be seen. It is an 
admirable specimen, the face well finished, 
while the soft colour of the blue strap across 
her shoulder contrasts well with the brown 
dress. Another portrait of herself, 3 as an 
Italian lady, is very rich in colour, the detail 
of the dress is good, but the background too 

1 Now in possession of Mr. Messell. 

2 Belonging to Sir Thomas Blomefield. 

3 Belonging to Mr. Bowring. 

Critical Notices. 35 1 

In her own day Angelica's portraits were 
highly considered, it was the fashion to be 
painted by her. The highest ladies in the land, 
and the most' beautiful, sat to her for their 
portraits — Georgiana, Duchess of Devonshire, 
Mrs. Sheridan, Lady Northwick, and Lady 
Hamilton. How is it that we never see them ? 

Year after year the company of the silent 
dead fill the halls of the Royal Academy. 
They come from all parts, these high-born 
lords and ladies of the past. The lovely, the 
good, the wicked, and the frail, look down 
from their gilded frames upon the world of 
to-day. Old friends in plenty form part of 
these gatherings. Titian's grand Venetians, 
Holbein's burly kings and courtiers, Lely's 
wanton beauties, Hogarth's rakes and 
harlots, Reynolds's ever delightful men and 
women are all gathered to the show, while 
the female Academician is conspicuous by 
her absence. Why is this ? It seems unjust 
to exclude her from an exhibition of old 
Masters, who were her contemporaries and 
confreres. The present generation know 
very little of her works. They should see 

35 ^ Angelica Kauffmann. 

some of her best, and be allowed to judge 
for themselves. 

In considering the works of the artists of 
the last century, nothing excites more sur- 
prise and admiration than the extraordinary 
power of production they possessed ; it was 
boundless. Pictures came from their hands as 
if by machinery. A great deal was method ; 
and, moreover, most of them had a school of 
students who could be trusted to paint the 
draperies and accessories, and forward the 
middle stages of the work. In this manner 
Northcote assisted Sir Joshua ; Lancret 
worked for Watteau ; and Angelica, no doubt, 
was helped by both the Zucchis, Hamilton 
their pupil, her father, and some others. 
Zucchi, describing her method of painting, 
represents it as a sort of manufactory. 1 
"Angelica," he says, "took sketches of the 
heads, and placed them afterwards in any 
position she chose to select ; the draperies, 
etc., were often painted by others." John 
Joseph confessed to Mary Moser that he had 

1 She was handsomely paid for her portraits, and was 
able to maintain herself con decoro.— Zucchi's MS. 

Critical Notices. 353 

many times copied his daughter's pictures; 
and passed them off upon purchasers in the 
same way. Much of the house decora- 
tions ascribed to her was the work of 
Antonio Zucchi ; and in her later years she 
was assisted by her cousins, two of whom, 
Caroline and Peter Kauffmann, were studying 
as artists in Rome. 

If deliberate deceptions were practised 
with her knowledge, it does not speak well 
for her sense of what was due either to herself 
or to her clients. A certain amount of help is 
permissible, and it has happened that artists 
of great reputation have been often them- 
selves defrauded. Half the pictures of the 
old masters credited as originals are only in- 
different copies. I fall the so-called Raphaels- 
were genuine, the painter must have had 
three or four pairs of hands. Waagen says 
that at the sale of the Marquis of Exeter's 
collection, some years ago, scarcely one could 
be allowed to take rank amongst the works of 
the great masters whose names they bore in 
the catalogue, and the same story repeats 
itself in almost every collection that comes 

a a 

354 Angelica Kauffmann. 

to the hammer. It is well known that com- 
paratively few of George Morland's works 
were by his own hand, as replicas, Mr. Red- 
grave tells us, were made on the spot by 
artists in the pay of his employer, who set 
them to work so soon as the artist left 
the house. So too with Bartolozzi's en- 
gravings, many of which are the production 
of his pupils. 

Nathaniel Dance produced pictures so like 
in style and colouring to Sir Joshua's that 
even the best judges are deceived ; in the 
matter of art mendacity is an old story. 

A word must be said as to the portraits of 
Angelica, painted by herself. 

The extraordinary number of these must 
always excite surprise : it was a strange fancy 
of hers to present her own features under 
every possible form, as a Sibyl, a Muse, a 
Vestal ; as Urania, Clio, Sappho, Una ; as 
Fortitude, Hope, Charity, Innocence, etc. 
Besides these masquerades (if we may so 
call them) there were numerous portraits of 
her in her own character. These she gave 
to friends. Usually every patron received 

Critical Notices . 355 

It is not astonishing that this constant self- 
production was set down as an over-estimation 
of her own charms ; people smiled at her 
evident good opinion of herself. Such 
glaring undisguised vanity was, however, not 
in keeping with a character like hers, in 
which simplicity was allied with good sense, 
for to exhibit self-love so openly would be 
a proof of folly. One explanation of her 
apparent self-glorification lies in the well- 
known fact that in the last century it was 
almost impossible to get a female model to 
sit ; it was not at that time considered a re- 
spectable or even decent calling, and women 
with very little claim to either of these 
appellations shrank from it. On the other 
hand, such characters as Kitty Fisher and 
Nelly O'Brien were inadmissible to Angelica's 
studio. She was therefore, in a measure, 
driven to copy from her own circle of friends 1 
— most frequently from herself. 

Considering the great difficulty of self- 

1 For " Hector and Andromache, nurse and child," the 
models were a young married couple, friends of hers, 
with their newly-born baby. Rosa Florini also sat for 
different pictures, including Faith. 

A a 2 

35 ^ Angelica Kauffmann. 

portraiture, it must be owned she succeeded 
admirably, although it may be that " her 
version of herself," as Mr. Anderdon calls it, 
is more beautiful than the original. It must be 
remembered, however, that all painters are 
permitted to idealize the model. That she 
did not always do so is clear from the portrait 
of herself that she gave to her father's canton, 
which has a ludicrous resemblance to one of 
the heads found in a mummy case. 1 

Angelica's portrait has been given to us 
by other hands than her own. The first we 
have of her is as a child, and it must be 
owned an ugly child, with too big a head ; 
then we have a miniature by John Smart, 
date i 764, the year she went to Rome, and 
sat at the feet of the apostle of art, Winckel- 
mann. She was then twenty-three, but 
Smart represents her as seventeen. It is 
quite a girlish face, and gives the idea of a 

1 The coloured copy of this picture in Rossi's edition 
de luxe is a very pleasing resemblance : the hair of a 
peculiar golden brown, matches the colour of the 
almond-shaped eyes, the mouth is not so long ; there is 
an air of courtly simplicity, the dress is charming — a 
sort of coat trimmed with fur and laced with scarlet 

Critical Notices. 357 

sprightly young person with a good opinion 
of herself — " perky " is the word that applies 
to the expression — the hair is red, and the 
face fat. Dance during his love fit painted 
Angelica's portrait several times : one of his 
is in the Burghley collection ; and Zucchi 
painted her once as Sappho conversing with 
Homer. A young painter named Banks l 
painted a portrait of her, and in 1776 her 
father exhibited a picture of her at the Royal 
Academy — " A Charity." To judge by the 
miniature copy she made of it, and which 
has been lately shown in the collection of 
historical miniatures, John Joseph's portrait 
was a poor affair, very much of the waxen 
image about it. The expression of the face, as 
she regards the two children who are the 
recipients of her maternal charity, is absolutely 
nauseous. 2 

And now we come to Sir Joshua's beautiful 
portrait of her. I say portrait, although as 
a matter of fact he painted her three times. 

1 Not Thomas Banks, R.A. 

2 Mr. Tuer, in his " Bartolozzi and His Works," men- 
tions having in his possession a portrait of Angelica by 

358 Angelica Kauffmann. 

The first picture was taken in 1766, 1 the year 
of her arrival in England ; the second, shortly 
after Horn's desertion ; 2 the third and last in 
1777. This is the one engraved by Barto- 
lozzi, and is well known to all collectors, a 
beautiful picture, yet what a contrast it pre- 
sents to the bright-eyed, self-satisfied girl of 
Smart's portraiture. This is what life had 
brought to Angelica, and yet one would not 
wish it otherwise. It is, indeed, the face of 
a woman who has known what it is to suffer, 
but has risen above suffering and has at- 
tained peace. Looking at it, one gets some 
idea of where lay that strange power of 
attraction which fascinated those of Angelica's 
own generation. What gentle dignity, how 
sweet is the evident desire to please, while 
the wistful sadness in the lamp-like eyes 
draws us irresistibly to her. The whole air of 
the picture breathes refinement. A " rondo " 
some one calls it not inappropriately. 3 

1 Sold at Messrs. Christie's in 1832 to Mr. Hind for 
3/. 55. 

2 Sold in 1850 at Messrs. Christie's for 3/. 3*. 

3 In Mr. Anderdon's catalogues we find the following, 
which brings us curiously in touch with the picture : 

Critical Notices. 559 

Sir Joshua gave the picture to Angelica. 
It may be that she would have preferred his 
keeping it, in memory of her. The old 
romance, however, if it ever existed, was 
dead by this time ; there was not even a 
withered leaf of the " fiori " left, so Angelica 
packed up her picture (or probably Zucchi 
did so), and they took it with them to Italy. 
It was hung in a prominent position in their 
house in the Arco di Regina, for both Goethe 
and Rossi saw it there. Angelica always 
kept it : it reminded her of the palmy days 
of her youth, and very probably she got to 
believe that Reynolds had really loved her, 
and told this story to her friends. 1 

When she died, she left the picture to her 
cousin, Johann Kauffmann, who had lived in 
the house, saying in her will that it was the 
portrait painted of her by the celebrated 

it is the original receipt: — "Received November 1st, 
1780, the sum of ninety guineas, in full, for a plate 
of Mrs. Angelica Kauffman, after Sir Js. Reynolds. 
Francesco Bartolozzi." 

1 She made copies in miniature form of the picture, 
and gave them to her friends. One of these was in 
the exhibition of Historical Miniatures. It is a fair 
copy. It is s'gned A. Kauffmann, and was given to 
Adelina Rosalba in 1783. 

360 Angelica Kauffmann. 

English painter, Ritter (knight) Reynolds. 
There is something touching in this, poor 
soul ! She clung to her early triumphs even 
when writing her last wishes : not that 
this availed much, for Johann dying, in 
his turn left it to his nephew, another John 
Kauffmann, who forthwith carted it off, and 
all he could find of saleable matter with it, to 
England, where the best price was likely to 
be got. 

Sir Joshua's picture was sold in i860, at 
Messrs. Christie's rooms, to Mr. Fairholme 
of Leamington. 1 

The auction room is the ultimate end of 
most collections ; they seem to gravitate 
thither almost with certainty. Angelica's 
pictures have, however, changed hands very 
constantly. Those who understand the vicis- 
situdes of picture sales say that the demand 
for her work is steadily increasing. This 
will be good news for those who possess 
more than they need, or would be glad from 

1 Mr. Fairholme, some few years ago, sent the 
picture to be re-sold at Messrs. Christie's. Only 78/. 
was offered, so it returned to Leamington. 

Critical Notices. 36 1 

prudential motives to dispose of what they 
have. A great number of her pictures have 
already gone to America, and more are likely 
to follow. The constant sales, and the 
difficulty of tracing the purchasers, make a 
complete catalogue of her pictures difficult to 

I have to thank warmly those who have 
given valuable assistance by sending lists of 
their pictures. Mr. William Bowles has been 
indefatigable in his search into the Bowles 
family records. I wish I had space enough 
to give all the interesting details of the 
Wanstead collection, which contained the 
largest proportion of Angelica's works. 
Most of these pictures have been traced, but 
some were sold at the Rushout sale in 1879, 
to Aldis, a picture dealer, who got into 
difficulties, and at a compulsory sale of his 
house in Norfolk Street, the Angelicas were 
sacrificed for almost nothing, and went no 
one knows where. One of them was found 
lately in the cottage of a working man in 

I have also to thank Mr. Graves, of Pall 

362 Angelica Kauffmann. 

Mall, Messrs.. Dowdeswell, of New Bond 
Street, Mr. Harvey, Messrs. Christie, Manson, 
and Woods, Messrs. Phillips and Neale, for 
their kindness in giving me every help in 
their power. Mr. Algernon Graves's admir- 
ably arranged catalogues of the Royal 
Academy, etc., have been of the greatest 



original OR (when 
known) present owner. 



Her Majesty the 

Albemarle, Earl of 

Adams, Esq-, of New 

Aders, C. 

Prince of. 

Anhalt-Dessau, Lui- 
seum Museum. 

Princess of. 


Bagwell, Richard, 
Esq., Marfield, 

Barbaro, Almero, 

George III., Portrait of. 
Charlotte, his Consort, Portrait 

Portrait of Anne, wife to the 

2nd Earl. 29 X 24. 
Portrait of a lady and child. 1 

Portrait of an English lady of 

1. Allegorical Picture of Psyche 
fainting when the vessels were 
opened which contained a 
beautifying lotion for Proser- 

2. Portrait, Princess of Anhalt- 
Dessau, full length. 

3. Cupid drying Psyche's tears 
with her hair. 

4. Agrippina clasping to her 
heart the golden vessels con- 
taining the ashes of Ger- 

Princess of Courland as a Vestal. 
A Madonna. 

Portraits of Mrs. Bousfield and 
a lady (name unknown). 

Portrait of himself. 




1 Bought from Mr. Dowdeswell, New Bond Street, April, 1892. 



original or (when 



Baring, Sir Thomas. 

View in Rome. 


Baronneau, Francis, 

Telemachus redux a Penelope 



excipitur. — Odyssey. 

Bell, Publisher of 

Louisa Hammond writing to 


" Bell's Poets." 

her brother. 

Berlin Museum of 

Angelica Kauffmann, Portrait 


of, in the character of half 
Muse half Bacchante; her 
head is crowned with a laurel 
wreath, and she wears a robe 
and girdle of gold colour. 


Angelica Kauffmann between 
the rival arts of Music and 
Painting. A present from the 
artist to the sculptor. 

Berwick, Lord. 

1. Euphrosyne wounded by 
Cupid and complaining to 

2. Cupid leading Bacchus to 
Ariadne to console her for the 
desertion of Theseus. 


Bergamo, Town of 

Holy Family, an altar piece. 



1. Una and the Lion. 1 

2. Abra " amidst the maids of 
Zagan's peaceful groves." 
From Collins's " Eclogues." 

3. Painting, a portrait of herself. 


Blomefield, Sir Tho- 

Portrait of Lady Eardley, wife 


mas, The Grange, 

to Lord Eardley, of Belve- 



Boddam, C, Esq. 

Leda and the Swan. 

Burke, 1787. Very 

Bo\vles,George, Esq., 

I. Angelica Kauffmann, Portrait 

1783. A gift to Mr. 

The Grove, Wan- 

of, in the character of Design 



listening to Poetry as the 

Nymph Clio. 

1 Una is a portrait of herself. She repeated this subject often. 

1 George Bowles, of Wanstead Grove and Burford, Salop, was well known 
as a patron of art and collector of enamels and curios. On his death, in 
1817, he bequeathed Wanstead and its collections to his niece, the Hon. 
Anne Rushout, daughter to the first Lady Northwick, his sister, who had pre- 
deceased him. On Miss Rushout's death Wanstead passed to Humphrey 
Bowles, of East Sheen, and his son, the Rev, Charles Bradshaw Bowles, 
sold the bulk of the pictures, etc., in 1849. On this occasion the whole of 
/ ngelica Kauffmann's works were, by a family arrangement, disposed of to 



ORIGINAL or (when 



Bowles , G eorge, Esq. , 
The Grove, Wan- 
stead. (Continued.) 

2. Abijah and Jeroboam. l 

3. Alexander resigning his mis- 
tress Campaspe to Apelles. 2 

4. Angelica and Sacripant, from 

5. Aspasia and Palus. 

6. Achilles discovered by Ulys- 
ses. 44 x 32. 

7. Cornelia, Mother of the 

8. Christ and the two Maries. 

9. Cleopatra and Augustus. 

10. Cupid binding Aglaia to a 
laurel tree (Metastasio).3 

11. Venus and Ascanius. 

12. Venus chiding Ganymede. 4 
13 & 14. Cupid's pastime (a pair). 
15. Bacchus and Ariadne. 

16 & 17. Wisdom and Mortality 
(a pair, on copper). 

18. Cupid disarmed by Eu- 
phrosyne. 5 

19. Flora finishing a flower for 

20. Gualtherius and Griselda. 





Boydell. 1 78 1. 
Boydell and Facius. 

I.ady Cockerell, daughter to the first Lady Northwick and sister to the Hon. 
Anne Rushout. The pictures eventually came to this lady's grandson, Sir 
Charles Fitzgerald Rushout, of Sezincot, on whose death they were sold at 
Phillips and Neale's, New Bond Street, 1879. Through their kindness 
the tracing of the pictures to the hands into which they have fallen has been 
partially successful. Many of them were purchased by a commission agent, 
Smith, for the American market ; but the best have remained in England, 
and will be found under the alphabetical headings. The sale of the pictures 
realized ^"6800.* 

1 See Supplement under P. 

2 See Supplement under B. 

3 See Supplement under S. 

4 See Supplement under P. 

5 See Supplement under S. 

* The original catalogue, in the handwriting of Mr. George Bowles, is most 
quaint and interesting. He gives the position of the pictures — " Lady North- 
wick by ye window : Oval over the Harpsichord." In addition to the forty- 
seven pictures sold in 1879, there were " Diony 5 ius Evander and Euphrasia," 
the portrait of the second Lord Northwick, painted by Angelica, in Rome 
1794, now at Burford, and " Horace and Calliope," from Anacreon, Ode lxi. 



original OR (when 



known) present owner. 

Bowles, George, Esq., 

21. Hector reproaching Paris. 


The Grove, Wan- 

44 X 32. Homer, 6th book. 

stead. {Continued.) 

22. Henry and Emma from Prior 
23 & 24. Horace and Virgil. A 

pair — small ovals. 1 
25. Holy Family. 

Burke. 1792. 

26. Lady Jane Grey giving her 


Table book to the Constable 

of the Tower. 

27. Queen Margaret of Anjou 


and the robber. 

2S. La Bergere des Alpes. 2 



29. Damon and Musidora. 


(Ovals — pair.) 

30. Lavinia and Palemon. 


31. Nathan reproaching David. 

32 & 33. Numa Pompilius with 

Egeria, and Roman Charity 

(A pair.) 
34. Lady North wick, Portrait 


of, with child holding a gar- 

land of flowers. (Large oval, 

50 x 42.) a and 4 . 

35. Pliny the younger at Mis- 

Burke. Macklin 

enum during the Eruption of 


Vesuvius, a.d. 79. 

36. Rinaldo arresting the arm of 


Armida, to prevent her pur- 

pose of suicide. (From Tasso.) 

50 X 4 2 - 

37. Praxiteles, the sculptor, giv- 

ing the little statue of Cupid 

to Phryne. 

1 See under W. 

- For present possessor see under letter R. 

3 This is one of Angelica's best portraits ; it is finely coloured and graceful. 
For present owner see " R." 

4 Rebecca, Lady Northvvick, sister to George Bowles, of Burford and Wan- 
stead Grove. Her husband, Sir John Rushout, was raised to the peerage as 
Baron Northwick in 1797. Her three daughters, Miss Anne Rushout, Lady 
Cockerell, and the Hon. Mrs. Sydney Bowles, are well known by Plimer's 
miniature portrait of them as the Three Graces. A fine copy of this picture 
was made by Bone, and is now in the possession of the present representative 
of the family, Mr. Charles Bowles. 



ORIGINAL or (when 


Bowles, George.Esq., 
The Grove, Wan- 
stead. {Continued.) 

Bowring, Victor, 
Esq., 30, Eaton 
Place. 3 

Boydell, John and 
Josiah, Cheapside. 4 

38. Phryne seducing the Philo- 
sopher Xenocrates. 

39 & 40. Temple of Guidus, 
Scenes from Montesquieu's 
works. (A pair — ovals.) 

41. Telemachus and Mentor in 
the Island of Calypso. 

42. Tibullus writing an ode on 
Lesbia's Sparrow. 

43. Ulysses in the Island of Circe. 

44. Virgil writing his own Epi- 

45. Venus attired by the Graces. 
(Oval, 40 x 32.) l And 

46. The Judgment of Paris. 
(A pair.) 

47. Zeuxis composing the pic- 
ture of Juno. 2 

1. Penelope and her dog ; and 

2. Angelica Kauffmann, said to 
be portrait of. (Pair — full 

3. Angelica Kauffmann. (Half 

Troilus and Cressida. Shake- 
speare Gallery. 

Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

Industry and Patience, assisted 
by Perseverance, crowned by 



William Bond. 

Schiavoretti, 1792. 


1 For present owner see under K. 2 See under C. 

3 Mr. Bowring's collection is large and well selected. The two portraits of 
Angelica are good examples of her at her best. The colouring is clear, the back - 
ground somewhat confused. The smaller picture of her was bought at Messrs. 
Christie's in 188S ; the two whole lengths came from Ireland and are 

4 Alderman Boydell did more for the advancement of art in England than the 
whole mass of the nobility put together. He laid out upon his magnificent idea 
of a National Shakespeare Gallery thousands of pounds ; some say ,£150,000, 
others double that amount. When he was ruined by the French Revolution 
he petitioned Parliament for permission to dispose of the gallery by lottery. 
The tickets were quickly bought, but he died before they were drawn. The 
lot fell to Tuone, who set it up to auction. The well-known Mr. Graves, 
of Pall Mall, is a descendant of the Boydells. For an oiiginal let'er to Boy- 
dell, see Supplement to Catalogue. 



original OR (when 
known) present owner. 



Boydell, John and 

Honour and rewarded with 


Josiah, Cheapside. 

Plenty. 1 


Sappho, inspired by Love, com- 
posing an ode to Venus. 

The Flower Girl, after Sir J. 


Bridgevvater, Duke 

Briscoe, Esq., Ken- 

Holy Family. 

Euphrosyne disarming Cupid. 


Painted on copper. Small 

Brown (said to be 

Pyrrhus carried in the arms of 

Count Brown). 

his nurse to King Claudius. 

Bryer, Ann. 

Dido invoking the Gods. 


Aglaia bound to a laurel tree by 
Cupid. Dedicated to the 
Hon. John Dawson. 

Brunswick, Duchess 

Portrait of the Duchess. One of 



her best portraits. It is now 
at Hampton Court Palace. 

Calonne, Colbert, 

Jupiter and Calista. 

French Ambassa- 

Orpheus and Eurydice. 2 Two 

dor. Collector of 

large ovals. 

pictures and curios. 

Zadig. 3 

His collection was 

sold in 1825. 

Capucino, Monsignor 

Portrait of himself 4 

Nevroni, Bishop of 


Ceci, Duke of. 

Portraits of Duke and Duchess. 

Cheeseman, Esq. 

Portrait of Angelica Kauff- 



Charlemont, Earl of. 

History and Music."' A pair. 

Clements, Lieut. -Col. 

Mrs. Clements and infant, Por- 

McArdell, Dublin, 

the Hon. Henry, 

trait of. 



1 In this enormous picture she was helped by Zucchi. 

2 Sold in 1S25 at Messrs. Christie's for £70. The picture of Orpheus was 
the likeness of the musician who was in love with her at Montfort Castle. See 
page 20. 

a Zadig sold in 1825 for ^43, to Count St. Brude. 

4 There is another portrait of the bishop in rel and black, signed Marianna 
Caterina Angelica Kauffmann, aged xiii. 

5 Sold at the Roxborough sale, May, 1892, for £(>$. 



original or (when 

Courland, Duke of. 

Corbett, J. Esq., 20, 
Hertford Street, W. 

Delafosse, F., Esq. 
Derby, Earl of. 3 

Digby, G. D.W., Esq. 


1. Telemachus and Mentor in 
the Island of Calypso. 1 

2. Adonis equipped for the 
Hunt. Venus and dogs. 

3. Bacchus teaching the nymphs 
to make verses. Horace, 
Odes ii. 19. 

Zeuxis painting the picture of 
Juno. 2 

La Penserosa. 

1. Family Group of Edward, 
1 2th Earl, with Lady Eliza- 
beth Hamilton, his first wife, 
and their infant son, after- 
wards 13th Earl. 4 feet x 3 
feet. (The figures appear 
small and separate ; and the 
divided action of the child 
who is between them, destroys 
all simplicity and unity.) 

2. The Return of Telemachus. 4 
2 feet 2 inches x 5 feet. (A 
long picture, originally de- 
s'gned for a " Sopra Porta." 
The composition comprises 
seven figures. The tints are 
broken and the shadows 
strong and heavy.) 

3. The parting of Ulysses and 
Penelope, a companion pic- 
ture to Telemachus. (The 
composition is far superior to 
and much more effectively 
coloured than Telemachus.) 

Portrait of Countess Digby. 


1 The Duke of Courland saw the original picture, a commission from Mr. 
Bowles, of Wanstead, and ordered two replicas. Zucchi MS. 

2 This fine picture was bought at the Rushout sale for £136. 

5 The collection of paintings at Knowsley is one of the finest in England , 
comprising works of the best masters. The catalogue is a most interesting 
volume, from which above was taken. 

4 " As pretty a painted tale as that dainty artist could produce, and the 
ompan'on picture a sweet thing in oils. — Athenarum , 1880. 

b b 



ORIG'NAL OR (whetl 

Donaldson Gallery, 
New Bond Street. 

Dowries, Chief 

Justice, Ireland. 
Dresden Gallery. 

Dugnami, Cardinal. 
Dublin National 

Duff, Mr. 

Edinburgh Gallery. 
Exeter, Marquis of. 2 


Two ovals of Cupid dis- 
armed by Euphrosyne, and 
Cupid, Venus, and Euphro- 

The death of Sylvia's favourite 

1. Portrait of herself as a Sibyl, 
3 feet 6 inches in height, 2 feet 
io inches in width. Very 

2. Portrait of Princess Mary of 
Courland as a Vestal. 

3. Ariadne deserted by Theseus. 
Study of a head. A sketch. 

1. Family group of Lord and 
Lady Ely, their niece, 
Dorothy Monroe, and Ange- 
lica at the clavichord. 

2. Portrait of Dorothy Monroe. 1 
Portrait of himself. 

Novosiels Ki, the architect, 
portrait of. 

1. yEthra and Theseus. 

2. Abelard presenting Hymen 
to Eloisa. 

3. Abelard and Eloisa. 

4. Death of Eloisa. 

5. Marriage of St. Catherine. 

6. Fame decorating the Tomb 
of Shakespeare. 

7. Maria from Sterne. 

8. Penelope lamenting over the 
body of Ulysses. 

9. Love conquering Prudence. 

10. Prudence resisting Love. 


Bartolozzi (very 

popular) . 




1 A celebrated beauty. See pages 141, 142. The portrait was bought at 
Lord Ely's sale at Messrs. Christie's, 1S89. 

- Lord Exeter was a friend and admirer of Angelica ; he ordered pictures 
from her by the yard. Waagen in his "Treasures of Art" says that he 
had seen no seat which afforded so completely a view of the tMte in art, 
which prevailed in England in the 17th and iSth century, as thai- of Lord 



original or (when 
known) present owner. 

Exeter, Marquis of, 

Esterhazy, Prince 

Fitzherbert, Sir Wil- 

Florence, the Uffizi 

Frankfort Gallery. 

Forbes, Esq. 


Firrao, Cardinal. 

Garrick Club. 

11. Cleopatra decorating Mark 
Antony's tomb. 

12. David Garrick. 

13. Lady Tovvnshend and her 
infant son. 

14. Mrs. Bates. 1 

1. Death of Alcestis. 

2. Pyrrhus presenting his foster- 
brother to King Glaucus. 3 
feet high 2| wide. 

Alleyne Fitzherbert, Portrait 

Her own portrait. 

Winckelmann, Portrait of. 

1. Religion with all her lovely 

2. The departure of Hagar and 
Ishmael from the tents of 

3. Cephalus and Procris. 

4. The Blessed Mary watering a 

5. The Discovery of Achilles by 
Ulysses in the Court of King 
Lycomedes, disguised as a 

6. Angelica between the Rival 
Arts of Music and Painting. 
44 x 32. 2 A present from the 

Portrait of. An allegorical pic- 

Mrs. Hartley, portrait of. 


J. C. Leclerc. 




1 Miss Harrod, afterwards Mrs. Bates, a celebrated singer, seated in a 
landscape, holding a lyre and roll of music. Sold in the sale of the Marquis 
of Exeter's pictures at Messrs. Christie's, June 9th, 1888. See Supplement 
under M. 

2 Barry, R.A., passed the highest encomiums upon all these pictures, 
especially the last, which is a reminiscence of the struggle she had once gone 
through. See p. 21. He declared that he envied Music the squeeze she 
received, " for," said he, ; 'the impression is actually imprinted on her hand.'' 

B b 2 



original or (when 




Grimani, Marchese, a 
beautiful Venetian 
lady, of the family 
of Conaro. 

Gartaut, Monseig- 

Hamilton, Sir 

Ilampe, John Henry, 

Hampton Court 

Hervey, Lord. 2 

Herzen, Cardinal. 
Hoare, Sir Francis, 
of Stourhead. 

Hoare, of Wavendon 

Home, Earl of. 
Houldsworth, Col. 

Portrait ot. 

Portrait of himself. 

Emma, Lady Hamilton, por- 
trait of, as the Comic Muse. 

Emma, Lady Hamilton, as a 
Bacchante l (only the head). 

Portrait of himself. 

Duchess of Brunswick, portrait 
of, full length. 

Lady Hervey, portrait of. 

Georgiana, Duchess of Devon- 
shire, portrait of, in a white 
hat. 3 

St Joseph of Cupertino. 

Francis Hoare, portrait of, full 

Portrait of a lady in a Greek 
dress. 4 

Allegorical picture of Penelope 
sacrificing to Minerva to ob- 
tain the safe return of Tele- 
machus. 5 

Large family group. 

Angelica Kauffmann, R.A-, 

portrait of. 
Two classical pictures. 
Portrait of AngelicaKauffmann. 6 


R. Morghen, 1797. 
Fine print of this 
in British Museum. 


A noble 

Raphael Morghen. 
Print in British 

1 Sold at Sir William Hamilton's sale, 1801, for £32 io.r. 
3 Lord Hervey was the eldest son of the famous Bishop of Derry, Marquis 
of Bristol. 

3 This portrait came into the possession of Lord Howard de Walden from 
the Herveys; it was sold by the late lord in 1869, at Messrs. Phillips's, for 
£162. For purchaser see " S." 

4 This picture has been sold. 

s Penelope is the portrait of the second wife of Sir Richard Hoare, nee 
Acland, a lady of remarkable beauty, between whom and Angelica a great 
intimacy existed. 

6 Sold at Messrs. Christie's, 1888, for £115, see Bowring. 



obiginal or (when 
known) present owner. 



Husupoff, Prince. 

Venus, on a couch, counselling 
Helen to fly with Paris, whom 
Cupid leads by the hand into 
the room. 

Ovid in his old age writing 
verses, while Cupid, behind 
him, draws his bow. 

Hayne, C. Seale, 

Telemachus at the court of 

Esq., M.P., Bel- 

Sparta. One of her best pic- 

grave Street, S.W. 


Illustrations for 

books : — 

I. Bell's' 'Poet's." 

1. Vignette Frontispiece, 

2. Churchill's Poems. 

3. Collins's Eclogues. 

4. 1st volume, page 54, Savage. 

5. Hammond's Love Elegies. 

6. Love Elegies. 

7. Mallet, Canto I., verse 268, 

8. Chaucer, vol. iv. 

Bartolozzi, &c. 

II. Taylor's 

1. fortitude. 

Ryland, &c. 

" Moral Em- 

2. Hope. 


3. Justice. 

4. Mercy and Truth. 

5. Patience. 

6. Perseverance. 

7. Prudence. 

8. Omnia Vanitas. 

9. Temperance. 

10. Wisdom. 

11. There's a slip'twixt me and 

12. Instruction. 

III. In "Angeli- 

13. Simplicity. 

F 1 ra — Fro n tis piece. 

Bartolozzi, 1778. 

ca's Library." ! 

La Bergere des Alpes. 
Gualtherius and Griselda (from 

IV. Various pub- 

A shipwreck. A frontispiece 


for Thomson's Seasons. 
Silence and the Shepherd's 

Vignette, a Muse, for a volume 

of poems. 

" Angelica's Library, or a Present from Parents and Guardians,'' price one 
guinea, published by Hamilton, charmingly illustrated by Angelica Kauffmann 
and H. W. Bunbury. The book still commands a good price at book sales. 



original or (when 



known) present owner. 

Johnston, Captain 

I. Hon. Mrs. Darner, por- 

Frederick Erskine, 

trait of. Graceful and charm- 

Gloucester Place. 

2. Earl and Countess of Derby, 
portraits of. 

Josepoff, Prince. 

Augustus and Cleopatra. 
Virgil reading the Eneid to 
Augustus and Octavia. 


Samma at Benoni's Grave. 
(Presented by the artist to 
the author of the Messiah.') 


Knight, John. 

Venus and Cupid. 


Kimber, Arthur, Esq. 

Venus attired by the Graces. 1 

Leven and Melville, 

Clio and Angelica.- 

Earl of. 

Holy Family. 3 

Lyte, II., Esq. 

Venus with the corpse of 
Adonis on her knee. 4 

Loretto, Holy House. 

Mosaic of the Blessed Child 
watering the lily. 

Lothian, Marquis of. 

Portrait of Elizabeth, Mar- 
chioness of Lothian. 5 

London : — 

Royal Academy, 

Design, large oval ; one of the 


four removed from Somerset 

National Portrait 

Portrait of herself, oval, half 


length, in a white dress with 
yellow scarf. She rests her 
right hand, holding a porte- 
crayon, on a portfolio, the 
other, without a ring, is raised 
to her breast. 6 

National Gallery. 

Religion, bequeathed by Mr. 
Forbes. 7 


This large oval was bought at the Rushout sale for ^"535- 

This large oval was bought at the Rushout sale, in 1878, for £wo. 

Bought at Rushout sale, 1878, ^56. 

Bought at Messrs. Christie's, 1792, by M. White, for £74. 

Exhibited at R. A. Exhibition of 1887. 

See Forbes. 

Bought from Mr. Graves, of Pall Mall, for £l20. 






London ( Continued. ) 

South Kensington 

I. Emma, Lady Hainilton. 1 



2. Cupid's'pastime. Small oval, 
on copper. 

3. Ditto. Small oval on copper. 

MacDonald, Colonel. 

Portrait of, in national cos- 


Martinenghi, Count 

Altar piece — John the Baptist. 

of Brescia. 

Massereene, Viscount, 

Lord Ferrard and his son, 

Antrim Castle. 

portraits of. 

Mendip, Lady. 

Magdalen. 2 

Medley, Esq. 

Politicians quarrelling over their 

cards. a 

Milan (Casa Tivai- 

I. Duchess of Massa-Carrara, 



portrait of. 
2. Portrait of Ferdinand, King 
of Naples. 

Miranda, Duke of. 

1. Portrait of his youngest 
daughter in a peasant's dress. 

2. Historical picture (subject 

Montfort Castle. 

Portraits of Count and Countess 
of Montfort and the different 
members of the family. 


Morley, Earl of. 

I. Portrait of Sir Joshua Rey- 

2. Ulysses discovering Achilles 


in the disguise of a Virgin. 

3. Penelope hanging up the 


bow of Ulysses. 

1 Angelica painted Lady Hamilton twice, once as a Bacchante, a failure, 
and once as the Comic Muse, holding a mask in her hand. This last was en- 
graved by Morghen, and is in the collection of the B. M. Morghen made 
some alteration in the picture, at which Angelica was so much displeased 
that she would not allow her own or Lady Hamilton's name to be placed un- 
derneath. It is, however, far superior to the Bacchante, a drawing of which 
is in the British Museum. 

- Now in possession of Lindo Mayers, Saville Row. 

3 This picture was sold at Messrs. Christie's in 1S88, for ^84, to Mr. Frick- 



original or (when 



Morley, Earl of. 

M >ntgomery, Lord. 
Miinster, Bishop of. 

Munich Neue Pina- 

Schleissheim Gal- 
Maughan, Rev. G., 
East Kirkby Vicar- 
rge, Spilsby. 

4. Venus meeting Eneas at Car- 
thage. 1 

5. Hector taking leave of An- 

6. Elfrida's interview with 
King Edgar after her marriage 
with Athelwold. 

7. Rowena presenting a cup to 

8. A woman in Neapolitan 
costume. 2 

9. Portrait of herself playing 
the guitar. 

10. Edmund Bastard, Esq., 
portrait of. 

11. Hebe, on copper. A small 
copy of a large picture by 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, of 
Miss Meyer, daughter to J. 

12. Crayon copy of the Magda- 
len, of Correggio. 

Portrait of himself. 

1. The Annunciation. 

2. Christ calling the little 
children to Him. 

1. Angelica Kauffmann, por- 
trait of. 

2. Christ and the woman of 
Samaria at the well. 46 

x 55 inches. 

3. Portrait of the Palatinate 
Prince of Bavaria in the cos- 
tume of a Knight of St. 

4. Portrait of Prince Nicolas 
Esterhazy. 3 feet high. 

I. Portrait of Louis I. of Ba- 

Meeting of Edward IV. with 
Lady Elizabeth Grey, when 
she implores him to restore 



Ryland. After his 
death it was finish- 
ed by Sharp for 
the widow. 


1 A replica of this painted for Colonel Vereker. See V. 
8 2 to 8 were painted expressly for Saltram, Lord Morley's seat, in 



original or (when 
known) present owner. 

Naples, Capo di 
Monte Gallery. 

Nollekens, J., R.A. 

Paris, the Louvre. 

Parma, Archduchess 

Panin, His Excel- 
lency Comte de. 

Pappasava, Count. 

Pepper, W., Esq., 
presumably of 

Bally garth, Ireland. 

Pezzoli, Count. 

Philadelphia, Penn- 
sylvania Gallery. 

Pius VI., Pope. 

Poland, Stanislaus, 
King of. 


her husband's lands to her 
son. 7 x 4-J feet. 

1. Large family group of the 
Royal family. 

2. Portrait of Ferdinand, King 
of Naples. 

3. Duchess of Corigiiano and 

4. Portrait of Princess Maria 

5. Portrait of Monsignore Gac- 

6. Portrait of Dr. Cirillo l 
Mrs. Nollekens, portrait of, as 

Innocence with Doves. 

Portrait of the Baroness von 

Kruder and child. 
Portrait of the Archduchess. 

Achilles discovered by Ulysses 

in the disguise of a Virgin. 
Portrait of himself and brother. 
Portrait of himself and brother. 

A Magdalen, on copper. 

1. Virtue directed by Prudence 
to withstand the solicitations 
of Folly. 

2. Portrait of herself. 
Joachim and St. Anne with the 

Blessed Child Mary "watering 
a lily for the Holy House of 

1. Virgil reading the Eneid to 
Octavia, and companion pic- 
ture of 

2. Augustus reading the verses 
upon the death of Marcellus. 



Boydell, 1782, after 


1 A celebrated Neapolitan physician. She also painted the death of 
Cleopatra for the Marchese della Gambuca. 



original or (when 




Poniatowski, Count. 

1. Cornelia, Mother of the 
Gracchi, showing her children. 

2. Brutus condemning his Son to 

3. Portrait of the Count in an 
allegorical picture. 

4. Portrait of herself. 1 

Portarlington, Earl 

1. Portrait of Lady Caroline 


Damer. 45 x 47. 

2. Portrait of Lord Milton. 

3. Portraits of Duke and 
Duchess of Dorset. 

4. Portrait of Angelica. 

Portman, Viscount. 

Two " Sopra Portas " of 

1. Scenes from "King Lear," 
including a fine picture of 
Cordelia's death. 

2. The death of Clorinda. 

Powis, Earl of. 

Portrait of the Hon. Charlotte 

Redshaw, J. 

Death of Procris. 

Fielding, 1767. 

Rezzonico, Cardinal. 

Historical portrait of himself, as 
appearing before the Senate. 

Richmond and 

Mary, wife of 3rd Duke of 


Gordon, Duke of. 

Richmond. Small full length. 

At Goodwood. 

Historical : — 

At Gordon Castle. 

1. Alexander, 4th Duke of Gor- 
don, half length. 


2. Jean Maxwell, wife of 4th 


Duke of Gordon, half length. 

3. Venus and Adonis. Copy 

from Titian. 

4. Danae. Copy from Titian. 

5. La Madonna della Seggiola. 

Copy from Raphael. 

6. St. Cecilia (the CumeanSibyl). 

Copy from Domenichino. 

7. Sibylla Persica. Copy from 


8. Abraham and Hagar. Copy 

from Guercino. 

9. Joseph and Potiphar's wife. 

Copy from Guercino. 

See Northwick — Supplement to Catalogue. 



original ok (when 




Richmond, and 
Gordon, Duke of. 

Robinson, Richard, 
Archbishop of Ar- 

Roth, Cardinal, 
Prince Bishop of 

Rosebery, Earl of. 1 

Rome, Academy of 

St. Luke. 
Rutland, Duke of, 

Belvoir Castle. 4 

Russia, Count du 
Nord, afterwards 
Emperor Paul I. 

Russia, Catherine If., 

10. St. Paul rebuking Peter. 
Copy from Guido. 

11. Salome. Copy from Guido. 

12. Dido. Copy from Guido. 

13. Ulysses and Calypso. 
Portrait of himself. 

Portrait of himself. 

1. Portrait of Lady Northwick 2 
and child. Large oval, 50 

x 42. 

2. La Bergere des Alpes. 3 

3. Gualtherius and Griselda. 

4. Cupids at play. (Small ovals, 

5. Horace and Virgil. (Small 
ovals, pair.) 

6. Lavinia and Palemon. 

7. Damon and Musidora. 
Hope, a portrait of herself. 

The death of the stag. 26 x 
36. This picture hangs in 
the Queen's sitting-room. 

1. Leonardo da Vinci expiring 
in the arms of Francis I. 

2. Portrait of the Countess du 
Nord, afterwards Empress of 

1. The birth of Servius Tul- 

2. Achilles discovered by Ulysses 
in the disguise of a Virgin at 

Dickinson, 1787. 


( Ryland. 

1 Lord Rosebery bought these pictures at the Bowles-Rushout sale in 

2 Rebecca, Lady Northwick, was sister to Mr. George Bowles. Her hus- 
band, Sir John Rushout, was raised to the peerage as Baron Northwick in 
1797. Her daughters, the Hon. Anne, and Harriet, Lady Cockerell, were 
Mr. Bowles' nieces. 

' 3 Subject taken from Marmontel's story. 
4 For additional pictures at Belvoir Castle, see Supplement to Catalogue. 



original or (when 
known) present owner. 



Russia, Catherine II., 
Empress. {Con- 
tinued. ) 

Ryland, W. 

Rayer, R., Esq. 
Church of. 

Emilia Seckingen, 
borne, Kammer 
Fraulein, or lady- 
in-waiting to her 
Highness, the wife 
of the Churfurst of 
Bavaria. She 
wears the orders 
of St. Elizabeth. 

Scantlebury, Esq. 

Scott, Sir B. 

St. Petersburg 

St. Petersburg, the 


Sussex, Duke of. 
Spencer, Earl. 

the court of King Lyco- 
medes. 1 

Cymon and Iphigenia. 

Mirror of Venus. 

1. Fresco of the Twelve 
Apostles, after Piazzetta. 

2. Altar piece, the coronation of 
the Blessed Virgin. 

3. Her own portrait in the na- 
tional dress, bequeathed. 

Portrait of herself. 3 feet in 
height, 2^2 in width. 

1. Duchess of Devonshire in a 
white hat. 2 

2. Cupids at play. 

1. Euphrosyne disarming Cupid. 3 

2. Cupid and Aglaia. 4 

Thetis bathing Achilles in the 

1. The Monk of Calais and 
Juliette. (From Sterne's 
"Sentimental Journey.") 

2. The adieux "of Abelard and 

Portrait of himself, with his 

I. Family group, including por- 
traits of Viscount Allhorp, 
with his sisters, Georgiana, 

W.W. Ryland, 1782. 

Trotter, 1757. 




1 Angelica used this subject several times, treating it differently. The story 
is always that of Achilles disguised as a girl, and discovered by Ulysses. 
3 Bought in 1869 from Lord Howard de \Valden, for ,£162. 
3 and 4 Bought at the Rushout sale. 



original or (when 



Spencer, Earl. 

afterwards Duchess of Devon- 


shire, and Henrietta, after- 
wards Countess of Bess- 
borough. 1 


2. Margaret, Countess of 



3. Portrait of Angelica, a pre- 


4. Portrait of Lord and Lady 


Sommariva, Herr (of 

Cleopatra and Augustus. 


Solms, Countess of. 

The Power of Love, a scene 
from Ossian's poems. 

Ogborne, 1799. 

Stokes, T., Esq. 

Angelica Kauffmann, portrait of. 

Shepherd, Esq. 

Coriolanus going into exile. 

Bartolozzi, 1802. 

Strickland, Mrs., 

Rival arts, Painting and Music. 

2 Cokethorpe House. 


Ditto, a present from Angelica. 3 

Tacconi, Marquis. 

Mary, Mother of God, with the 
child and two angels. 

Taylor, G. W., M.P. 

I. Ariadne and Penelope. 

2. Palemon and Lavinia. 


3. A small head of Laura. 

4. Eurydice. | 4 

5. Cordelia. ) 


6. Celadon and Amelia struck 

by lightning. 

" From his void embrace. 

Mysterious Heaven ! that moment 

to the ground, 

A blackened corpse, was struck the 

beauteous maid." — Seasons. 

Thornton, Godfrey, 

Theseus finding his father's 



sword and sandals. 

1 This portrait is at Althorp, Lord Spencer's seat. It is let into a 
panel over the chimney-piece. The grouping is excellent. The two ladies 
are seated in a garden; their brother is standing before them. It is mo t 

2 Cokethorpe House now belongs to Mr. Clement Cottrell Dormer. The 
picture is very beautiful. Music is seated. 

3 This was a picture of herself between Music and Painting. Schopfer 
drew the design with chalk upon stone and sent it to Rome, and in this way 
Senefelder's discovery was made known in Italy. 

* Sold at Messrs. Christie's, 1832. 



original or (when 

known) present owner. 



Townshend, Marquis. 

Large family group of eight 


children, the Marquis hold- 
ing the youngest in his arms. 

f\. Annida putting on her 

j armour. (Tasso.) 

Vereker, Colonel, the 

Hon. C. S. 1 

') 2. Venus showing Carthage 
(. to Eneas and Achates. 

Vernon, Sir Edward. 

I. Electra and Chrysothemus, 
from Sophocles. 

2. Peleus and Thetis. 

Macklin's Gallery. 

Vienna, Belvedere 

I. Thusnelda receiving Armi- 


nius after the battle with Varus. 
2. The companion picture of 
^Eneas paying funeral honours 
to the corpse of Pallas. 2 

Volpato, Giovanni. 

Portrait of himself. 
Portrait of his daughter and 

Walch, Herr, Dorn- 

Portrait of Angelica. 3 

birn, Bregenz. 

Portrait of John Joseph Kauff- 

1 For present owner, see Sandeman, in Supplement Catalogue. 

2 These enormous pictures were a commission from the Emperor Joseph II., 
and on receiving them he wrote to Cardinal Herzen,* his plenipotentiary at 
Rome: "As a token of my gratitude I join to this letter a snuff-box and 
ornament with a cypher, which Your Eminence will have the goodness to 
present to Angelica. I desire you to inform her that the two works are 
placed in the Imperial collection, for I wish that, as well as myself, all my 
subjects may admire her talents." 

3 A writer in the German Kunstbild (a magazine on the lines of the Art 
Journal) states, that in making a tour through the Bregenz, he chanced at 
Dombirn to meet a certain Herr Walch, the drawing-master of the Realschule 
in the village. 

"I was," says the writer, "not a little surprised to find that my acquaint- 
ance turns out to be a descendant of Angelica Kauffmann's family, and the 
heir to her belongings, which, after her death, in 1807, had been brought to 
Schwartzenberg. Herr Walch has many interesting relics, notably a charming 
portrait of the artist, also the portrait of her father, together with different 
works of art and curiosities which she collected in England and elsewhere, 

* Cardinal Herzen gave Angelica a commission for a picture of St. Joseph, 
of Cupertino. She presented it to him as a present ; upon which his 
Eminence .sent her a splendid silver basin and some excellent coffee from the 
Levant.' — Zucchi MS. (See p. 372.) 



original or (when 

known) present owner. 



Waldeck, Prince of. 

Allegorical painting of the first 
meeting of Leander with 
Hero : the priestess of Venus, 
surrounded by her vestal 
virgins, is offering sacrifice to 
Adonis. Hero is the portrait 
of Prince Waldeck's affianced 
bride, who was then in Rome. 


Waldegrave, Earl. 

1. Prince Frederick of 
Gloucester, an infant. 

2. Princess Sophia of 
Gloucester, an infant. 

Walker, — . 

1. Virgil asleep. 1 

2. Horace dreams. 


Wells, Esq. 

Griselda. 2 


West, Mrs. 

Eurydice and Ariadne 3 deplor- 
ing the flight of Theseus. 

Woodhouse, Esq. 

1. Rural sports. 

2. Griselda. 



Large family group. 4 


and divers presents made to her by friends and admirers." For the purpose 
of this biography, Joseph Baer, the excellent bookseller at Frankfort, com- 
municated with Herr Walch, but received no reply. 

1 Bought at Messrs. Christie's in 1833 for £173. 

2 Sold in 1888 by Messrs. Christie's to Messrs. Agnew, of Bond Street, for 
,£220 ioj-. 

3 Sold 1832. 

4 Count Andre Zamoyski, of Poland, husband of Countess Constance 
Zamoyski. Alexandre Zamoyski, eldest son. Mademoiselle Anetta Zamoyski. 
Stanislaus Zamoyski, youngest son. L'Abbe Stanislaus, the Preceptor. 
" A large family group, in which will be represented Count 'Andre de Za- 
moyski, seated, showing his two sons and his daughter the marble bust of his 
grandfather, who was so celebrated in Poland — that his children may emulate 
the example of this hero. The figures are to be full length, and to be attired 
in the costume of the ancient Romans. The bust of the hero is to be on a 
pedestal, and a country landscape in the background. 

" The picture to be painted for 600 (zecchini) Roman, as agreed on. 

" The heads of the four sitters are already painted on small canvas. They 
are to be copied and painted into the large picture, which is to be finished 
May 12, 1 79 1. * 

" Counters Constance Zamoyski has paid in advance 300 zecchini, being 
half of the agreement for said picture, which is to be painted by Angelica 
K a u I I'm aim exactly in the manner she has already painted the heads." — 
Extract from Private Memoirs by Antonio Zticc hi, lent by Fred. Hendriks, Esq. 

l8 4 


original or (when 

known) fresent owner. 




Zelada, Cardinal. 
Zucchi, Family of, 


A handsome child painted as 

the God of Love. 
Nathan reproaching David. 
A Madonna touching a sleeping 

child and laying a wreath of 

flowers upon his head. 
Portraits of Antonio, Giuseppe, 

and Francesco Zucchi. 
Portrait of Winckelmann. 








Arcadia. 1 


Penelope weeping over the bow of Ulysses. 



Penelope taking down the bow of Ulysses. 



Messalina sacrificing to Venus and Cupid before 
she obtained liberty for the Roman ladies to 
have several husbands. 



Andromache weeping over the ashes of Hector. 

Burke, Ryland. 


A son newly married introducing his bride to his 

Morghen. (Very fine 

widowed mother. 

engraving, British 


Alcestis sacrificing her life to save that of her 



A lady contemplating her own picture. 


A group of royal children. 



An English lady and child. 


1 1. 

An English lady as Psyche. 


Portrait of a lady playing the harp. 



Portrait of a gentleman. 



Portrait of a group of children as Autumn. 



Portrait of a gentleman. 



Portrait of a lady. 


A nobleman's children. 



A gentleman (full length). 



Portrait of a lady in Eastern dress. 



Portrait of lady (full length). 



Erminia finding Tancredjasleep. 


1 This was the first picture exhibited by Angelica after she came to London, 
1766. Mr. Goldie has the original sketch, bee page 396. 

C C 

3 86 





Eleanor sucking the poison from the wound of 

Pariset and Mile. 

Edward I. From Rapin's history. 

Bareuille, Paris, re- 
produced by W. 


Achilles lamenting the death of Patroclus. 



Venus in her chariot. Designed for a ceiling ; 

Rose Lenoir, aged 

and repeated several times. 

[4, daughter to the 


The flight of Paris and Helen. 



A sacrifice to Pan. 



Aristides requested to sign the ostracism for his 

W. Dickinson. (A 

own banishment by an illiterate citizen. 

very fine engraving, 
B. M.) 


Penelope awakened by Euryclea, with the news 


of the return of Ulysses. 





Cupid reposing. 


Modesty embracing virtuous love. 


3 2 - 

Madonna and Child. 


Andromache fainting at the sight of /Eneas. 


Paris and Helen directing Cupid to inflame their 

Calypso calling Heaven to witness her affection 


for Ulysses. 


Venus presenting Helen to Paris. 



Juno borrowing the Cestus of Venus. 



Sylvia overcome by Daphne. 



Werter and Charlotte. 




The power of music. 



Lady contemplating her lover's picture. 



Picturesque amusements. 



Tancred and Clorinda. 


Oval from Anacreon. 


" L' Amour dort." 



Venus crowned by Cupid. 










Ulysses conducted by Calypso to the forest 

A. K. and Joseph 

where he can cut the trees to build his raft. 



Postumio, Consul of Rome, examining the 
Courtesan Ispalia in the presence of his mother, 
as to the Feasts of Bacchus. 










Conjugal peace. (Two ducks in a basket.) 


Paris and GEnone carving their names on a tree. 



Diana and her nymphs. 



Papirius Praetextatus revealing to his mother the 
supposed secret of the Senate. 1 



Practical exercises. 


Morning amusements. 







The flight of Paris and Helen from the court of 




Cupid and Psyche. 


The beautiful Rhodope in love with ^Esop. 





Nymphs awakening Cupid. With a quotation 

Stipple engraving by 

from Horace's " Odes " : — " Dormio in- 

Rose Lenoir. 



General Stanwick's daughter. . A memorial 
picture, very popular in its day, being largely 
engraved. 2 There were six lines of poetry at 
the foot of the engraving. The German 
biographers of Angelica allude constantly to 
this picttire as one of her best paintings. So 
far no trace seems to exist of such a painting. 

W. W. Ryland. 


Faith. 3 



Therese Bandattini and Fortunato Fantastici. 
Portraits of. 


The Muses crowning Pope. 



Perseverance. 4 



Fortitude with Lion. Her own portrait. 


Signor Abbatede Bourbon of France. Portrait, 


General Espinasse. 

1 In the classical dictionary Praetextatus Vettius and Praetextatus Sul- 
picius are given, but not Papirius. 

2 A print engraved by Ryland, and corresponding in every particular to 
above description, is in the portfolio of Angelicas, B. Museum. ... It has 
no title nor history. 

3 Portrait of Rosa Bonomi. 

4 Perseverance is sometimes called Penelope with her dog. — (See Bowring.) 

C C 2 


Etching is, as everyone knows, a process in which the design is 
freely drawn on copper with a metal point, and afterwards bitten 
in by a strong acid. This art was much practised by artists in 
the last century, particularly abroad, where the peintre graveur 
flourished ; in the seventeenth and eighteenth century line 
engraving was the principal method used, but some of the best 
engravers combined both methods with excellent effect. 

Mr. Tuer, in his " Bartolozzi and his Works," tells the reader 
in a pleasant manner all about the beautiful art of engraving, with 
its many variations, and he draws attention to the good work of 
Mr. Seymour-Haden and Prof. Herkomer. 

The thirty-five etchings by Angelica are of great value, first, 
because she excelled in this branch; secondly, because she never 
practised it after she left England. 

Her earlier productions are very fine. There are several 
specimens in the collection of engravings after her pictures, in 
the print room of the British Museum. Many of these were 
purchased by the Boydells Brothers, and reproduced in aquatint, 
or lavis, to suit the taste of the day. Some of her later etchings 
were reproduced in mezzotint, or, as the French call it, a la 
manierc noire. In all the dictionaries ' of the peintre-graveur 
of the last century, these thirty-five plates of Angelica's are 
mentioned with much commendation, and the reproduction by 
Boydell (where it took place) is set down in the following 

i Beraldi, Le Blanc, and Hiiber are amongst the best. Andresen gives 
a catalogue ofl er etchings ; so does Bryan, but both are imperfect. 



manner : — 2nd Ed. a la maniere de laws, or " lavis " simply 
with the date of the reproduction. In the catalogue here given 
this example is followed. 

In some of her plates Angelica was assisted by Joseph Zucchi, 
the engraver (brother to Antonio), and in such cases at the foot- 
note of the engraving or etching appears the words Eadem (the 
same meaning herself) and Joseph Zucchi. 

These explanations are given for the advantage of those who, 
perhaps, have not studied these details. 


1. Susanna surprised by the Elders. 

2. Holy Family, an angel offering flowers to the 

child Jesus. 

3. Repose in Egypt. (Angel with a dish.) 

4. Marriage of St. Catherine of Sienna, after 


5. Venus with the corpse of Adonis on her knees. 

6. Juno with the peacock, right hand resting on the 


7. Hebe, holding a shell in her right hand, a vase 

in her left, into which she pours nectar for 
Jupiter, who is in the disguise of an eagle. 

8. Urania 2 measuring the celestial globe. 

9. Simplicity with Doves, after her portrait of Mrs. 


10. Hope. (Large oval.) Figure of a woman with 

a turban on her head, her arms resting on an 

11. Rinaldo crowned with flowers by Armida, two 

knights in the distance. 

12. Calypso and Ulysses swearing eternal fidelity. 

13. Sanzio. 

14. Winckelmann seated at his desk preparing to 



















A. K. 




Reproduced lavis with 

A. K. and Joseph 


1764. Proof before 

1 Mezzotint, or a la maniere noire. 

In this process the artist worked upon a grained board, called the cradle." 
Upon this board the drawing was fixed, and the lights were brought out by 
means of a sharp instrument called le grattoir. 

Lavis and aqua-tint are identical. The copper, upon which the design 
is drawn, is plunged in a bath of water, into which either salt mastic or sand 
has been mixed. The effect produced resembles Indian ink or bistre. 

2 Urania and Hope. Portraits of herself. 





15. Young man leaning on his left hand. The portrait 

of a painter. 

16. Bust of a man (three-quarters) holding a stick. 

17. Bust of a man (in profile). In the left-hand 

corner the letters A. K. 

18. Man with turban, leaning on books, a pencil in 

his hand. 

19. Woman, with her arms and feet naked, sitting 

with her back to spectators on some stones. 

20. Die Haarflechterinn (Hair-plaiter). 

21. Woman meditating. 

22. Woman reading. 

23. Woman with a veil, one end knotted in her 

hair, the other falling on her shoulder. Both 
hands support a book, over which her head is 

24. A female figure weeping over a monumental urn. 

(In memory of General Stanwick's daughter, 
lost in her passage from Ireland.) Very rare. 

25. A woman reading from a large book. 

26. A woman (half-length) leaning on her elbow, 

holding a ribbon. 

27. Bust of a woman, her profile to the right. 

28. Head, in profile, of a young woman. 

29. L' Allegro. (Oval.) 

30. II Penseroso. (Oval.) 

31. Two philosophers. 

32. Bust of an old man. 

33. Study of the head of an old man. 

34. St. Peter rebuking his brother apostle, St. Paul. 

After Guido's celebrated picture in the Casa 
Sempiere in Bologna. Angelica did this 
subject three times, in 1772, 1773, and 1776. 
Joseph Zucchi helped her with the last, and 
his name is found with hers on the leaf. The 
one executed in 1772 is the best. 

35. Sappho conversing with Homer. From the 

original by Antonio Zucchi. 1 

1762. 2nd acquafortis 
finished 178 1 in 

1770. '2nd lavis, 
1780.^- • PH 

1765. 2nd lavis, 1780. 
2nd 1781. Lavis and 

1 77 1. 2nd lavis, 


1779- ) 
1779- i 



These are two 
of her best. 

1781. A. K. and 

Joseph Zucchi. 

1 This was the last etching executed by Angelica in England. Homer is 
lying under a tree. This is said to be Antonio Zucchi's portrait, while 
Angelica sat for Sappho. Le Blanc remarks that " Sappho married Homer. 1 ' 

A portfolio of etchings in acquatinta by Angelica, and fancy subjects 
after her designs by Delatre, Tomkines, and Pastorini, were sold in Sir Mark 
Sykes's sale, 1825. 


Bartolozzi's engravings hold such a high place in public estima- 
tion, that it would seem desirable to append a list of those which 
he produced from Angelica's works, as an assistance to coMectors. 
The proofs, especially those in colours, are the most difficult to 
obtain, and are very beautiful. 

There have been several collections made of the Bartolozzi- 
Angelicas. At the Bowles-Rushout sale a portfolio containing 
250 Bartolozzis, many of them proofs before letters, were sold to 
Smith, the commission agent for the American market. 

An album put together some years since by Mr, Harvey, St. 
James' Street, of Bartolozzi's engravings, contained a number of 
beautiful prints after Angelica. It was sold at Mr. Sotheran's, in 
the Strand, for ^400, to an American. 

Mr. La Touche of Belview, in Wicklow, has a room full of 
Bartolozzis, amongst them many after Angelica. 2 

Mr. A. W. Tuer has a large collection of prints, and sold some of 
his Bartolozzi-Angelicas not long ago. The British Museum has a 
portfolio containing 250 engravings after Angelica (including many 
Bartolozzis), and three or four valuable proofs before letters. 
Anyone wishing to know more of this interesting subject should 
consult Mr. Tuer's " Bartolozzi and his Works." 3 

1 After Bartolozzi's death his prints went for a time out of fashion. They 
could be got for the small sum of sevenpence and a shilling. The Americans 
raised the price by offering large sums for the collections. 

2 It is not generally known that Bartolozzi lived for a couple of years in 
Dublin, and it was owing to the influence of Mr. La Touche and Lord Cliarle- 
mont that he secured the patronage of the fashionable world of London. 

3 Miss Hoare, of Charles Street, had a collection of Angelica Bartolozzis 
which have been sold. She has still three or four. Mr. William Bowles has 
a collection of proof engravings, many of them Bartolozzis. Mrs. Nevile 
has a coloured print by Bartolozzi, from Macklin's gallery, of the death of 
Sylvia's stag— date 1796. The Hon. Gerald Ponsonby is the owner of a col- 
lection of very fine engravings (several proofs). They were bought at the 
Rushout sale, and are now very valuable. 

39 2 Appendix. 

The list here given has been compiled in part from Mr. 
Tuer's exhaustive catalogues. 

1. Penelope hanging up the bow of Ulysses. From the original in the 

possession of the Earl of Morley. 

2. The Death of Sylvia's Stag. From the original in the possession of Lord 

Justice Downes. 

3. Gualtherius and Griselda, printed in red chalk. 1 From the picture 

painted for George Bowles, Esq. 

4. Cleone, printed in brown. 

5. Cordelia, in red chalk. 

6. Dancing and Bacchanalian nymphs. 

7. Penelope weeping over the bow of Ulysses. Oval. 

8. Calais — the snuff-box. From "Sentimental Journey." In red chalk. 

9. Companion ditto. Maria and the handkerchief. 

10. Simplicity. From the portrait of Mrs. Nollekens. 

11. Ahijah foretelling the death of the son of Jeroboam. From the original 

painted for G. Bowles, Esq. 

12. Christ appearing to the Maries. From the original painted for George 

Bowles, Esq. 

13. Dido invoking the Gods. Red chalk. Very fine. 

14. The birth of Shakespeare. (Very fine.) From the original painted for 

Lady Rushout, afterwards Lady Northwick. 

15. Companion oval. The tomb of Shakespeare. 2 

16. Telemachus and Mentor in the Island of Calypso. 3 From the original 

painted for George Bowles, Esq. 

17. Winter. 4 

1 8. Sincerity. 5 

19. Rinaldo and Armida. 6 From the original painted for George Bowles, Esq. 

20. Pomona. 

21. The Death of Clorinda and her companion. Proofs in black and brown 

before letters. Very fine. 7 
22 Louisa Hammond ; or, the miseries of war. 8 
23. L' Allegro. 9 

1 The red chalk method was successfully practised in Paris by Demarteau, 
who imitated by this process the chalk studies of Boucher. Demarteau 
taught the method to Ryland, who introduced it into England about the 
time Bartolozzi arrived, when it became very popular. Everyone raved 
about these charming red prints. Angelica Kauffmann, then in the zenith of 
her fame, warmly encouraged this new taste amongst her fashionable patrons ; 
hence the great number of red chalk engravings after her prettily-conceived 
designs. " Bartolozzi," by A. W. Tuer. 

2 Mr. William Bowles has two engravings of the birth of Shakespeare and 
companion oval. They are in red, and are first impressions, having formed 
part of the Wanstead collection. 

3 This was sold at Mr. Tuer 

's sale for 

£l H 

4 and 5 were ,, ,, 


1 1 

fi and ' 

CUIU. ,, ,, ,, 

J J 

5 10 

8 was >) j> 


3 5 


>i >> >> 


2 2 

See Tuer's ' 

' Bartolozzi." 

Appendix. 393 

24. The beautiful Rhodope in love with ^Esop. Proofs in brown, very fine. 

Ditto in red before letters. 1 

25. Coriolanus. 2 

26. Venus attired by the Graces. 3 From the original painted for George Bowles. 

27. A vestal. 

28. King Psammetichus and the fair Rhodope. 

29. History. 

30. Paulus Emilius educating his children. Proofs very rare. 

31. Diana preparing for the hunt. Oval. Red chalk. Proofs in red and 

black, very rare. 

32. Paris and OZnone engraving their names on the bark of a tree. 

33. Zeuxis composing his picture of Juno. Proof most rare and beautiful. 

From the original painted for George Bowles. 

34. The four parts of painting. Invention, Composition, Design, Colouring. 


35. The fine arts ; or, les beaux arts. Architecture, Sculpture, Painting. 

From a drawing in possession of M. le Baron d' Offenbach. 

36. The rainbow in four parts. In dark brown chalk. 

37. Socrates in his prison composing a hymn to Apollo. Oval. 

38. Lady Jane Grey giving her table book to the constable of the tower. 

Bowies' collection. 

39. Queen Margaret of Anjou and the robber. 4 

40. Lady Elizabeth Grey imploring Edward IV. to restore his lands to her son. 4 

41. Elfrida meeting King Edgar after her marriage with Athelwold. From 

the original in possession of Lord Morley. 5 

42. Bergere des Alpes. Proof before letters, rare and beautiful. 

43. Religion. 

44. Horace 6 dreams. 

45. Sallacia girl with box. 

46. Veillez amants si l'amour dort. 

47. Turkish lady at her devotions. 

48. Cleopatra persuading Meleagar to defend his country. 

49. Cossuccia. 
49a. Coelia. 

50. Fatima and Zoraide. 

51. Liberal fair. 

52. Rosalinda. 

53. The fair Alsatian. 

54. Rural sports. From the original picture in the possession of Mr. Wood- 


1 This was sold at Mr. Tuer's sale for £2 2 o 
» » ,, „ 240 

,3 ». 660 

See Tuer's " Bartolozzi." 
4 The price now asked for an engraving of either of these pictures is from 
£S to £10. 

3 This had been commenced by the unfortunate W. W. Ryland, and after 
his death it was completed by Bartolozzi for the benefit of his widow. 

6 " Horace " is called in Mr. Bowles' catalogue " Venus and Ascanius." 
In the Bartolozzi prints there are two lines of poetry at the foot of engraving. 

394 Appendix. 

55. Zobeide, the beautiful Moor. 

56. Young girl with bird-cage. 

57. Antiope. 

58. Diana. 

59. Eurydice. 

60. Female, walking in a wood, comes upon Love playing the harp. 

61. Hermione. 

62. Nymphs after bathing. 

63. Penelope. 

64. Venus showing ^Eneas the way to Carthage. From the picture now in 

possession of Albert Sandeman, Esq. 

65. Women, one with lyre. 

66. Miranda and Ferdinand. 

67. Girl with garlands. Probably from the Belvoir picture. 

68. Cornelia, mother of the Gracchi. Proof beautiful. From the original 

painted for George Bowles. 

69. Venus and Cupid. 

70. Cupid and Aglaia. 

71. Cupid sleeping on the lap of a woman, another Cupid standing by. 

72. Tancred and Erminia. 

73. Virgil. 

74. Virgil reading the yEneid. 

75. Adoration. 

76. Humility. Proof before letters. 

77. Sacrifice to Ceres. 1782. 

78. Nymph and Cupid. 

79. The Passions. 

80. The Seasons. A series of four. 

81. Tragedy and Comedy. 

82. Vanity and Modesty. 

83. Damon and Delia. 

84. Death of Alcestis. 

85. Griselda. 

86. Henry and Emma. From the Bowles' collection. 

87. Apollo and his companion. 

88. Emma Corbett. 

89. A warrior seated in a wood holding up his hand to a maiden. 

90. A woman (in profile). 

91. Celia and Rosalind. 

92. Celadon and Amelia. 

93. Fatima. 

94. The Judgment of Paris. From the Bowles' collection. 

95. Tancred and Clorinda (fr:>m Tasso). 

96. Bacchus teaching the Nymphs to make verses. 

97. Child with kitten. 

98. A girl at her toilette. 

99. Tambourine and castanet. 

100. Woman with lyre, or Angelica as Poetry. 

101. Lady Northwick and child. Sometimes called Venus and Cupid. 

102. Countess of Harcourt. Portrait. 

103. Virgil asleep. Companion picture to "Horace dreams." From the 

Bowles' collection. 


i. A Muse for Scott's Poems. 

2. Flora for Thomson's Seasons. Bell's edition. 

3. Frontispiece for Churchill s Poems. 

4. Felicity, from Collins's Eclogues. 

5. Bell's Poets — Savage, vol. lxx. 

" Where kind content, from noise and Court retires, 
And smiling sits, while Muses tune their lyres." 

6. Hammond's Love Elegies, vol. i., p. 88. 

"And Love himself could flatter me no more." 

7. Mallet's, vol. xi. 

" And close within his grasp was clenched a broken oar." 

" Angelica preferred Burke as an engraver of her work to Bartolozzi, and 
always stipulated he should copy her pictures ; he had a soft and beautiful 
tone in his prints, and the day is not far distant when they will command very 
high prices." — Titer s " Bartolozzi." 

Fan Mounts. 

1. Hope nursing Love. 

2. The fine arts. 

3. L'amour dort. 

Some concert and masquerade tickets (very rare). 




In the Possession of Charles Goldie, Esq., 1 
20, Gordon Flace, Kensington. 

1. Tort rait of Rosa Bonomi, nit Florin i. (In pencil.) 

2. Arcadia. The original sketch of " Arcadia," exhibited by Angelica the 

year of her arrival in England, 1766. The sketch is small, and done 
with great delicacy in Indian ink on grey paper, touched with Chinese 

3. Calypso mourning the departure of Ulysses Original sketch, identical in 

treatment with Ariadne lamenting Theseus. It is also in Indian ink, 
same as No. 2. 

4. Slight sketch of a woman consoling a weeping child. In chalk. 

1 The family of Goldie are the immediate descendants of the eminent 
architect, Joseph Bonomi, who married, in 1775, Rosa Florini, Angelica's 
cousin. Of this marriage there were ten children, six sons and four daughters. 
The sons were distinguished either in the army or in science. Joseph was 
well known as an eminent Egyptologist, and later became curator of the 
Soane Museum. Of the daughters, Mary Anne, the second, married George 
Goldie, M.O., father of Mr. Charles Goldie, so that he comes in touch through 
his grandmother with Angelica, and has an affectionate regard for his gifted 
cousin. All mementoes have been carefully preserved. The gold snuff-box 
riven by the Emperor Joseph, the miniature of Zucchi set as a bracelet, and 
the diamond earrings mentioned in her will are in Mr, Charles Goldie's 

Appendix. 397 

Drawings formerly in the Burney Collection, and 
entered in mr. b. qljaritch's catalogue of 1892. 

Summer and Autumn, a pair of pictures in water-colours, with classical figures 

and appropriate scenery, the three Graces being prominent in the 

foreground of " Summer." About 1780. 
L' Amour Venge, Cupid flying from a company of Satyrs, the figures coloured. 
A mother and three children clinging to her, richly but darkly painted in oil. 
A mother and three naked boys seated on clouds ; a coloured cartoon, but 

not finished as a painting. 
Three designs apparently for a book on " The Arts," one a frontispiece, the 

other two symbolizing Music and Painting. About 1786-90. 
Two tinted pen-and-ink drawings to illustrate Telemachus. About 1790. 1 

F. Wadmore, Esq., Cleone. 

Original Sketch. 

1 A set of engravings (4) have been recently added to the portfolio of 
Angelicas in the Print-room, British Museum ; they are engraved by Gabrielli, 
and are said to be after her designs of the four seasons. They are very 


1. Death of Clorinda. 

2. Una and the lion. Una, a portrait of herself. 

3. A girl reading. 

4. Portrait of herself. 

5. Sketch of a beggar holding out his hand. From the collection of Mr. 

Payne Knight. 

6. Classical design for decoration. 

7. Sacrifice to Ceres. Design for a sopra porta. 

8. A Bacchante. 

9. Paris and Helen with Cupid inflaming their hearts. Original sketch. 



Calypso mourning the departure of Ulysses. The same subject as the one in 
possession of Mr. Charles Goldie. 

A portfolio of drawings in possession of Mr. Edward Goldie. 
Also a portfolio of drawings, and other mementoes belonging to 
Angelica, in the possession of Mrs. George Goldie (Venabrio), 
living in Brittany. 


[1771 — 1781.] 

To present anything approaching to a complete list of 
the ceilings, friezes, etc., painted by Angelica during the 
ten years she undertook this work, would be impossible. 
In the constant changes which occur in a large city, 
many of the houses have disappeared, others have fallen 
into decay, while some, during the benighted period 
which set in about 1830, and which may be termed the 
Dark Ages, were deliberately spoiled, by their owners, 
who were genuine iconoclasts so far as art was in ques- 
tion. The fact that Angelica painted these ceilings, not 
on wood, but on canvas or foolscap which was afterwards 
put up, made the work easy to remove, and also more 
liable to the influence of damp or neglect, and in this 
manner much of her decoration has been lost. 

To find out the names of the original owners of the 
houses she decorated has been a task of some difficulty. 
Great help has been given by those who possess such 
houses, either by right of succession or by purchase, 
and the result has been fairly successful. 

4-00 Appendix. 

I have to thank, in a special manner, for their kind help, 
Viscount Portman, Dowager Lady Watkin Williams- 
Wynn, the Lady Constance Leslie, Mr. R. F. Sketchley, 
of the South Kensington Museum, Mr. Vicat Cole, 
R.A., Mr. Wright of the Adelphi, and Mr. Miintzer of 
Dover Street. 


The Adelphi. 

This interesting and now beautiful part of the Strand 
takes its name from four brothers, Robert, John, James 
and William Adam, who, in 1765, obtained ihe lease of 
the land from Sir Thomas Maupasson for ninety-nine 
years, and called it the Adelphi, Greek for brothers. 
Robert and James were architects of repute and men of 
genius. William, in company with Cle"risseau, the French 
artist, and Antonio Zucchi, then a young draughtsman, 
undertook a journey to Dalmatia, in order that he might 
perfect himself in the best types of Ancient Art. The 
result can be seen in the magnificent designs of the 
houses he built and the exquisite finish of his curves, 
friezes, panels, etc. 

Being natives of Scotland, the brothers Adam were 
patronized largely by Lord Bute. For this statesman 
they built Lansdowne House, Berkeley Square, Luton 
House, Bedfordshire, and Caen House, Hampstead. 
Their nationality, together with their enjoyment of the 
favour of the unpopular minister, made them disliked, and 
when in 1771, in building the Adelphi, they encroached 

Appendix. 40 r 

too far on the rights of the citizens, the inhabitants 
applied to Parliament for protection, but did not get it. 
This increased their annoyance. Squibs were freely cir- 
culated at the expense of the brothers : — 

" ' Four Scotchmen, by the name of Adams, 
Who keep their coaches and their madams,' 
Quoth John in sulky mood to Thomas, 
1 Have stole the very river from us ! ' " 

The Adelphi is a standing memorial of the master 
hand that designed and built it. Walking through Adam 
Street and the adjacent streets, anyone with an eye for 
architectural beauty must be struck with the exquisite 
symmetry of the designs — notably in Mr. Attenborough's 
offices — the architraves of the doors of the houses in 
John Street, and the elegance of the terrace itself, upon 
which immense care had been bestowed. Most of the 
ceilings in the principal rooms were decorated by 
Zucchi, 1 and more than one was the work of Angelica. 
The chimney-pieces were handsomely carved, and the 
shutters, doors and skirtings had all carved mouldings of 
very elegant design. Much of this still remains, although 
the houses suffered considerably through the vicissitudes 
through which they passed. The speculation of the 
brothers turned out a failure, the expense of the building 
and of the arches that were necessary for the foundation 

1 Zucchi was an old friend of the Adam Brothers, and had come 
to London on their invitation. It was he who probably introduced 
Angelica to the decorative business. Zucchi decorated Caen Wood, 
Osterley Park, Luton House, Buckingham House, Sion House, and 
others. In the architectural works of the Brothers Adam no men- 
tion is made of any other decorator but Zucchi. There is, however, 
no doubt that he was assisted by Angelica, her father, Cipriani, 
and others. 

D d 

402 Appendix. 

was not recouped, owing to the difficulty of finding tenants 
rich enough to pay sufficiently high rents. The houses 
remained unlet, and gradually fell out of repair. The 
property was heavily mortgaged, and, as time went on, 
came into the hands of the principal mortgagee, Mr. 
Drummond, to whom it now belongs. In 1872 the 
houses subsided, and the attention of the authorities 
being called to their dangerous state, an order was made 
to compel immediate repair. They are now in excellent 
order and all occupied, but in many of them the decora- 
tions had to be removed, as the damp and rain coming 
through the roofs had completely obliterated them. 1 
This happened to the ceiling in No. 6, now occupied by 
the Savage Club. There are decorations to be seen 
at : — 

No. i#, formerly the residence of the Bishop of Durham, 
afterwards the home of the Junior Garrick Club, and 
now belonging to the Christian Police Association. Here 
the ceiling is good, but the paintings, half-moons in 
shape, nine in number, representing flying Cupids and 
Nymphs, are very poor. They are said to be by 
Angelica, but have great traces of John Joseph. 

No. 5, which bears the well-known medallion, to 
" David Garrick," now belongs to the Institution of Naval 
Architects, and has a very good ceiling with a medallion 
in the centre and several small ovals. These are said 
to be the work of Angelica, 2 and probably some of them 
are, as she had such a close friendship with Garrick and 

1 Much information about the terrace was kindly given by Mr. 
Wright, agent to the estate. 

2 In " Old and New London " it is distinctly stated that Garrick's 
house was decorated by Antonio Zucchi. 

Appendix. 403 

his wife. The subject of the centre medallion is " Venus 
attired by the Graces." It is very highly coloured. 1 

At No. 6, now the home of the Savage Club, 2 under- 
neath the whitewash there was discovered a painted 
ceiling, said to be by Angelica. It fell to pieces in re- 

At No. 4, now the residence of Mr. R. D'Oyly Carte, 
there is a perfect gem of a ceiling, and the work is dis- 
tinctly Angelica's. It is soft and lovely, and, if restored, 
has been most judiciously done. The subject is one 
often repeated by her — " Aglaia, one of the Graces, bound 
to a tree by Cupid." There are fifteen small ovals c 
Mr. Carte may consider himself very fortunate in pos- 
sessing such a piece of work. 3 

On the other side of the Police Association, in the 
Adelphi Hotel, there is a ceiling with three plaques ; the 
paintings require cleaning to enable one to discern the 
subjects. The ceiling has been divided. It is probable 
that in its first condition this house, and the one formerly 
occupied by the Junior Garrick, were one, and may have 
been the residence of the brothers, which is the tradi- 
tion. On the other hand, it would seem unlikely that 
those artistic minds would have such inferior work. 

No. 9, John Street, Adelphi. 4 Antonio Zucchi's 

1 In all decorative work which has been restored, it is hard to 
distinguish the original colouring, and this applies especially to 
Angelica's work, which was too delicate to bear the presence of 
certain mediums and varnishes. 

2 No. 7 also belongs to the club. 

3 Henderson, the husband of George KeateV daughter, had a 
house in Adelphi Terrace ; Mrs. Henderson was a friend of 

4 Now occupied by different professional gentlemen. The ceiling 
is in the possession of Messrs. Perry & Reid. Zucchi got 90/. a year 
for this house. 

D d 2 

4-04 Appendix. 

house, which he bequeathed to his nephews. A good 
house with a good deal of Adam's work on the staircase 
and doors ; one of the rooms has a nice ceiling let in 
with faint blue here and there, and a medallion with 
three figures in the centre. The figures are of Grecian 
pattern in stucco, and are probably the work of Bonomi. 
They are well designed. There is a tradition that Ange- 
lica painted some decorations for Zucchi's house. If 
this ceiling represents her labour of love, it did not cost 
her much trouble. 

Just opposite Zucchi's house in John Street is the 
home of the Society of Arts, who removed from the 
Strand to the Adelphi in 1774. 

After the failure of the proposal to decorate St. Paul's, 
it was suggested that the principal artists of the Royal 
Academy should be invited to contribute each a painting 
to decorate the Great Room of meeting, or Council 
Chamber of the Society. Reynolds, Cipriani, West, 
Dance, Barry, and Angelica Kauffmann were named. 
The idea, however, fell to the ground; but three years 
later (in 1777) Barry offered to decorate single-handed 
the Great Room. He had sixteen shillings in his pocket 
when he made the offer. He accomplished his work, 
and anyone visiting the Society's rooms can see bis six 
enormous canvases. 


22, Portman Square, the Residence of Viscount 

This noble mansion, designed by James Stuart and 
Bonomi, built by the brothers Adam, and decorated by 

Appendix. 405 

Angelica, Zucchi, and Cipriani, in which Mrs. Montagu, 
nee Robinson, lived, was the wonder of the day. Miss 
Burney, in her pleasant Diary, tells us how that lady, of 
whom the clever little authoress stood considerably in 
awe, invited the Streatham party to come and see her 
new house, where Angelica was at work. 

Horace Walpole, who disliked the Montagu and her 
blue-stocking friends, writing to Sir Horace Mann, says, 
" On Monday with the Harcourts at Mrs. Montagu's new 
palace, and was much surprised. Instead of vagaries, it 
is a noble, simple edifice. It is grand, not tawdry, nor 
larded and embroidered and pomponned with shreds and 
remnants, and clinquant like all the harlequinades of 
Adam, which never let the eye repose a moment." 1 

That there is wonderful harmony and a dignified repose 
in Montagu House is certain ; but a lack of gilding l is 
not its predominant feature : on the contrary, its gilded 
walls and ceilings have always been famous. We must 
therefore conclude the critic of Strawberry Hill visited 
it before it had received all its trappings ; neither does 
he make any mention of the Feather Room, to which 
Mrs. Montagu's friends in all countries contributed. 
Cowper alludes to this eccentric chamber in the well- 
known lines : — 

" The birds put off their every hue 
To dress a room for Montague." 

After a time the congregation of moths became so 
numerous, that the gay plumage had to be stripped from 
the walls. 

1 He also says, " Dined at Mrs. Montagu's. When I came 
home I recollected that though I had thought it so magnificent 
a house, there was not a morsel of gilding." This was in 1782. 

4-06 Appendix. 

Lord Portman, upon whose property the house was 
built, has lately made Montagu House his residence, and 
the improvements introduced by him are most judicious, 
including the portico, which looks as if it had formed 
part and parcel of the original house. 

Inside it is purely Georgian, the medallions and 
entablatures being thoroughly Adamesque, if we may so 
call them. The ball-room, a superb room, has a highly 
decorated ceiling with three large oval paintings repre- 
senting Olympus. The subject of the centre is Venus 
borrowing the Cestus of Juno. The friezes round the 
room, which are in stucco, reproduce Venus in her chariot 
drawn by Cupids. Lord Portman does not count the 
ceiling as the work of Angelica. " The paintings in the 
reception-room," he says, writing to the compiler, "are 
by Angelica Kauffmann. Most of the decorations in 
the ball-room on the ceiling are by Bonomi/ date 1791." 
If we accept the date as correct, there can be no doubt 
that they could not be Angelica's work, as she was then no 
longer living in England ; in addition to which there 
is a certain Italian touch and brightness of the colouring 
unlike her. At the same time, we have Miss Burney's 
testimony that Angelica was decorating the house in 1 781, 

1 Joseph Bonomi, A.R.A., while studying architecture at Rome, 
where he was born, was induced by the brothers Adam to leave 
Rome and come to London, which he did in 1767, when he was about 
twenty-eight years of age. He remained for a considerable time in 
the employment of the Adams. He married RosaFloiini, a cousin 
of Angelica Kauffmann, and had a family of ten children. The 
Spanish Chapel and Montagu House in London are from his 
designs ; also Eastwell House, in Kent, once the residence of the 
Duke of Edinburgh ; Roseneath, on the Clyde, a mansion belonging 
to the Duke of Argyll, and other well-known country seats. 
He died in his house in Great Titchfield Street on the 9th March, 
180S. His wife lived till June, 1812. 

Appendix. 407 

and, moreover, it is certain that Bonomi was no colourist, 
but ■ an architect and able draughtsman. It is pro- 
bable, taking into account Walpole's remarks, that 
the gilding was an addition, and that at the same time 
some portions of the ceiling may have been painted by 
Cipriani, 1 which would account for the Italian colouring, 
which is very unlike Angelica's. There is a fine marble 
chimney-piece in this room, and the skirtings are all of 
the purest Italian marble. 2 

In the reception-room there are six " sopra-portas " by 
Angelica on each side of the wall, matching exactly in 
shape a large one in the middle and a smaller on each 
side. The subjects are taken from Shakespeare's plays, 
especially "King Lear." One is Cordelia's corpse 
carried on a bier— a good picture. The others are some- 
what poor, and it is a pity they should be framed, as it 
spoils the effect ; particularly on the side of the room 
where the door is they would look better let into the 
wall as panels. 


11, Stratford Place, Sir John Leslie's House. 
Few persons hurrying along the busy thoroughfare of 
Oxford Street have leisure to give more than a passing 
glance at this old-fashioned place, standing back, as 

1 Cipriani, the intimate friend of Bartolozzi, whose fellow-coun- 
tryman he was. They were like twin brothers. Cipriani was 
remarkable for the elegance of his groups and the grace of his 

2 Since writing the above I have been informed by Mr. Goldie 
that the Baron de Cosson, connected with his family by marriage 
fcas in his possession Angelica's original drawings for Montagu 
H ouse. — F, G. & 

4o8 Appendix. 

it were, with the quiet dignity of age, from the bustle and 
tumult of the new world which now surrounds it,*and 
which is out of tune with its past. 

Stratford Place was built in 177 1 by the Brothers 
Adam, and Stratford House, with its noble frontage, was 
the residence of an Irish peer, O'Neale Stratford, 
Earl of Aldborough. 1 The viscount was a dilettante 
nobleman of the Charlemont and Powerscourt type, the 
viscountess being quite as eccentric as her contemporary, 
Lady Burlington, with the result that the extravagances 
of both husband and wife left a legacy of debt to the 
heirs, which necessitated parting with Stratford House, 
while the old family residence near Dublin was first 
converted into barracks, and has now sunk into a 
lodging house of the most ruinous description. 2 

Sir John Leslie, of Glasslough, is the present owner of 
Stratford House, and in his hands the beauties contained 
in it are well cared for. There is a fine staircase with 
the Adam cornices and ornamentations. The ceilings 
are in Angelica's best manner. In the Cupid drawing, 
room, " the Paphian Boy " is to be seen in every mood 
and shape, truly painted by the "pencil of fascination." 
In the dining-room we find another ceiling with the 
subject so well known, and which Angelica so much 
liked, that of Aglaia bound by Cupid and the Nymphs 
to a laurel tree. 

There are other houses of interest in Stratford Place. 
Cosway, the miniature painter, removed in 1792 from Pall 

1 Hence the name Stratford Place. 

2 It is a most weird-looking old house, degradation written upon 
its neglected walls. But up to a recent date it contained some fine 
chimney-pieces by Wedgwood, and carvings, which have since been 
sold to English dealers. 

Appendix. 409 

Mall to the corner house, No. 1. It may be known by 
the lion on the top. Hardly was he established, when a 
pasquinade, attributed to the malicious Peter Pindar, was 
affixed outside : — 

" When a man to a fair for a show brings a lion, 
'Tis usual a monkey the signpost to tie on ; 
But here the old custom reversed is seen, 
For the lion's without and the monkey's within." l 

Cosway, who was as sensitive as he was vain, was 
so annoyed at this sorry jest, that he moved to the 
opposite side (No. 20), and there he lived until his death. 
It has been always said that in his house there was a 
beautiful ceiling by Angelica Kauffmann ; but this seems 
improbable, as in 1792 she had been living many years 
in Rome. She may have painted one for him either in 
his house in Pall Mall or Berkeley Street. 


Soho Square, Lord Fauconberg's House. 

{Now a portio?i of Messrs. Crosse and BlackwelVs 


One of the charms of London is the quaint little 
squares set apart in the midst of the busy capital, and 
reminding one in their quietude and almost desolation 
of some grey, joyless lives, which have no share in what is 
going on around them. Silent as it now is, Soho Square 
was in Angelica's day a centre of gaiety and dissipation, 

1 Since this was written No. i has been pulled down to make 
way for the new buildings of a bank. 

410 Appendix. 

for here lived Mrs. Cornelys, called in her time "the 
Heidegger of the age." To her and her notorious rooms 
was attributable the ruin of many a promising youth and 

Another celebrated place of fashionable dissipation 
was the " White House," situated on the opposite side 
of the Square to Mrs. Cornelys, where Messrs. Crosse 
and Blackwell's premises now stand. The White House 
was frequented by such well-known personages as the 
Marquis of Queensberry, familiarly called " Old Q," the 
Marquis of Hertford, and the Prince of Wales. The 
different apartments were known as the silver, the bronze, 
and the gold rooms, the painted chamber and the grotto. 

Next door to this White House was the residence of 
Lord Fauconberg. It is now incorporated with Messrs. 
Crosse and Blackwell's buildings, and in it the sale of 
their productions is carried on. In one of the upper 
rooms a painted ceiling was found in a dilapidated and 
neglected condition. It fortunately fell into the hands of 
the head of the firm, who, finding it was painted on canvas, 
had it carefully removed, restored, and conveyed to his 
own residence, The Cedars, near Pinner. The four ovals 
of the ceiling have been framed, and hang in the hall as 
pictures. There is a slight coarseness about them, for as 
a natural consequence, work intended to be seen from 
a distance is never so highly finished. There is Cupid 
and the nymph Euphrosyne, Angelica and Urania with 
the Celestial Globe, and a large oval of nymphs with 
garlands, which is far the best both in design and colour. 
The grouping is both graceful and effective. 

Appendix. 4 1 1 


12, Grosvenor Square, Lord Wynford's House. 

This house has changed hands several times. It 
belonged to Miss Charlotte Grenville, daughter to George 
Grenville, the Minister, and wife to Sir Watkin Williams- 
Wynn, who was the friend of Garrick, and of Sir Joshua, 
by whom the lady was twice painted. Her son gave 
her 12, Grosvenor Square as her dower house, as she 
did not like St. James's Square. 1 Lord Lytton lived here 
for some years before his death. The author of " The 
Last Days of Pompeii " seems to have shared the opinion 
of Horace Walpole as to the "Adam harlequinades," 
for he had the elegant mouldings, friezes, and cornices all 
disguised in dull Pompeian colours, one room being 
called the Pompeian room. After Lord Lytton's death, 
about twenty years ago, the present owner bought it, and 
with commendable good taste abolished the relics of 
Herculaneum and restored the Georgian character of 
the house. There is, however, a superabundance of 
gilding. Fortunately each reformer spared Angelica's 
ceilings, which are exquisite in the softness of their colour 
and delicacy of treatment. The large ovals represent in 
the front drawing-room, Venus attired by the Graces, in 
the back room, Apollo playing the lyre to his com- 
panions ; while the smaller ovals, charming little gems, 
display the most enchanting Cupids and graceful 

In an inner room on the same floor there are two " sopra- 

1 See page 416. 

4 1 2 Appendix. 

portas," also by our artist, as fresh as if done yester- 
day, in which the favourite Chariot of Venus reappears, 
drawn by the most enticing Cupids. 

There is also an allegorical picture by Angelica of 
herself as Sappho. 


39, Berkeley Square. 

This house, which has recently been sold by Lord 
Downe to Mrs. Hartmann, is a thoroughly sound speci- 
men of the Georgian era. It was built by Adam, and 
some of his best work is here. Nothing can surpass the 
beauty of the ornamentation on the friezes, enriched 
with motley masks and strange devices of all kinds, and 
the well-known Adams' " Fillings," as they are called. 
So too with the ceilings, two of which are octagon in 
shape and wonderful in elegance of design and ornament. 
Doors, mouldings, cornices likewise, are in excellent taste 
and are made for use as well as for ornament. 

Like most houses of the last century, 39 has had its 
vicissitudes. In the " dark ages " the hand of the spoiler 
was busy destroying all of beauty, and replacing it by 
the tasteless improvements then in fashion. In this way 
the elegant mouldings were disfigured by coat upon coat 
of paint, until the original design became utterly lost, 1 

1 This painting over of ornamentatiojis was very common from 
1830, at which period the " dark ages " began. In this instance the 

Appendix. 413 

while other malpractices were used in regard to 
friezes and ceilings. No. 39 has now, however, come into 
good hands, and the work of restoration will be complete. 
It is somewhat to be regretted that in the beautifully 
panelled library, or reception-room, the old style is to 
be replaced by a Louis XVI. decoration. The white 
octagon morning-room and the octagon drawing-room 
are specially noticeable ; the first has a pure Adam 
ceiling, beautiful in its design ; the second is a splendid 
piece of work, the panels (ovals) being painted by 
Angelica most exquisitely. They are soft in colour, 
graceful and harmonious in grouping, and excellently 
restored. The centre oval (through which some Goth 
had run a gas-pipe !) represents the nymph Euphrosyne 
disarming Cupid ; the smaller ovals, which are inter- 
spersed between the ornamentation of the ceiling, display 
a series of Nymphs and Cupids : the whole thing is a 
feast to the eye as a work of art. 

The chimney-pieces cannot be passed over without a 
word of admiration. They are the work of Wedgwood 
with all his elegance of shape and design, and with the 
coloured fiutings which are his characteristic. 

This house when finished will be a rare treat to those 
who understand and reverence such relics of the days 
when art was present in every curve, cornice and mould- 
wood has had to be scraped and pickled down to get at the original 
design, which was concealed by layers of paint. It is a fact that in 
many houses of the Georgian era the beautiful Adam doors have 
been taken off and thrown into a stable, and the Wedgwood 
chimney-pieces replaced by marble or velvet-covered mantel-boards. 
So, too, with old panellings and surbases ; and in many instances 
ceilings have been painted over or gilt, and gas-pipes run through 
the centre plaques. 

4 1 4 Appendix. 

ing, and when the true principle was observed of making 
everything for use as well as for ornament. That principle 
is now utterly neglected. Hence the reproductions of the 
Adam or Inigo Jones ornamentations are failures. 


The Arts Club, Hanover Square. 

Hanover Square and its neighbourhood forms an inter- 
esting region peopled by many recollections, as of the 
old Hanover Square rooms, once the great musical centre, 
where Bach led the orchestra and George III. loved to 
come and listen. Fashionable concerts were given even 
so lately as ten or fifteen years ago, although the rooms 
were then getting into the sear and yellow condition, and 
marked down for sale. 1 Opposite to the Hanover Square 
rooms is the Arts Club, established in 1873. The house 
is an old one ; there is a good deal of panelling, and a 
general air of having a history, but so far what its story is 
has not been ascertained. The Square is out of fashion, 
and its fine houses are mostly clubs, or inhabited by pro- 
fessional men ; but in Angelica's day, several of the 
nobility lived there. At 23 her first royal patroness, the 
Duchess of Brunswick, lived for many years, and died 
there. In the Arts Club we find two ceilings, one 
painted by Angelica is an oval representing " Aurora " 

1 The old house has been converted into a club. No 15, George 
Street, Hanover Square (now occupied by the eminent physician 
Dr. Kidd), a house of the Georgian era, has a panel let in over 
the mantel-piece, which has very much the mark of Zucchi's paint- 
ing. There is, however, no definite information concerning it. 

Appendix. 4 1 5 

after Guido. 1 It is well painted, the colouring good. In 
the other room, which is a very delightful library, 
or reading-room, the ceiling is an olla podrida of styles 
and hands, in which anyone conversant with John Joseph 
can recognize his touch. Zucchi is also present, and 
if Angelica did have a share, and doubtless she had, it 
must be said she is not much better than the others. 
Still, the effect is good : the varnish is high, and the 
whole performance forcibly recalls an old art, once much 
practised, of transferring prints to tables, etc., which is 
now utterly forgotten, but which can be still seen in some 
old houses of the last century. 


Arlington House, 23, Arlington Street. 

When this fine old house was taken down some few 
years ago, it was stated that the drawing-room ceil- 
ing had been whitened over to conceal a painting by 
Angelica, and that the owner, Lord Walsingham, finding 
it was on canvas, had it carefully removed. 2 


Dowager Lady Freake, 30, Cranley Gardens. 
Lady Freake is well known as a collector of pictures 
and rare engravings. Her four Angelicas are exception- 

1 This subject was evidently the inspiration of Angelica's picture 
of Venus drawn in her Chariot by Cupids, which had a great 
success, and was engraved both by Marcuard and Rose Lenoir. 

2 Lord Walsingham, writing to Miss E. Vernon Harcourt, states 
that he never heard of the ceiling, but that a very coarse and badly 
painted frieze was taken down. 

4i6 Appendix. 

ally good. They formed part of the decorations of the 
Earl of Derby's house 1 in Grosvenor Square. Two 
were certainly " sopra portas " from their shape. These 
are " Cupid and Agliiia," and " Cupid's Pastime." The 
others are nymphs carrying garlands ; and Venus on a 
couch counselling Helen, to fly with Paris, whom Cupid 
leads by the hand into the room. 


No. 20, St. James's Square, the Dowager Lady 

Williams-Wynn's House. 

There are many reminiscences called up when we 

enter the precincts of this stately square, with its grand 

ducal mansions representing the houses of Norfolk, 

Marlborough, Cleveland. Here, round and round 

through the long hours (fortunately) of a summer's night, 

walked Johnson and Savage, both homeless and hungry, 

but by no means depressed. In connection with the 

Square, Johnson was fond of repeating the following 

lines : — 

" When the Duke of Leeds shall married be 
To a fine young lady of high quality, 
How happy will that gentlewoman be 
In his Grace of Leeds' good company ! 
She shall have all that's fine and fair, 
And the best of silk and satin shall wear, 
And ride in a coach to take the air, 
And have a house in St. James's Square." 

1 Lord Derby's house was one of the most beautifully decorated 
houses in London ; the ornaments of the pedestals, circles, and 
panels of doors were all of the highest class of decoration. It is 
minutely described in the architectural works of Adam, to the 
furniture in Lady Derby's dressing-room. 

Appendix. 417 

Here, too, on another June night, when a ball was going 
on at Mrs. Boehm's, came rushing up at tearing speed 
Major Percy, with the news of the battle of Waterloo. 
What a scene was there ! how the ball was interrupted — 
how Major Percy told his tale — what grief and distrac- 
tion it brought to many who had been laughing only a 
moment before. It was a dearly-bought victory to these. 
Mrs. Boehm's house was on the south side, so was 
Lord Radnor's, elegantly decorated by the French artist, 

The Dowager Lady Williams-Wynn's house is one 
of the finest specimens of Adam's work in London. 
Every cornice and curve has its use, each medallion is 
elegant in design, all the ornamentations and mouldings 
are graceful and to the purpose. The house was built 
in 1 7 7 1. The same year Sir Watkin W. Wynn married 
Miss Charlotte Grenville. He spared no expense in 
making No. 20 beautiful. The ceiling of the dining-room, 1 
which is altogether Adam in design, 2 is enlivened by 
ovals painted on foolscap paper by Angelica, 3 and alle- 
gorical in subjects. The centre one represents the story 
of Alexander resigning his mistress Campaspe to Apelles. 
It is very beautiful, being soft in colour and the design 
good. The smaller ovals represent some of the fine arts. 
There are about fifteen. The sopra-porta represents a 
sacrifice to the God Pan. 

1 The dining-room was originally the music-room, and here the 
splendid organ used to stand ; this has been removed to the family- 
seat in the country. 

2 The height of the Adam ceilings was, as a rule, very favour- 
able to Angelica's work, as the distance at which the spectator is 
conceals any deficiency in the outlines. Sir Watkin was a strong 
admirer of the Adam brothers. He went so far as to melt down 
some Queen Anne plate and have it re-made after their designs. 

3 This was discovered when the ceiling had to be repaired. 

e e 

41 8 Appendix. 

In a smaller room on the same floor there is a de- 
licious ceiling painted in monochrome attributed to 
Cipriani. This room is full of objects of art, old minia- 
tures, china, etc., and in the adjoining room, used as 
Lady Wynn's bedroom, there is a dressing-table service 
of old plate of the quaintest pattern. 1 

We now go up the "fine staircase, and passing 
through the spacious vestibule (Adam never stinted 
space on landings), we enter the large drawing-room, or 
ball-room, where the splendour of the carved ceiling 
and the character of the decoration takes one's 
breath away. Every portion of its spacious arches is 
covered with ornamentation in different styles, but all 
blending harmoniously. To do it justice by description 
is impossible, and even a photograph would give little 
idea of its beauty. There are six panels, allegorical sub- 
jects, long, not oval in shape ; the remaining spaces 
being filled in with Egyptian scrolls and quaint devices. 

Mr. Miintzer, of Dover Street, has recently restored 
the ceiling and re-papered' this room in excellent 
taste. He was able to make a close inspection 
of the work, and says that it is evidently by 
different hands, the panels being far superior to the 
scrolls, figures and ornamentations. Most probably 
Zucchi and John Joseph assisted Angelica. The panels 
present many of her favourite subjects, The Chariot of 

1 In the library there is a large portrait by Dance of Garrick as 
Richard III. When the painter became Sir Nathaniel Dance- 
Holland he offered one thousand pounds to have it back ! The 
ornamentation of this room is in the shape of fans at each corner of 
the ceiling : the centre medallion represents Sappho discoursing with 
Homer ; the other medallions, four in number, represent Angelica 
listening to the Muse, Composition, Design, and Invention. 

Appendix. 419 

Venus, Diana and nymphs preparing to hunt. There are 
two which it does not appear she ever treated before, one 
is of Aphrodite rising from the sea ; and from this 
circumstance and the peculiar colour of the blue back- 
grounds, might be formed the conclusion that Cipriani, 
who often worked for Adam, had some hand in the 
ceiling. 1 

In this room the panels of the doors (which are of 
singular beauty) are also painted. This work, which 
unfortunately is so close to the eye, is most unworthy of 
its surroundings. It is certainly not by Angelica, 
Cipriani, 2 or even Zucchi ; or if it were originally done 
by either of these artists, it had got blurred, and in the 
effort to restore it has been altogether defaced, especially 
the nymphs, who hang their limbs in a purposeless 
sort of manner. The chimney-piece of white marble is 
splendid, the centre being from a design of Angelica's. 

It is pleasant to think this fine old house is so valued 
by its owner, and kept in excellent preservation. 


Cambridge House, Regent's Park. Mr. Walter 
Gilbey's House. 
Here there are two beautiful chimney-pieces, the frontis- 
pieces painted by Angelica. The one in the second 

1 The smaller ovals round the room are distinctly Cipriani's, and 
there is little doubt he likewise painted the three panels on the ceiling. 

2 On a second visit to No. 20 I find the doors much improved ; 
they have been carefully touched. The defacement of the original 
work was due to some country artist who was employed in the 
restoration many years ago. He also meddled with the back- 
grounds of the panels on the ceiling, introducing colours which have 
turned almost black. The design of this ceiling resembles Adam's 
design for Carlton House. — See Adams' " Works in Architecture." 

E e 2 

420 Appendix. 

drawing-room is the best ; it represents Fortitude and 
the lion. Fortitude is a portrait of the artist. Mr. 
Gilbey has also a most interesting relic, a clavichord, the 
plaques of which are admirably painted by Angelica. 

Some of the pieces of furniture supposed to be painted 
by either Angelica, Cipriani, or Cosway, are simply 
modern work, as is often the case with the so-called 
Sheraton and Chippendale furniture, of which there 
is said to be a large manufacture in this country. 1 
Some people, however, are fortunate enough in possess- 
ing the real thing, and Mr. Gilbey's clavichord is a 
genuine antique. 

Lord Portarlington possesses at Emo Park a table 
painted by Angelica for his ancestor, Lord Milton. Lord 
Spencer has a cabinet. For the Empress Catherine of 
Russia she painted a harpsichord. 


Osterley Park, the Seat of the Earl of Jersey, 
near Brentford, Middlesex. 

Decorated principally by Zucchi in 1781, assisted by 
Angelica, and probably by her father. 

Waagen says one apartment was entirely embellished 
by him, and in another room the frieze was the work of 

Taylor 2 says, "The chamber decorations at Osterley 

1 Mr. Phillips, of Bond Street, says that hardly a week passes 
without pieces of furniture being brought to him for sale, supposed 
to be painted by some of the well-known artists of the last century ; 
Angelica being the favourite, probably because she was the more 
easily imitated. 

* " Records of a Life." 

Appendix. 421 

are very inferior art. A series of views in Tempera. 
Another apartment of this great house was decorated in 
body colour by Angelica Kauffmann." 


Luton House, or Luton Hoo. 1 

Rebuilt by the brothers Adam for Lord Bute, and 
partially burned down in 1843. It was decorated by 
Zucchi and Angelica. There still remains a chimney- 
piece of her design from the Tempest — Ferdinand and 


Belvedere, Kent, formerly the Seat of Sir 
Culling Eardley, Bart. 

Waagen says the dining-room at Belvedere is decorated 
with thirteen pictures by Angelica Kauffmann, let into the 
walls, which, by their pleasing composition and cheerful 
colouring, have an agreeable effect. They were painted 
for Lord Eardley ; and also the portrait of Lady Eardley, 
now in possession of Sir T. Blomefield, 2 one of her most 
charming and dignified portraits. 


At a house in Liverpool a ceiling painted by Angelica, 
subject, Selim addressing the Persian nymphs, was 
disposed of quite recently by private sale. 

1 Luton Hoo now belongs to Monsieur and Mdme. de Falb . 

2 See Catalogue, under B. 

422 Appendix. 


Rathfarnham Castle, near Dublin, formerly Lord Ely's, 
now in the possession of Mr.'Blackburne ; Lord Meath's 
house, now the Church Temporalities, Dublin ; Dr. 
Mahaffy's house, North Great George's Street, Dublin, 
have all ceilings and panels painted by Angelica during 
her visit to Ireland. For description of these, see 
Chapter VI. 

This is all of her work that can be traced in Ireland, 
but doubtless there was much more which through 
neglect got injured or was painted over. 

A word must be said of Lord James Butler's house, 
1 8, Rutland Square, Dublin, which was built by Lord 
Farnham in 1774. This date being three years later 
than Angelica's visit to Dublin, would seem to make the 
decorations of the ceilings attributed to her impossible ; 
still it may be that (as she painted her decorations 
always on either canvas or foolscap) she executed the 
commission in London and sent it over to Dublin. The 
centre panel of the ceiling is allegorical, the four side 
panels are round, and represent the Seasons. 

Lord James, who is a virtuoso, has likewise some 
beautiful cabinets, the utidoabted work of Angelica. 
They were originally intended for the panels of sedan 
chairs, and are highly decorated ; one cabinet has yellow 
panels with artistic arabesques, the other cupids, most 
gracefully and prettily drawn. 

Nostell Priory, the Seat of Lord St. Oswald. 

Nostell Priory, the residence of Lord St. Oswald, is 
situated between Wakefield and Normanton. An 

Appendix. 4 2 3 

admirable series of article in the Athenaum of 1880 
deals exhaustively with the delightful old place and its 
wealth of pictures, including the Sir Thomas More, by 
Holbein, over which so much discussion took place. 
There is an unusually large proportion of good pictures 
at the Priory. Poussin, Claude, Paul Veronese, Titian, 
are all represented. Likewise Angelica comes in for a 
full share— not that the writer of the articles in question 
has much to say in her favour. He speaks somewhat 
contemptuously of her « gentle art," at the same time 
acknowledging her uniform gracefulness and elegance. 

There is a vast amount of decoration at the Priory. 
Three rooms with about thirty paintings, panels, ceilings, 
etc. Most of these are attributed to Angelica, but this 
is not, I fancy, the fact. The greater portion was the 
work of Zucchi, who was sent down to the Priory by the 
brothers Adam, who were largely patronized by Sir Row- 
land Winn, who was then the owner of Nostell. He was 
engaged on different works of decoration from 1767, and 
was paid in sums varying from 100/. to over 600/. 1 He 
executed four large pictures of ruins about six feet high, 
in which, it is said, he was helped by Angelica. This 
may be the case. Zucchi's letter, 2 however, to Sir Row- 
land Winn, which will be found on page 172, proves 
that up to 1780 she was unacquainted with Sir Rowland. 
No doubt after this and previous to her marriage she 
did go to Nostell, for we are told that she was a great 
favourite with the baronet and his family, and constantly 
stayed at the Priory. Some of her work is there, and 

1 Lord St. Oswald has the receipts signed by Zucchi. The 
last in 1780. 

2 Sent to the writer by the late Lord St. Oswald. 

424 Appendix. 

as fresh as the day it was done. There are six small 
pictures by her, the subjects would seem to be her 
favourite shepherds and shepherdesses dancing. There is 
the usual background of trees ; also the round or oval 
panels in the ceilings are repeated with her usual variety 
of cupids, all in excellent condition. 

Devonshire Place House, Marylebone Road, 
the Residence of Joseph Pyke, Esq. 

In the days when Angelica lived in Golden Square, 
there lay a dreary waste between where Cavendish 
Square now stands and the village of Marylebone, some- 
times called Harley Fields. In 1772 the now populous 
thoroughfare of Duke Street was not built, and Maryle- 
bone itself was considered the country. Mr. Smith, in 
his " Rainy Day," tells his readers that it was inhabited 
by families of distinction, who kept their coaches. The 
old Manor House, built it is said, by Inigo Jones, which 
was well known as Mr. Fountaine's Academy, stood 
on the same side of the road as the house which we are 
about to visit, facing the Marylebone Church, in High 
Street, where Byron and many notables were christened, 
amongst them Nelson's daughter Horatia- Devonshire 
Place House is a good specimen of the Adam brothers ; 
it is substantial and yet elegant. It stands in a sort of 
courtyard, with a fine garden at the back. Inside there 
is a quaint circular hall with a mosaic pavement and 
a narrow corridor leading to the reception rooms, all 
on the ground floor. Here we have the fine old 
mahogany doors of the last century, enriched with rare 
entablatures of ornamental brass, curious of device. 

Appendix. 425 

The rooms are not large, and somewhat low, but there 
are many of them, and they open one into another. The 
ceilings, which were in a bad state when Mr. Pyke took 
the house, have been restored. There is no definite 
idea as to who painted them, but they have a decided 
similitude to Angelica's style, especially the one in the 
drawing-room, which presents the well-known Chariot of 
Venus. The old house, which, it is said, belonged to 
the Devonshire family, has fallen into good hands. Mr. 
Pyke is a virtuoso, and his collection of paintings, china, 
and curios is delightful to those who enjoy such things. 
Amongst other relics of bygone times, he possesses a 
quaint Chippendale stand containing the necessaire de 
toilette of a lady of fashion ; small jug and basin in deli- 
cate china, and a drawer where the cosmetics were kept 
handy for use. In the matter of paintings, we have 
a small gallery to look at : amongst them four of Smirke's 
Shakespearian pieces. All indeed are excellent. There 
are five of Angelica's, for whose pictures Mr. Pyke had, 
when a boy, conceived an almost romantic affection, from 
looking at prints from her works in his father's house. 
His present collection came from the Rushout sale. 
Nathan and David, Jeroboam's wife listening to the 
Prophet Ahijah, as also the Temple of Guidus, hang 
in the dining-room. In the drawing-room we find over 
the doors two more Angelicas, beautiful specimens, 
painted during her stay in Rome, for her good patron, 
Mr. Bowles. The colouring is soft, and the pictures 
most Kauffmannesque. One is "The Nymph Egeria 
advising Numa Pompilius ; " the other " Venus chiding 
Ganymede." In both the female figure is perhaps 
somewhat too tall for the picture, but this defect is lost 

426 Appendix. 

sight of in the general effect. They are quite in keeping 
with the interesting old house and its artistic contents, 
amongst which we must not omit to mention Thorwald- 
sen's " Calypso." This lovely statue Mr. Pyke has 
placed in a home of its own, carefully curtained from 
the eyes of the profane. It was specially built for the 
purpose, and here on special occasions, with light 
artistically let in from the top, Thorwaldsen's master- 
piece smiles softly upon her admirers. 

Also decorations for the houses of the Dowager 
Countess Home, and the Earl of Bathurst. 

Some house in Russell Street, Bloomsbury, is said to 
be decorated by Angelica Kauffmann, but no accurate 
information has been received by compiler. 

20, Portman Square, 'the Residence of the 
Misses Gold sm id. 
Here is a splendid mansion in the very best style of 
the brothers Adam, with their train of skilled statuaries, 
decorators, and workmen. It was built for the Duke of 
Newcastle, who, with the reckless magnificence of the 
noblemen of his time, spared no expense in the fitting up 
of this fine house. When we come to reflect upon these 
men, who played such a part in the history of the four 
Georges, we can find much to admire. These fine 
gentlemen of loose morals and extravagant habits had 
some grand qualities ; they were brave men, splendid 
statesmen, generous patrons of art ; and if they squan- 
dered their fortunes, they at least left to us of this 
generation memorials of good taste and artistic instincts. 

Appendix. 4 2 7 

No. 20 stands upon the same side of the square 
as Lord Portman's fine house ; its portico and pillars 
distinguish it from its neighbours, which are not so pre- 
tentious, and it has a grave and dignified air, as befitting 
the residence of so exalted a personage as Henry Duke 
of Newcastle. 1 The Duke had come recently to his 
strawberry leaves when he built this mansion. He had 
inherited it and a large fortune, and was a man distin- 
guished for his fine taste, and for other matters not quite 
so creditable to his memory. Lady Mary Wortley 
Montagu was said to have been much attached to him, 
but her heart went out to a great many people. Perhaps 
the finest staircase ever built by the Adams is here ; it is 
truly magnificent, elegant in its proportions, and Grecian 
in design. The broad stairs in front, the double flight 
on each side, the circular light from the top, give 
it an imposing character, which is added to by the 
niches in the wall holding large statues, life-size. These 
niches are surmounted by oval panels of Wedgwood's 
elegant designs, on a pale blue background, the effect 
being most harmonious. As one looks at this grand 
staircase the imagination peoples it with the forms of 
those who in their day often trod these steps. In the 
morning the hangers-on of my lord Duke, intent on 
getting places or money from him, the poor men of 

1 Henry Earl of Lincoln, married Catharine Pelham, daughter 
and heiress to Pelham, the minister. The Duke of Newcastle- 
under-Lyme washer uncle ; the dukedom descended to the Earls of 
Lincoln. The previous dukes had lived in Lincoln s Inn I- lelds, 
corner of Queen Street. Portman Square was in the last century a 
very aristocratic residence. The Duke of Hamilton lived at No. 12, 
and nearly every house was occupied by a noble family. It still 
keeps up its prestige, the size of the houses making it obligatory that 
they should be rented by persons of wealth and position. 

4 2 8 Appendix. 

letters, the needy artists, and so forth. Later on would 
come her Grace's visitors, descending from their coaches 
and sedan chairs. We see them ascending and descending 
in their hoods, the sweet saucy beauties of that day, all 
patchesand powder, hoops and brocades; Horace Walpole 
paying his court as he conducts the Countess of Upper 
Ossory ; and the Duke himself, leading sprightly, witty 
Lady Mary Wortley, who is retailing a somewhat risky 
story. Ah ! they are gone, and the staircase is empty. 
Let us look at the reception rooms. 

On the first floor there are three fine spacious apart- 
ments: the morning-room, dining-room, and library, which 
is connected with the latter by a closet, possibly the 
"powder" closet. The doors are all of mahogany, 1 
with the old-fashioned inlaid brass plates. There is a 
great amount of ornamentation of the best adamesque 
design, light and beautiful. There is a wealth of 
decoration all through the house, the drawing-room 
being likewise highly decorated with the addition of 
much gilding. 

That in this work different hands were employed by the 
Adams is more distinctly evident here than in the other 
houses we have been visiting. One room, the dining-room, 
is attributed to Angelica, and in this only the centre panel 
of the ceiling ; the morning-room is said to be done by 
Zucchi. The oval over the chimney-piece, however, is by 
no means in his flat sign-board style : it has traces of 
Angelica's more harmonious treatment; 2 so, too, with the 

1 The hall door (or por/es-batta?it rather) is likewise of 

' 2 It is either the original or a copy of her picture " Erminia," 
engraved by Bartolozzi. 

Appendix. 4 2 9 

centre panel of this ceiling, which represents her oft- 
repeated subject " Venus counselling Helen." There are 
several panels by Cipriani, his lighter backgrounds and 
soft pleasing touch being easily distinguished. The 
" Four Seasons " are his work ; the chimney-pieces are in 
keeping with the elegance of the house. They are of 
beautiful design and execution. One, in particular, in 
the library calls for special mention : the panel or painting 
over this is somewhat in Barry's style ; but there is no 
definite certainty as to any of the work beyond the fact that 
it was done by the usual artists employed by the Adams, 
Zucchi, Cipriani, and Angelica, with their assistants, 
whoever they may have been. We may believe with 
tolerable certainty that Hamilton had a hand in most of 
the house decorations, and that John Joseph occasion- 
ally was employed ; but one would like to know more 
details of the work, which, however, do not appear to 
exist. Perhaps they may turn up some day, and will 
be most interesting. 1 

Had Robert and James Adam completed the record 
they commenced of the houses built by them, we should 
have had a splendid contribution to the history of the last 
century. The three large volumes they left contain only 
a part of the work they did ; these cause a real regret that 
they did not finish what they began so well. Strangely 
enough, the only artist they mention is Antonio Zucchi, 2 

1 Two very interesting notices of Somerset House have lately 
been contributed to the "Journal of British Architects" by Mr. 
Wyatt Papworth, curator of the Soane Museum, from which I have 
quoted on page 44. _ 

2 Zucchi had been engaged in decorating houses for the Adams 
from 1767. Angelica did not work for the brothers Adam until 
after her return from Ireland in 1771, when she, too, entered upon 
this branch of the profession. 

430 Appendix. 

for whose abilities they appear to have much respect, 
based no doubt on their early friendship, when as young 
men they travelled together in Italy. Zucchi was no 
doubt a respectable draughtsman, and probably more 
submissive as a copyist of the brothers' designs than 
artists of more imagination. He painted all manner of 
ornaments, pilasters, circles, panels of doors, etc., for 
Sion House, and the furniture of Lady Derby's dressing- 

The Adam style was a profuse use of ornament, perhaps 
too much so, which may have caused the reaction to 
the bald, cheerless apartments which distinguished the 
earlier portion of this century. The introduction of gas 
had much to do with the painted ceiling going out of 
fashion ; but with the advent of the electric light we 
may hope for a return of this charming decoration. 

An approach has been made in the papered ceil- 
ings which are now in use ; but they are unsatisfactory, 
and given to splitting into very unsightly cracks. The 
Tyncastle designs are mere imitations, but both these 
are an improvement upon the white-washed ceilings 
with stucco patterns. The cold . unfinished look of 
the plaster ceiling disfigures every room, however it 
may otherwise be in good taste, for the reason that to 
please the eye there must always be harmony in detail : 
hence the crudeness of the white ceiling offends us, 
although we may not know that its want of colour is 
totally out of keeping with the hangings, the pictures, 
and the decorations on the walls. 

Appendix. 431 

Mr. Evans's Chimney-piece, Stamford. 

It is pleasant to find that at Stamford Angelica has 
many admirers. Possibly the proximity of Burghley, 
where so much of her work is to be seen, has to do with 
this, for it is clearly impossible to admire without having 
some acquaintance with the object we admire. 

In Stamford itself there is also a fine piece of her 
work, a chimney-piece, which was ordered by a Mr. 
Robinson over a hundred years ago, and is now the 
property of Mr. Evans, who, with commendable good 
taste, has built a room to suit this work of art. The 
chimney-piece is very high, carved oak, painted white 
(which would seem a pity). Its front is ornamented 
with three medallions, that in the middle being large, 
those at the sides ovals. The medallions by Angelica 
are painted on copper. The centre represents Una and 
the Lion, Una being a portrait of Angelica. On each side 
of this centre there are narrower plaques with a pretty 
ornamentation of convolvulus. In the right-hand corner 
the oval shows a girl holding a lamb on her lap ; in the 
left a girl making a garland. The sides of the chimney- 
piece have trails of the same flower as the panels. 

I am indebted to Miss Evans for a charming sketch 
of the old chimney-piece, which I wish it were in my 
power to reproduce here. 

1 Erminia again. 



original or (when 
known) present owner. 

Mr. Barford,Woking- 

Mr. Burkitt, 2, York 
Terrace, Regent's 

Mrs. Daniell, 20, 
Cathcart Road, 

Dowdeswell Gallery, 
160, New Bond 

Lady Fitzgerald, 
Merrion Square, 


'Alexander presenting his mis- 
tress Campaspe to Apelles. 

2 Portrait of Angelica as Sim- 

plicity with Doves ; a charm- 
ing picture, well-coloured and 

3 Portraits of Justice and Mrs. 

Helms. f length. The 
background rather monoto- 

Portrait of herself. With a 
pencil in her hand ; beautiful 
face, colouring good, alto- 
gether an admirable specimen. 
£ length. 

Portrait of Angelica. From the 
collection of Mr. Moloney. 


1 This picture was sold at the Rushout sale to a commission agent, Engel, 
for ^52. It was resold at Messrs. Christie's, a few years ago, to Mr. Barford. 

2 This picture belonged to Mr. Burkitt's brother-in-law, Mr. Coward, a 
well-known collector of pictures in Bath. 

3 These portraits were sketched during Angelica's stay in Dublin, 1 77 1. 

Supplement to Appendix. 


original OR (when 
known) present owner. 

Mr. Edward Goldie, 1 
12, Argyll Road, 

Harcourt Family. 

Mrs. Swinnerton- 
Hughes, 34, Ab- 
ingdon Villas, Ken- 

Collection of Mr. 
ton Square. Sold 
by Messrs. Christie. 


Portrait of Luigi Bonomi, infant 
sonofjoseph Bonomi, A. R. A., 
and Rosa Bonomi nee Florini. 
A very natural, easy portrait, 
much in the manner of Sir 

Sketch in oils of the well- 
known subject so often 
treated by Angelica, Achil- 
les at the Court of King 
Lycomedes, disguised as a 

Sketch in oils of "The Aca- 
demy Model," a drawing of 
which is in the Payne 
Knight collection, British 

Sketch in oils of a large picture, 
subject unknown. 

Countess of Harcourt. 

Sketch in oils of the large pic- 
ture of Troilus and Cressida 
for the Shakespeare Gallery. 
The colouring is subdued in 
tone, and the grouping is 
good. Small cabinet size. 

1. Nymphs with Cupids. A 
pair. 2 

2. Nymphs with Cupids. Cir- 

3. Juno introducing Venus to 



Mr. Edward Goldie has two interesting water-colour drawings by his 
great grandfather, Joseph Bonomi, A.R.A. They are the designs for the 
Townley Gallery, and for the library at Lansdowne House, being the draw- 
ings produced on the occasion of the difference between Sir Joshua and 
some members of the Academy. Mr. Goldie also inherited some handsome 
diamond ornaments left by Angelica to Rosa Bonomi. These formed part of 
the present sent to her either by the Queen of Naples or the Emperor, 
Joseph II. They have been reset, and are very fine diamonds. 
2 1. Bought by Jennings. 
2. ,, Grindley. 

3- ,, Wilson for £9 gs. 

4- >t Dowdesdell for ^"12 12s. 



Supplement to Appendix. 

original or (when 
known) Present owner. 

Collection of Mr. 
ton Square. Sold 
by Messrs.Christie. 

Count Koramosky, 

Rev. ri. J. Marshall, 
Bedford, North 

Mr.Alfred Martineau, 
Fairlight, Hast- 
ings. 2 

Mrs. Maxwell. 

Mr. Messell, Nanyms, 
Crawley, Sussex. 


4. Mars and Venus. 

5. Venus with the armour of 

6. Cupids. Four ovals. 

7. Cupids. A pair. Circular. 

8. Six Cupids. Circular. 

9. Nymphs and Cupid. A 

10. Oval panels, classical (in 

11. Cupids with lions (in Gri- 

Henry the Fourth, King of 
France, between Glory and 
Love. (Subject taken from 
the '.' Henriade.") This pic- 
ture is specially mentioned 
in Zucchi's MS. 

Portrait of a child with a kitten. 1 

The Angel appearing to Hagar 

and Ishmael in the desert. 

39 X 29. 
Portrait of Mr. Daniel Braith- 

Portrait of his daughter, Mrs. 

Portrait of Angelica, j length. 

Her palette is in one hand. 
Portrait of a lady and three 

Portrait of a gentleman and 

Portrait of Mrs. Bates (Miss 

Harrod). From the Burghley 




Ridley " European 
Magazine " 1809. 

Hopkinson Collection continued — 

5. Bought by Wilson for £$ 16s. 

6. ,, Grindley lor ^25 14^. 6d. 

7. ,, Richardson for £8 8s. 

1 Sold at Messrs. Christie's about 1882 for ,£60. 

2 Mr. Martineau is the great grandson of Mr. Daniel Braithwaite, Angelica's 
friend, and one of the trustees of her marriage settlements. 

Supplement to Appendix. 


original or (when 
known) present owner. 



Mr. George Nevvnes, 

Lady in a Turkish dress. Very 


M.P., Wildcroft, 

well coloured, graceful atti- 

Putney Heath. 


Lord Northwick (the 

Cupid drawn by the Graces. 

2nd), Thirlestane 

Cupid disarmed by the Graces. 

House, Chelten- 

A pair. 2 

ham. 1 

Cephalus and Procris, 3 with 

Four pictures with mythological 

Graces decorating the tomb ol 

The departure of Hagar. 
Portrait of herself. 

Lady Northwick, 

Portrait of Angelica Kauffmann. 

Northwick Park. 

From Prince Poniatowski's 

Cordelia. 5 
Allegorical subject. 
Female scattering Flowers over 

the Tomb of Shakespeare. 6 
Nymph and Cupid. 
Allegorical subject. 
Portrait of Angelica Kauffmann. 

Artist unknown, perhaps by 


Mr. Roger Pock- 

Portrait of Mrs. Pocklington. 

lington - Coltman, 

wife of Roger Pocklington, 

1 The Thirlestane House sale was an event in the art world ; it lasted 
eighteen days, and realized ^94,000. 

2 The Cupid pair were bought for ^30 i^s. 6d. for the Due d'Aumale, and 
are at Chantilly. 

3 Cephalus and Procris was bought for £64 by Grindley, and the four 
mythological pictures brought ,£46. Graces decorating the tomb of Handel, 
£30 9s. The departure of Hagar, ^"19. Portrait of herself, ^18. Some of 
these were bought by the late Lord Northwick, and are now at Northwick 
Park. The portrait by Angelica of the second Lord Northwick is at Burford, 
Worcestershire (see page 365) . 

4 and 5 Bought in 1824 at Messrs. Christie's, from Mr. G. W. Taylor, M.P. 

6 This picture was painted for Lady Rushout, and the engraving is dedi- 
cated to Mrs. Montagu. The companion picture, the Birth of Shakespeare, 
was also painted for Lady Rushout, and was bequeathed lately to Stratford-on- 
Avon by Mr. Graves. 

F f 2 


Supplement to Appendix. 

known) present owner. 

Hagnaby Priory, 
Spilsby, Lincoln- 

Mr. Joseph Pyke, 
Devonshire Place 
House, Maryle- 
bone Road. 

Mr. G. J. Rust, The 
Views, Hunting- 

Duke of Rutland, 
Belvoir Castle. 


Esq., of Winthorpe, Notts. 
The lady is painted in white 
drapery with a red sash round 
her waist and a yellow scarf 
on her shoulders. She is 
leaning against a pedestal sur- 
mounted by an urn. There 
is a background of trees. 

Ahijah foretelling to Jeroboam's 
wife the death of her son. 
I Kings xiv. 

Nathan and David. 

Scene from Montesquieu's Tem- 
ple de Gnidus. Circular. 

Portrait of Miss Margaret 
Brown l (Mrs Rust). 36 x 28. 
Half length, nearly full face ; 
abundant brown hair ; left 
hand raised to head ; blue 
dress ; face beautifully fin- 
ished ; drapery rather hard. 

Maria, from Sterne's " Senti- 
mental Journey." Small 

Eloisa reading Abelard's letter. 
Small oval. 

' Soon as thy letters trembling I 
That well-known name awakens all 
my woes." 

The figure is draped in white. 
She has turned away from the 
letter and is gazing sadly at a 
ring upon her finger. 

Girl with garlands. 

She is seated in a garden upon 
a red chair ; behind her at 
the extreme left is a curious 
summer house with two long 
upright poles. Flowers lie 
scattered on the ground. 
The girl is supposed to be a 
likeness of Angelica. 




1 Daughter of the celebrated landscape gardener, Lancelot Brown, known 
; " Capability" Brown. 

Supplement to Appendix. 


original OR (when 



known) »rbsent owner. 

Mr. Albert G. Sande- 

Venus showing Eneas and 


man, 32, Grosvenor 

Achates the way to Carthage. 


50 X 39- 

Mr. Albert G.Sande- 

Armida putting on her armour. 

man, 32, Grovenor 

Tasso. 50 X 39. 


Mr. John Samson, 

St. Cecilia playing the organ. 

West Lynne, Stoke 

Said to be a portrait of Mrs. 



Duke of Sutherland, 

Lady Louisa Macdonald, 

Trentham, Staf- 

daughter to the first Marquess 


of Stafford. 

Caroline, Countess of Carlisle, 
wife to Frederick, 5th Earl 
of Carlisle. 

The Marquis and Marchioness 
of Stafford and their daughters 
— Lady Louisa Macdonald, 
Countess of Carlisle, Lady 
Anne Vernon -Harcourt, Lady 
Georgiana Eliot, and the 
Duchess of Beaufort. 

Earl of Strafford, 


Wrotham Park. 

Coriolanus taking leave of his 
family before going into exile. 

Mr. G. L. Wat- 

Grace, daughter of Rt Hon. 

son, Rockingham 

Henry Pelham, and wife of 

Castle, Rutland. 

the 1st Baron Sondes. High 
powdered head, pensive, 
dignified attitude. 


original or (when 


Royal Institute of 
British Architects, 
Conduit Street, 
Hanover Square. 

Hon. Gerald and 
Lady Maria Pon- 
sonby, 3 57, Green 
Street, Grosvenor 


2 Lady Elizabeth Grey imploring 
Edward IV. to restore her 
husband's lands to her son. 
See page 441. 

Achilles at the Court of Lyco- 

Euryclea awakening Penelope 
with the news of the return 
of Ulysses. 

Queen Eleanora sucking the 
venom from the arm of Ed- 
ward I. See page 441. 

Fan painted by Angelica for 
Miss Ann Rushout, and be- 
queathed by her to her grand- 
niece, Lady Maria Ponsonby. 

It is one of those quaint little 
fans used by ladies in the last 
century, of most delicate 
tracery almost like lace. The 
painting is in the middle. 
Oval. The subject "Venus 
counselling Helen." It is 
very fine work and the 
colouring as fresh as if 
painted yesterday. 

A set of engravings after Ange- 
lica, by Bartolozzi. They 
were bought at the Bowles 
sale, and are many of them 
proofs. Some are in brown, 
such as "Lady Northwick 
and child," a beautiful speci- 
men, "Shakespeare's Tomb," 
and " La bergere des Alpes." 




1 These prints are mostly in brown. 

J There is also an oil painting said to be by Angelica ; but although it has 
a plate with her name on the frame it is undoubtedly by Zucchi. 

3 Mr. Ponsonby is a collector of all manner of art treasures, his house being 
full of them. The miniatures are (as in all collections) to most people the most 
interesting, and these especially, as each one has its own history and belongs 
to the family, which is quite another thing from buying them haphazard. 

ROYAL ACADEMY, 1769—1797. 















Interview of Hector and Andromache. Painted for Mr. Parker, 

of Saltram. 
Achilles discovered by Ulysses amongst the attendants of 

Deidamia. Painted for Mr. Bowles. 
Venus showing Eneas and Achates the way to Carthage. 
Penelope taking down the bow of Ulysses for the trial of her 

wooers. Painted for Mr. Parker, of Saltram. 


Vortigern enamoured with Rowena. Painted for Mr. Parker, 

of Saltram. 
Hector upbraiding Paris. Painted for Mr. Bowles. 
Cleopatra adorning the tomb of Mark Antony. Painted for 

the Earl of Exeter. 
Samma the Demoniac weeping over the ashes of his son, 

Benoni, whom he had killed in his frenzy. (From Klop- 

stock's Messiah.) Painted for Klopstock. 


Interview of King Edgar with Elfrida after her marriage with 
Athelwold. Painted for Mr. Parker, of Saltram. 

Acontio and Adippe. Ovid, Epist. xix. 

The return of Telemachus. Odyssey xvii. 

Erminia finds Tancred wounded, and assists in his relief. 

Portrait of a lady and child. 

Portrait of an artist. 


Supplement to Appendix. 



Rinaldo and Armida. Tasso. Painted for Mr. Bowles. 
Andromache and Hecuba weeping over the ashes of Hector. 
Lady in Italian dress. Whole length. Painted in Ireland. 

Her own portrait. 
La Penserosa. 
Portrait of a Bishop (Dr. Robinson, Archbishop of Armagh, 

afterwards first Baron Rokeby). Painted in Ireland. 


Telemachus at the Court of Sparta, discovered by his grief 
on the mention of his father's sufferings. Odyssey. 

Trenmor and Imbaca, the moment of her discovery to Tren- 
mor. Ossian. 

Portrait of a lady with her daughter. 

Grecian lady at work. Painted for Sir Richard Hoare of 

Holy Family. Painted for Mr. Bowles. 

Calypso calling heaven and earth to witness her affection for 

Penelope invoking Minerva's aid for the safe return of Tele- 

machus. Painted for Sir Richard Hoare, of Stourhead. 
Cupid finding Aglaia asleep binds her to a laurel. Metastasio. 

Painted for Mr. Bowles. 
Ariadne abandoned by Theseus. 
Portrait of a lady. 
Paris and Helen directing Cupid to inflame each other's 

heart with love. 1 
Portrait of a lady. 


Portrait of a gentleman. 


The despair of Achilles on being informed of the death of 

Madonna and child. 
Rinaldo and Armida. 
Andromache fainting at the unexpected sight of Eneas. 

1 Original drawing in the Print room, British Museum. 

Supplement to Appendix. 



Return of Telemachus. Painted for the Earl of Derby. 
Small oval of a lady in a Turkish dress. Whole length. 
Portrait of an artist, kitcat. [Her father.] 
St. Tohn. 
A Cupid. 


Eleanora sucking the venom out of the wound which Edward 
I. received with a poisoned dagger. Rapin. 

Lady Elizabeth Grey imploring of Edward IV. the restitu- 
tion of her deceased husband's lands. Rapin. 

Patience. " Her meek hands folded on her modest breast." 
Mason. — " Caractacus. " 

Armida in vain endeavours to prevent Rinaldo's departure. 

Portrait of a gentleman. 


Sylvia lamenting over the favourite stag wounded by Ascanius. 

^Eneid, vii. Painted for Chief Justice Downes. 
Maria near Moulines. Sentimental Journey. Painted for the 

Burghley collection. 
Love punished. 
Group of Children. 


Leonardo da Vinci expiring in the arms of Francis I. 

A nymph presiding in the temple of Immortality, receives from 
the two swans to be placed in the temple, the few names 
they had saved of those whom an aged man (the emblem of 
Time) had thrown into the River Lethe. Ariosto, canto 

Calypso mournful after the departure of Ulysses. 


Portrait of lady playing the harp. 


The death of Procris. Ovid, Metam. 

A Magdalen. 

Paris and CEnone. Ovid, Epist. 

Diana with one of her Nymphs. 

Conjugal peace. [Two ducks in a basket.] 

A Nobleman's Children. 

Group of children representing Autumn. 


Supplement to Appendix. 



Religion. See "Temple of Virtue," by Dr. Fordyce. 

Modesty embracing virtuous Love. 

Lady and her daughter. 

A Sybil. 

Design for a Fan. 

A Vestal. 


Venus attended by the Graces. Painted for Mr. Bowles. 

Portrait of a lady as a Muse. 

Judgment of Paris. Painted for Mr. Bowles. 




Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi, pointing to her children as 

her treasures. 
Virgil writing his own Epitaph at Brundusium. These three 

painted for Mr. Bowles. 
Pliny the younger with his mother at Misenum. 

Bacchus teaching the Nymphs to make verses. 1 Horaie. 


Death of Alcestis. 

Virgil reading the sixth ^Eneid before Augustus and his 
sister Octavia. 


Euphrosyne, wounded by Cupid, complaining to Venus. 
Tainted for Lord Berwick. 

Portrait of a lady of quality. [Lady Harcourt.] 

1 This was the only picture Angelica ever sent to the Royal Academy with 
the star affixed. All others were commissions, or purchased before they 
appeared. Very few artists can now say as much. This can be easily 
proved by looking over the file of the Academy Exhibition catalogues, from 
which this list is taken. 


Leeds, 1824. 


View in Rome Sir Thomas Baring. 

F.urydice Mr. G. W. Taylor. 

Cordelia Mr. G. W. Taylor. 

British Institution. 

Portrait of Angelica Kauffmann . . Mr. Cheeseman. 
An English lady of quality . . . Mr. C. Aders. 
Cleone. A drawing .... Mr. F. Wadmore. 

Leeds, 1853. 

Portrait of Angelica Kauffmann . . Mr. T. Stokes. 

La Penserosa Mr. T. De la Fosse. 

Art Treasures, Manchester, 1857. 

Jane Maxwell, Duchess of Gordon . Duke of Richmond and Gor- 


International, 1862. 

Margaret, Countess of Lucan . . , Earl Spencer. 

National Portrait Exhibition, 1867, South Kensington 


Viscount Althorp and his sisters, Ladies 
Georgiana and Henrietta Spencer, 
afterwards Duchess of Devonshire, and 
Countess of Bessborough . . . Earl Spencer. 


Supplement to Appendix. 

Portrait of Angelica Kauffmann 

Anne Montgomery, Marchioness Town 

shend, and her son 
Portrait of Angelica Kauffmann 
Mary Knowler, Countess Digby 
Alleyne Fitzherbert, first Lord St 

Helen's, as a boy 
Honourable Charlotte Clive . 
Earl and Countess of Derby, with their 

infant son between them 

Leeds, 1868. 

Venus showing Eneas and Achates the' 

way to Carthage 2 . . . ,\ Col. the Hon. C. S. Vereker. 
Armida arming, Cupid attending her 3 


Earl of Home. 1 

Marquis Townshend. 
Rev. J. E. Waldy. 
Mr. G. D. W. Digby. 

Sir William Fitzherbert. 
Earl of Powis. 

Earl of Derby. 


Royal Academy (Winter Exhibition), 1873. 

Anne, Countess of Albemarle 

Sir Joshua Reynolds 

Lady Caroline Darner 


Earl of Albemarle. 

Earl of Morley. 

Earl of Portarlington. 


"Design" .... 
One of the four decorations of Somerset 
House, now in the Diploma Gallery 


Elizabeth, Marchioness of Lothian, and 


Prince William Frederick and Princess 
Sophia Matilda, children of T.R.H. 
the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester . 

The Royal Academy. 

Marquis of Lothian. 

Earl Waldegrave. 

1 The Earl of Home has also two classical pictures by Angelica. 

2 & 3 Both pictures sold to Mr. Albert Sandeman, Grosvenor Street. 

4 Angelica received for these four paintings .£100; Sir Joshua, for 
" Theory," £32 ; Cipriani, ,£42.—; Journal of R. I. of British Architects, 1892. 


Rome, February 4th, 1786. 

Sir, — It is some time since I rec d- the favour of your letter 
date November the 15th, it rader came late to hand, for which 
reason the answer was delayed. 

I greatly admire the Idea you have to form so noble a gallery, 
and I shall certainly esteme it an honour to have my portrait 
placed amongst the respectable artists you name. 

I likewise understand that you wish to have half a dozen 
Historical Pictures done by me, my engagements are very num- 
berous — I am just now finishings two large Historical Pictures for 
his Majes ty , the Emperour, and tho' I have a great number of 
other comyssions, I shall as soon as I can be mindful of yours, 
and chuse such subjects which may be pleasing and interesting. 
I generally prefer to paint what I have not seen done by others. 

I well remember Mr. Ben. Evans. I am sorry he has not 
behaved to you as he ought, but it too often happens that bene- 
volence is returned with ingratitude. 

Mr. Zucchi, sensible of your kind remembrance of him, pre- 
sents his comp ts - to you, and we both present our best comp s 

1 Contributed by Miss Wright, Dover. 

2 The date is the same as her letter to Goethe telling him of the commission. 
It is remarkable that in any autograph letter she never crosses a t or dots 

an i. The original spelling has been preserved. 

446 Supplement to Appendix. 

to your Nice. 1 I am obliged to her for the partiality she is 
pleased to shew to my works ; but those who say that she is like 
me in person don't pay her a compliment. I hope some day 
or an other to have the satisfaction of being acquainted with 
her. I intend to visite England again, but how soon that will be 
I do not know, having many things to finishe. However, I hope 
to be able to effectuate my intention. Meanwhile, I have the 
honor to be with the greatest esteme, 

Your most obliged humble Servant, 
Angelica Kauffmann. 

1 The Miss Boydell mentioned here was both a belle and a blue stocking ; 
she married Mr. Nicol, of Pall Mall, the King's bookseller. A very interest- 
ing account of her appeared in Notes and Queries, November 26th, 1892, 
contributed by Mr. Hendriks. 


A sum of Five Thousand pounds in the Funds or Stocks in 
London, bearing interest at 3 per cent., making yearly 

£iS° £S>°°0 

Another sum of ^1350 invested in the English Funds, bearing 

^1 10 interest yearly ;£l,30O 

The two making ^"260 yearly. 

Lochi di Monte, Communita di Roma, No. 80, making 

yearly at 3 per cent. ... ... ...Scudi Romani 240 

Further Lochi di Monte, bought in 1791. No. 100. ... 

Monies invested at interest in Schwartzenberg... Florini 7,000 
A sum invested in good pictures... ... ... Scudi 8,000 

Also jewels, silver, books, prints, statues, and plaster 
busts, household furniture of every kind, carriages, 
horses, curiosities, clothing, and house linen. Also 
all necessaries for the study and use of the art of 
Painting ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Angelica Kauffmann has this day (26th May, 1798), sunk a sum of Ten 
thousand scudi Romani with the Royal Church of St. Ludovico del Negion 
for a Life Annuity, at 7 percent. 

N. B. — This makes the amount 700 scudi yearly. 

Extracts from " ZucchCs Memoir of Angelica" lent by Mr. Hen- 
driks, Vicarage Gate, Kensington. 


Vita di Angelica Kauffman, Cav. Giovanni Gherardo Rossi. 

Translation of ditto into German. By Alois Weinhart. 

Beruhmle deutscbe Frauen. Baron A. von Sternberg. 

Das Leben der Maler. Andreas Oppermann u. A. von Sternberg. 

Aus dem Bregenzer Wald. Andreas Oppermann. 

Meyer, Allegemeine Kiinstler Lexikon. 

Nagler, Allegemeine Kiinstler Lexikon. 

R. D. Dohmes. Kunst u. Kiinstler. Article by J. Weisseley. 

Allegemeine deutsche Biographic 

Italienische Reise. Goethe. Last edition. 

Nachgeschichte der Italienische Reise. Otto Harnach. 

Schrilten von Helfrich. Peter Sturz. 

Briefwechsel von Herder. 

Literatur u. Kunst. Herder. 

Der Gesellchafter oder Blatter fiir Geist und Herz, 1838. 

Zeitung fur die elegante Welt. K. L. Meilaus Muller, 1827. 

Biographie des Contemporains. Arnault. 

Nouvelle Biographie Generale. Hoefer. 

Biographie Universelle. Michaud. 

Manuel des Curieux et des Amateurs des Beaux Arts. Hiiber u. Rast. 

Manuel de l'Amateur des Estampes. Charles Le Blanc. 

Gravure du XVIII. Siecle. Henri Beraldi. 

Hand-Buch der Kupferstich Sammler. Andresen u. Weigel. 

Bartolozzi and his Works. Andrew W. Tuer. 

Records of my Life. John Taylor. 

Life of Nollekens. J. T. Smith. 

Life of Sir Joshua Reynolds. Leslie and Tom Taylor. 

Celebrated Women. Ellen Clayton. 

Dictionary of Painters. Bryan. Last edition. 

Dictionary of Painters. Seguier. 

Century of Painters. R. and S. Redgrave. 

Dictionary of National Biography, vol. xxx. 

Architectural Works. Brothers Adam. 

Catalogues of the Royal Academy. South Kensington Museum. 

Catalogues of ditto, from Mr. Anderdon's collection:' British Museum. 

Catalogues of ditto, annotated by Horace Walpole. Lent by Mr. Harvey, 
St. James' Street. 

Ditto, arranged by Mr. Graves, of Pall Mall. 

Catalogues of the Leeds and National Portrait Exhibitions, arranged by 
Mr. Graves. Unpublished. 

Articles written at different times in the Athenceum, Art Journal, European 
Magazine, Household Words, and Leisure Hour. 

The Saltram, Belvoir, Knowsley, and Thirlestane Catalogues, lent by the 
owners ; lists sent by owners ; the Burghley Catalogues, kindly lent by Mr. 
Jos. Phillips, of Stamford. 



Abbate Spina, 222, 225, 253. 

Abel Drugger, 112, 133. 

Academicians, Picture of, 1 18 — 119, 

Academy, Royal, 114, 116 — 123, 
146, 150, 154, 155, 157, 162, 166, 
169, 1S0, 204, 281, 295, 351, 

354—7, 361, 374, 404. 439, 44°, 

Academy Notes, 173. 
Academy, St. Luke, 147 — 152, 164, 

326, 334- 
Ach, The, 12, 13. 
Achilles, 154, 229, 245, 377. 
Achilles discovered by Ulysses, 121, 

202, 371, 380 — 1. 
Adam Brothers, 170, 175,400 — 1 — 3, 

404—5—8, 413— H— 17, 43°- 
Adams, New York, 363. 
Addington, Mr., 159. 
Adelphi, 179, 288, 400, 401, 404. 
Adonis, 279, 369, 374-8, 383. 
Advertiser, 116, 120, 121, 126. 
Affectionate Sister, 70. 
Afflicted Mother, 70. m 
AglaTa bound by Cupid, 132, 175, 

380, 394, 403, 408, 416. 
Alba, Duke of, 213. 
Albacini, Signor Carlo, 224. 
Albaggini, 326. 
Albani, Cardinal, 30. 
Albano, 132, 246, 318, 339. 
Albemarle, 363. 
Albemarle, Countess of, 150. 
Alberschwende, 12. 
Aldborough, Viscount, 175, 30S. 

AUgemeir.e Biographie, 72, 76, 102. 
Allan Cunningham, 122. 
Almighty, The, 149, 205. 
Almoro Barbara, 183, 361. 
Alps, 265, 303, 309, 317. 
Althorp, 151, 381. 
Amalie, Duchess of Weimar, 19S, 

234, 238—246, 248-256. 
Amalie, Princess of Parma, 187. 
Amalie Schoppe, 69, IC2. 
Amalie Triesdoff, 231. 
America, 361. 
American Market, 391. 
American Silver Kings, 42. 
Amsterdam, 94. 
Ancaster, Duchess of, 62, 152. 
Anderdon's Catalogue, 154. 
Andromache, 123—5, 145, 154, 375, 

Angel, Miss, 43, 98, 176, 309. 
Angelica. See Kauffmann. 
Angelice, 218. 
Anhalt-Dessau, Princess of, 206, 

279, 363- 
Anhalt-Dessau, Prince of, 363. 
Anna (Santa) and Joachim, 203,377. 
Apollo, 241, 242, 412. 
Apollo's nose, 147. 
Apelles, 256, 417. 
Appendix, 363. 
Arcadia, 52, 346, 385. 
Archduchess Christina, 193. 
Architects, 438. 
Arco di Regina, 197, 359. 
Argyle, Duke of. 406. 
Ariadne, 268, 273, 282, 306, 370, 

Arlington House, 415. 

• G g 



Art Club, Hanover Square, 414, 


Art Journal, 1 13, 340. 
Aschaffenberg, 363. 
Atheneeum, 333, 369, 423. 
Attenborough, 401. 
Authorities, 448. 


Bach, 414. 

Bacchante, 153, 277, 372 — 4. 

Bacchantes, 132. 

Bacchum in remotis Carmine, 279. 

Bacchus teaching the Nymphs to 

make verses, 207, 279, 369. 
Bagwell, Mr., 143, 363. 
Baker, Dr., 48, 127. 
Baltimore, Lord, 61. 
Bandettini, Therese, 199. 
Banks, 357. 

Sir John, 139. 
Barazzi, Monsieur, 191. 
Barbauld, 181. 
Barford, 432. 
Baring, 364. 
Baronneau, 364. 
Barry, 134, 150, 371, 404, 429. 
Bartolozzi, 44, 46, 117, 131, 165, 

173, 278, 305—7, 343, 354, 357, 

360, 370—83. 
Bastard, 376. 
Battazate, 2. 
Bavaria, Archduke of, 187, 321, 

Beatitude, 149. 
Bellamy, 48. 
Bell's " Edition of the Poets," 165, 

Belvedere, 201, 421. 
Benjamin, 8. 
Beraldi, 388. 
Bergamo, 206, 321, 364. 
Berger, 131. 

Berlin, 28, 153, 255, 364. 
Bernini, 21, 152, 364. 
Bernsdorff, 51, 109, 123, 146. 
Berry, Miss, 276, 280. 

Berwick, Lord, 282, 364. 

Bessborough, 381, 443. 

Bildstein, 13. 

Biraldi, 148. 

Bishop of Como, 6, 11,311. 

Biographies, 72, 76, 102, 340. 

Blomeneld, Sir Thomas, 350, 364 

Bloomsbury, 178, 426. 
Blue Stocking Club, 41. 
Boddam, 364. 
Bode, 231. 
Boehm, 417. 

Bologna, 22, 147, 311, 313. 
Bonomi, Joseph, 177, 189, 318, 328, 

332, 400, 404—7- 
Bonomi, Rosa Florini, 55, 177, 183, 

323-8, 330, 406. 
Book of Italian Travels, 198. 
Borsi, 330. 
Boswell, 103. 

Botanical Gardens, 237, 251. 
Boucher, 392. 
Bousfield, Mrs., 143. 
Bouverie, 152. 
Bowles, Mr. George, 128, 176, 182, 

193, 204, 245, 282, 318, 330, 342, 

364, 365, 366, 367, 391, 425. 
Bowring, Mr. Victor, 350, 367. 
Boydell, 148, 164, 166, 242 — 5,367, 

368, 377, 388. 
Brandt, 127. 
Briscoe, 368. 
Britannia, 110. 
British Court, 81. 
Brown, Count, 281, 368. 
Brown, Lancelot, 436. 

Margaret, 436. 
Brussels, 18.1. 
Bryer, 131, 368,392. 
Brithingam, Mr., 191. 
Buckingham House, 98, 401. 
Buckle, 94. 

Buonarotti, Michael Angelo, 230. 
Burghley Collection, 350, 357, 431. 
Burial of our Lord, 228. 
Burke, Thomas, 128, 131, 395. 
Burkitt, 432. 
Burnand, Count, 28. 



Burney, Dr., 79. 

Bury, 132, 209, 232, 234. 

Bute, Lord, 400. 

Caen House, Hampstead, 401. 
Calais, 380 — 392. 
Calonne, 343, 368. 
Calypso, 147, 278, 379, 426. 
Calypso calling on Heaven to wit- 
ness her affection for Ulysses, 379. 
Cambridge House, 419. 
Canova, 163,316—17,326-7,331. 
Canterbury, Archbishop of, 150. 
Canton, 154, 309. 
Captain Frederick Johnston, 151. 
Caraffa, Columbano Palace, 233. 
Carattoni, 131. 
Caserta, 192. 

Casimir Kauffmann, 314 — 16. 
Carlsbad, 271. 
Carlyle, 260. 

Caroline Flachsland, 261, 271. 
Carter, Mrs. Elizabeth, 281. 
Castel Gandolfo, 207, 216, 234. 
Castle, 137. 
Castle, Dublin, 137. 
Catalogue of Paintings, 363, 432. 
Cataneo, 148. 

Cathedral, St. Paul's, 149—50. 
Cavaggi, 287, 291. 
Cavendish Square, 424. 
Ceci, Due of, 202, 368. 
Cedars, 410. 
Cesari, Cardinal, 313. 
Chambers, Sir William, 117. 
Charing Cross, 53, 5^- 
Charity, 297, 354, 357. 
Charles II., 345. 
Charles Cramer, 77. 
Cheapside, 148. 
Cheeseman, Mr., 152, 368. 
Cheops, 173. 
Chiaro-oscuro, 229. 
Christian, King of Denmark, 40, 71. 
Christian Police Institution, 402, 


Christie's, 119, 142,357 — 8, 360 — 1, 

3°5, 370—1—2—4, 383. 429- 
Church of St. Andrea, 294, 326, 

Cimaroso, 209. 
Cipriani, 117, 119, 150, 166, 402, 

404 — 7, 418 — 19, 420—9. 
Cirillo, 377. 
Clarchen, 213. 
Claridge's, 79. 
Clayton's, 139. 
Clements, Colonel, 143, 368. 
Clements, Mrs., 143, 368. 
Cleopatra weeping over Antony, 

128, 371—4, 381, 411, 4l6. 
Cleophas Lucin, 2, II. 
Clerisseau, 400. 
Cleveland, 416. 
Clio, 153, 354, 374. 
Clive, Hon. C, 150, 378. 
Clonmel, Lord, 138. 
Cockerell, 365, 366. 
Collins' "Eclogues," 165, 373, 


Colnaghi, 44. 

Comic Muse, 279, 372. 

Como, 6—8, 311, 313. 

Como, Bishop of, 6, 11, 311, 368. 

Composition, 167. 

Conjugal Peace, 163. 

Conjuror, The, 156 — 61. 

Constance, 18, 232. 

Conway, 50, 126, 150. 

Copenhagen, 109, 284. 

Copley, 166. 

Corbett, 369. 

Cordelia's Corpse, 378, 381, 407. 

Corigliano, Duchess of, 193, 377. 

Coriolanus, 310, 381,437. 

Cornelia, 204 — 5. 

Cornelys, Mrs., 410. 

Correggio, 339. 

Corso, 323. 

Cosway, Mrs., 171. 

Cosway, Richard, 117, 119, 176, 

409, 420. 
Cotes, 121. 

Council of the Academy, 156, 402. 
Courland, Princess of, 369. 
S 2 



Covent Garden Theatre, 151. 

Coward, 432. 

Cowper, 405. 

Cranley Gardens, 416. 

Cressida, 166. 

Crewe, Mrs., 52, 152. 

Crosse and Blackwell, 409, 410. 

Cupid, 132, 163, 175, 281, 305, 

317. 344. 365, 369, 373— 4— 5> 

402, 408, 410, 412, 413. 
Cupid and Hebe, 193. 
Cupid asleep, 132. 
Cupid disarmed, 132. 
Cupid drying Psyche's hair, 132, 

163, 279, 305. 
Cupid finding Aglaia asleep, 132, 

175. 3 So > 394, 403. 408, 4l6. 
Cutchacutchoo, 137. 


D'Alberg, 236, 262. 

Dalmatia, 170, 400, 430. 

Darner, Lady Caroline, 140, 152, 

Damer, Mrs., 151, 152, 374. 
Dance, Nathaniel, 37, 64, 65, 104, 

117, 121, 150, 354, 356,404,418. 
Darnell, 432. 
D'Aumale, 435. 
Daniel Volterra, 228, 233-6. 
Dark Ages, 399, 413. 
Dauke, 131. 

Dead Man's Diary, 323. 
Decorations (see Appendix). 
De Falbe, 421. 
Delalosse, 369. 
Delany, Mrs., 59, 139. 
Delatre, 385—6. 
Denmark, 147. 
Demarteau, 392. 
Derby, Earl of, 150, 369, 374, 416, 

Design, 167, 182, 443. 
Desalles Regis, 102. 
Dessau, 305. 
Devonshire, 351, 361. 

Devonshire Place House, 424. 
Diana, 122, 419. 
Dickenson, 131, 379. 
Dido, 368, 379. 

Digby, 369- 

Dinorlas, 341. 

Diploma Gallery, 167, 374. 

D'Israeli, 180. 

Dohme's " Kunst ii Kiinstler," 102. 

Domenichino, 1 10, 378. 

Donald, Messrs., 3-0. 

Donaldson, Mr., 369. 

Dowager Princess (of Wales), 62, 

Dowdeswell, Messrs., 350, 361 — 3, 

Downe, 404. 
Doyle (Henry), 142. 
D'Oyly Carte, 403. 
Dreaming, 227 

Dresden, Gallery of, 1 53, 370. 
Drummond, Mr., 402. 
Drury Lane. 65. 
Dublin, 136 — 142, 144, 391, 408, 

Dubourg, 102 — 3. 
Ducal family of Devonshire, 25, 69. 
Duchess of 

Ancaster, 62, 152. 

Brunswick, 60, 368, 372, 415. 

Courland, 278. 

Devonshire, 151, 372, 380 — I. 

Dorset, 143, 378. 

Modena, 10. 

Manchester, 121, 122. 

Richmond and Gordon, Jane 
Maxwell, 150, 378. 

Weimar, 234, 238—9, 240 — 1, 
243—56, 273. 
Duff, 370. 

Dugnami, Cardinal, 370. 
Duke of 

Bridgewater, 368. 

Courland, 229, 368. 

Dorset, 143, 378. 

Gloucester, 120, 279, 449. 

Mecklenburg Strelitz, 120. 

Miranda, 321, 375. 

Modena, 9. 



Duke of 

Richmond and Gordon, 150, 

i5i» 378-9- 

Rutland, 379, 436. 

Weimar, 238, 251. 
Duke's Gallery, 23, 24. 
Dunleary, 138. 
Durchlaucht, 240. 
Durham, Bishop of, 401. 
Durmer, 131. 

Eadem, 389. 

Eardley, 350, 364, 421. 

Eardley, Sir Culling, 421. 

Earwig, The, 163 — 7, 176. 

Easter Day, 252, 265. 

Eastwell House, 406. 

Edgar and Elfrida, 133, 134, 375. 

Edward IV., 376. 

Egmont, 2J2, 214, 220. 

Egypt, "3- 

Egyptian, 418. 

Electra, 338. 

Elements, 167. 

Ely, Countess, 140 — 1. 

Ely, Earl of, 138, 142, 370. 

Emma Lyon, 276, 277. 

Emo, 140, 152, 420. 

Emondel 231. 

Emperor of Austria, Joseph II., 

186, 201. 396. 
Emperor of Russia, Paul II., 182, 

Eneas, 74, 375, 382. 
England, 38, 42, 63, 148, 171, 180, 

183—6, 193, 204, 301, 318, 320, 

321—2, 357—8. 
English, 35, 63, 130, 1S5, 193. 
English Art, 344. 
Englishman, The, 39. 
Epictetus, 280. 
Epitaph, 206. 

Espinasse, General, 306, 387. 
Esterhazy, 371, 376. 
Etchings, 146—7—8, 388. 
Euphrosyne, 74, 282, 369, 380, 410. 
Euripides, 281. 

Europe, 38, 264, 275, 283. 

Evans, 431. 

Exeter, Marquis of, 51, 108, 342, 

Exhibitions, 119, 126, 145, 148, 150, 

152, 162, 204, 295. 
Exhibitions : 

Academy, Royal, 439 — 442. 
Society of Arts, 50, 51, 126, 

Leeds, 443. 
National portrait, 443, 444. 

Facius, 131. 
Fairholme, 360. 
Faith, 177, 297, 348, 354. 
Fantastico Fortunato, 199. 
Farringdon, 47. 
Fashionable, 384. 
Fauconberg, 409. 
Feather room, 405. 
Filling, Adam's, 412. 
Firrao, Cardinal, 371. 
Fisher, Kitty, 48, 355. 
Fitzgerald, 432. 
Fitzherbert, 151 — 56. 

Alleyne, 371. 
Fitzpatrick, J. C., 141. 
Florence, 22 — 4, 219, 221 — 2, 230, 

300, 311, 371. 
Florence, Grand Duke of, 230. 
Folo, 131, 321. 
Forbes, 298, 307, 309, 321, 342, 371, 

Fordyce, Henrietta, 173, 174. 
Fordyce, James, 163, 188. 
Fordyce, William, 187- 
Forster, John, 50, 127, 141. 
Forster, 74. 
Fortitude, 354, 420. 
Fountaines, 424. 
Fra Angelico, 209. 
France, 276, 320. 
Francis the First, 163. 
Franck, 33. 

Francavilla Palace, 192. 
Frascati, 225, 246, 267. 



Frederick Horn, Count, 78 — 107. 

French, 211, 287, 308. 

Frenchman, 38. 

Fuger, 336. 

Funeral honours, 326, 331. 

Fuseli, 65—67, 68, 133, 168. 

Gaetano, 377. 
Gainsborough, 133, 343. 
Galleries — 

Aschaffenberg, 363. 

Berlin, 153, 364. 

Dresden, 153, 370. 

Dublin National, 142, 370. 

Edinburgh, 370. 

Florence, 371. 

Frankfort, 371. 

London, 374, 375, 431. 

Milan, 375. 

Munich, 376. 

Naples, 377. 

Philadelphia, 377. 

St. Petersburg, 380. 

Vienna, 382. 
Ganymede, 329, 33S, 425. 
Garde a vous, 132. 
Gardens, Botanical, 237, 251. 
Garrick, 51, 61, 6S, 133, 176, 371, 
402, 411, 418. 

Club, 151, 371. 

Junior, 325, 402. 
Gebhardt, Professor, 54, 255, 305. 
Gellert, 326. 

General Espinasse, 306, 387. 
General Stanwick's daughter, 129, 


Genii, 338. 

Genius, 167. 

Gering, 194, 198, 335. 

German, 33, 268. 

Germanicus, 280, 281. 

Germany, 96, 308. 

George III., 40, 116, 363. 

George Keate, 113, 179, 292, 

403 : 
Georgian, 406, 411, 412. 

Gilbert (J. T.), 137. 

Gilbey, Walter, 419, 420. 

Giudetti, 224. 

Glasslough, 40S. 

Globe, celestial, 411. 

Gloucester, 383. 

Gloucester, Duke of, 120, 279. 

Gbchausen, Fraulein von, 240, 241, 
244, 246. 

Godby, 70. 

Goldsmith, 112, 127, 141 — 2. 

Goethe, 26, 27, 197, 198—200, 207 
— 215 — 16— 17 — 18, 221, 231 — 
233. 237—239» 243—4—6-9, 250 
—3, 274, 303—5. 337. 359- 

Goethe Society, 217. 

Goldie, Charles, 243, 378, 396. 
Family, 396. 
Edward, 398, 433. 
Mrs. George, 398. 

Goldsmid, Misses, 426. 

Goschen, 258. 

Gotz von Berlingchen, 34. 

Gracchi, Mother of the, 204 — 5. 

Graces, The, 74, 167, 402. 

Grangerising, 154. 

Graves, 367. 

Graves, Henry, 153, 362. 

Grecian, 403. 

Green, 131. 

Greeks, 211. 

Grellar, Messrs., 299. 

Grenville, 411, 417. 

Griffith, 281. 

Grimani, 372. 

Grisons, 45. 

Guercino, 370. 

Guido, 147, 1 149, 339, 378-9, 


Hagelin, Consul, 255, 258. 
Hague, The, 94. 
Hairplaiter, The, 147, 390. 
Hall, Mrs., 74. 
Hall, Great, 404. 
Hamburg, 94. 



Hamilton, 133, 152. 

Duke of, 427. 

Lady, 276, 277, 351, 369, 372. 

Sir William, 276, 372. 
Hammond, 364. 
Hampe, 327. 
Hanover, 1 15. 
Harcourt, Lady, 296, 433. 
Harlowe, Clarissa, 344. 
Hartley, Mrs., 151, 372. 
Hartmann, Mrs., 412. 
Hayman, 117, 119. 
Haymarket, 120. 
Hebe, 122, 276. 
Hector, 121, 124, 125, 166, 354, 

Hecuba, 145. 
Heidegger, 410. 
Heinrich Meyer, 285, 302. 
Hendriks, 446. 
Herculaneum, 30, 411. 
Herder, 227, 231, 232, 234, 235, 

238, 244, 247, 250, 261, 262 — 

274, 337- 
Herkomer, 388. 
Hermitage Palace, 229, 380. 
Hero, 282, 383. 
Hervey, Lord, 372. 
Hoare, Wavenden Manor, 372. 
Sir Francis, 372. 
Miss, 391. 
Hogarth, 114, 344, 351. 
Holstein, Beck, Duke of, 206, 373. 
Holy Child, 203. 
Holy Families, 148, 374. 
Home, Lord. 152, 444. 
Homer, no, 147, 357. 
Hone, Nathaniel, 104, 117, 118, 

155 — 160. 
Hope, 147, 164—5, 297. 354, 373> 

Hope nursing Love, 48, 394. 
Hopkinson, 433, 434. 
Horace, 279, 322, 379, 383. 
Horace Mann, 403. 
Horn, Frederick, 78, 100 — 107, 168. 
Home, Anne, 84. 

Richard, 84. 
Hornek, 127. 

Houses, Guide to, 399 — 431. 

Houston, 131. 

Huber and Rast, 103, 388. 

Hughes (Swinnerton), 433. 

Hunt, 279. 

Hunter, Dr., 118. 

Illustrations, 373 (See Appen- 
Infanta, 152. 
Inigo Jones, 414, 424. 
Inghilterra, 187. 
Intaglio, 226, 243. 
Ireland, 129, 136 — 145, 367, 421, 

Innocence with doves, 1 1 2, 354, 377. 
Italian, 33, 39, 268. 
Italian Memoir, 169. 
kalian School, The Old, 156. 
Italian Stuccoists, 137. 
Italians, 202, 211. 
" Italienische Reise," 197, 199, 200, 

207, 213, 215. 
Italy, 26, 173, 214, 276. 

Jenkins, 210, 287. 
Johnson, Dr., 416. 
Jersey, Lord, 412, 420. 
Joachim, 203, 377. 
Johnston, Captain, 152, 374. 
Josepoff, Prince, 282, 374. 
Journal, Art, 1 13, 340. 
Judgment of Paris, 176. 
Juno, 122, 369, 406. 
Justice Blackburne, 142. 
Justice Downe, 143, 392. 


Kauffmanx, Angelica — Birth, 2 ; 
early education, 3—5; Como, 
6—8; Milo, 8 — ioj death of 



mother, 1 1 ; leaves Milan, 1 1 ; 
Schwartzenberg, 12 — 17 ; returns 
to Italy, 18; Montfurt Castle, 
18—22; inclined to the stage, 19, 
20 ; first love affair, 21 ; Florence, 
22, 23 ; Rome, 24, 25 ; Winckel- 
mann, 25; his influence upon'her 
future career, 25, 26, 31 — 33; 
her adoption of mythology, 33, 
34 ; Venice, 35 ; acquaintance 
with Lady Wentworth, 35, 36 ; 
goes with her to London, 36 ; 
London, 40 — 45 ; acquaintance 
with Sir Joshua Reynolds, 45 — 
50; her portrait by him, 46 ; ex- 
hibits portrait of Garrick, 51 ; 
exhibits Arcadia, 52; leaves Lady 
Wentworth, 53; Reynolds' friend- 
ship, 45—52; letters to her father, 
45, 46, 54 — 62 ; takes a house, 59; 
love affairs, 64—67 ; friendship 
with Mary Moser, 67, 68 ; arrival 
of her father and Rosa Florini, 
70 ; method of painting, 71 — 
77 ; Horn, 78, 79 ; marriage 
with, 84 ; separation, 95 ; accusa- 
tions against Sir Joshua, 100 — 
106; Bernsdorff's account, 109, 
112; elected an Academician, 
117; her portrait in Zoffany's 
picture, 1 19; exhibits at the Royal 
Academy, 120 ; mentioned in the 
Advertiser, 126 ; her portrait of 
Sir Joshua, 126; dinner at Sir 
George Baker's, 127 ; engravings 
and etchings, 130, 131, 146, 147, 
148 ; exhibits at Royal Academy, 
120, 133; satirized by Peter 
Pindar, 134 ; visits Ireland, 136 
— 145 ; exhibits at Royal Aca- 
demy, 145 ; proposal to decorate 
St. Paul's, 149 ; her Portraits, 
150—154; exhibits at Royal 
Academy, 154 ; Hone's Conjurer, 
155 — 163; exhibits at Royal 
Academy, 162 ; criticized in the 
Earwig, 163; Vignettes, 164, 165; 
decorates Somerset House, 166; 
death of Horn, 168; agrees to 

marry Antonio Zucchi, 172; ill- 
ness of her father, 171 ; letter to 
Mrs. Fordyce, 173; exhibits at 
Royal Academy, 176 ; marriage 
with Zucchi, 177, 178; leaves 
England, 180 ; Venice, 181; 
death of her father, 183; goes 
to Naples, 184 ; friendship of 
Queen Caroline, 184; Rome, 187 ; 
letter to Dr. William Fordyce, 
187; returns to Naples, 193; 
finally settles in Rome, 194 ; life 
in Rome, 195 ; Gering's account, 
198; Goethe's view (" Italienische 
Reise"), 199; the Emperor of 
Austria commissions Angelica, 
186, 201 ; pictures ordered by 
Catherine of Russia, 186, 202 ; 
commission from the Pope, 204 ; 
exhibits at the Royal Academy, 
London, 1786, 204; criticism of 
the Mother of the Gracchi, 205 ; 
friendship with Goethe, 207 ; 
party given by him, 209 ; Egmont, 
212; Goethe's picture, 214; 
Oppermann and Stolberg's opi- 
nions as to the friendship, 215 — 
16; Zucchi as a husband, 217 ; 
letters from Angelica to Goethe, 
219 — 231,233—238; letters from 
the Duchess of Weimar, 249, 
252 ; letter from Wieland, 255 — 
259 ; friendship with Herder, 261; 
letters from Herder to his wife, 
262 — 274 ; condition of Europe, 
275 ; arrival of Lady Hamilton, 
2767 her portrait painted, 277; 
engraved by Morghen, 278 ; 
Steinberg's criticism, 279; ancient 
mythology her favourite subject, 
280 — 1 ; exhibits Euphrosyne 
at Royal Academy, 282 ; portrait 
of Duke of Sussex, 282 ; arrival 
of her cousin Anton, 283 ; letter 
from Herder, 284 ; Madame Le 
Brun, 284 — 5 ; state of Europe, 
286; letters to Mr. Kuliff, 287, 
291 — 294, 299 — 302; Zucchi's ill- 
health, 288 ; his death, 289 ; his 



will, 290; letter to Mr. Kuliff, 
291 ; inscription on tomb, 294; 
obliged to work, 295 ; her piety, 
296; her large picture of Religion, 
297 ; Mr. Forbes, 298 ; Rome 
a republican government, 299; 
letter to Mr. Kuliff, 291 — 293; 
letter from Goethe, 303 — 305 ; 
state of Rome, 306 ; courtesy of 
General Espinasse, 306 ; letter 
to Mr. Forbes, 307 — 309 ; por- 
traits, 309 ; present to Schwart- 
zenberg, 310 ; illness, 310 ; leaves 
Rome, 311 ; visits Florence, 31 1; 
Como, 31 1 j letter to a friend, 
312; visits Venice, 313; returns 
to Rome, 314, letter to her 
cousin, 314 — 15; Canova exe- 
cutes her designs, 316; Napoleon 
invades Italy, 317; her income 
in danger, 317; letter to Mr. 
Bowles, 318; illness, 319; visits 
Tivoli, 322 ; letter to Mr. Forbes, 
322 ; renewed illness, 323 ; last 
sickness, 325; death, 326; fune- 
ral, 326 ; will, 328 ; letter from 
Dr. Borsi, 330 ; letter from An- 
ton Kauffmann, 332 ; inscrip- 
tions, 328, 333, 334; critical 
notices, 334; catalogue of pic- 
tures, 363 ; catalogue of etchings, 
388 ; engravings by Bartolozzi, 
391 ; illustrations by Bartolozzi, 
395 ; drawings in British Museum, 
398 ; house decorations, 399. 

Kauffmann, Cashnir, 314 — 316, 329. 

Kauffmann, Anton Johann, 284, 
301,311,325—6,327, 332, 359. 

Kauffmann, John Joseph, 1, 4 — 6, 
8, 11, 19 — 22, 36, 40, 54, 59, 62, 
80, 87, 91, 105, 167, 171-3, 
177, 181— 3, 184, 291, 352, 357, 

Kauffmann, Peter, 32S, 353. 

Kauffmanns, The, 6, 7. 

Kayser, Christoph, 222, 225, 226. 

Kidd, M.D., 414. 

Kimber, 374. 

King Lear, 378, 407. 

King's Library, Berlin, 54,255, 316. 

Klopstock, no, 152, 374. 

Knebel, 231. 

Kneller, Sir Godfrey, 1 14. 

Knight, 131, 374. 

Knight, Charlotte, 341. 

Knowsley, 170, 369. 

Koramosky, 434. 

Krantz, Kapellmeister, 209. 

Kruder, 377. 

Kuliff, 178, 292, 301. 

Kunst, Literateur, 337, 339. 

Kunstbild, 382. 

Kunstler, Kunst, 102. 


Labyrinth, 306. 

Sarah JJunbury, 74. 

Sarah Cavendish, 69. 

Caroline Damer, 140, 1 52. 

Falmouth, 59. 

Freake, 416. 

Charlotte Grenville, Watkins- 
Wynn, 411, 417. 

Hamilton, 276—7, 351. 

Hervey, 229, 372. 

Molyneux, 121. 

Augusta Murray, 282. 

Northwick, 193, 206, 351, 364 
—366, 379- 

of quality, 296. 

Susan Strangways, 88. 

Dowager Williams-Wynn, 416, 

Wentworth, 25, 36, 41,65, 180, 
Laguerre, 417. 
Lancret, 352. 

Maiden, 50, 68. 

Market, 120. 

St. Martin's, 68, 79, 114, 159. 

Wheel, 59. 
Laocoon, 125. 
La Penserosa, 145. 
La Touche, 138 — 9, 391. 
Lava*er, 221. 



Lavis, 389. 

Leamington, 360. 

Leander, 282, 283. 

Lear, King, 378, 405. 

Leblanc, 388, 390. 

Lebrun, Madame, 277, 284, 285. 

Leeds, Duke of, 416. 


Duke of, 138. 

House, 138. 
Leipzig, 258, 304—5. 
Lely, Sir Peter, 351. 
Leonardo da Vinci, 9, 163, 379. 
Le Rossi, 327. 

Leslie, Charles, 47, 71, 118, 133, 
154, 162—7. 

Sir John, 175, 407 — 8. 

Lady Constance, 407, 408. 
Lessing, 125. 
Le Thiere, 327. 
Levant, 382. 
Lewis, 373. 

Ludovische, 28. 

Librarian, 28. 
Life, School, 9, 77, 75, 114. 
Lincoln, 427. 

Lincoln's Inn Fields, 427. 
Lindau, 54. 

Lips, engraver, 220, 258. 
Liverpool, 421. 
Locatelli, 288, 290. 
Lohren, 2. 

London, 40, 41, 48, 54, 58, 65, 78, 
89, 96, 98, 145, 147, 150, 170, 
187—8, 287, 299, 314, 329,409, 

Antrim, 138. 

Baltimore, 61. 

Berwick, 282, 364. 

Bute, 400, 421. 

Butler, James, 145, 422. 

Cavendish, Arthur, 69. 

Charlemont, 137, 368, 391, 408. 

Ely, 138, 370. 

Ferrard, 143, 375. 
Fauconberg, 411. 
Hervey, 372. 


Howard de Walden, 151, 372. 

Jersey, 412, 420. 

Leven and Melville, 153, 374. 

Lieutenant, 136, 141. 

Longford, 145. 

Masserene and Ferrard, 375. 

Meath, 138, 140, 422. 

Milton, 378, 420. 

Montgomery, 309. 

Morley, 46, 123, 126, 134, 375 

Mornington, 138. 

Northbrook, 138. 

Portarlington, 378, 420. 

Portman, 176, 378, 399, 404 

Powerscourt, 138. 

Powis, 150, 378. 

Radnor, 417. 

Spencer, 108, 381, 420. 

Townshend, 140, 141, 384. 

Wynford, 411. 
Loretto, House of, 203, 374. 

Marquis of, 150, 374. 

Marchioness of, 150, 374. 
Louis XVI., Decoration, 413. 
Love, 100, 265, 370, 383. 

Celestial, 149. 
Lucin, Cleophas, 2, 10, II. 
Luiseum, 305, 363. 
Lycomedes, King, 380. 
Lyon, Emma, 276 — 7. 
Lyte, 374. 
Lytton, Lord, 411. 


Macaulay, 280. 
Macaroni Artist, 119. 
Macbeth, 65. 

Lady, 65. 
Macdonald, Colonel, 309, 375. 
Maecenas, 322. • 

Madonna, 147, 244, 378, 380 — 4. 
Magazine, European, 12 1. 



Magazine, Gentleman's, 177. 

Magistrate, Mr. Addington, 159. 

Mahaffy, Dr., 145, 422. 

Mahlerinn seelen, 67. 

Malone, 47. 

Manchester, Duchess of, 74, 121, 

Manuel des Beaux Arts, 182. 

Marceaud, 131, 415. 

Marengo Rooms, 50. 

Marinari, 138. 

Marlborough House, 408. 

Marlfield, 143. 


Ely, 138, 141. 

Exeter, 51, 108, 342, 353, 370 

— 1. 
Hertford, 410. 
Queensberry, 410. 
Marriage settlement, 177. 
Marshall, 434. 
Martineau, 434. 
Martineghi, 375. 
Marylebone, 424. 
Massacarrara, 375. 
Matilda Caroline, 40. 
Matthews, 180. 
Maughan, Rev. G , 376. 
Maupasson, Thomas, 400. 
Maxwell, 434. 
Medley, 375. 
Mendip, 375. 
Menelaus, 74, 347. 
Mengs, Raphael, 31, 67, 153, 303, 

336, 370. 
Mentmore, 152. 
Mentor, 278. 

Mercury, 228, 236, 265, 285. 
Messell, 434. 
Messiah, no, 128. 
Messilina, 385. 
Metastasio, 403. 
Meyer, 285, 302, 376. 
Meyers, 5. 

Mezzotinto, 134, 388. 
Milan, 8— II, 17, 63, 223—5, 311, 

Milan, Bishop of, 10. 
Milanese, 10, 216. 

Miranda, Duke and Duchess of, 

321. 375- 

Miss Angel, 43, 98, 176, 309. 
Mistress of Robes, 205. 
Model, Naked, 77, 118. 
Modena, Duke of, 9. 

Duchess of, 10. 
Modesty, 204. 

Monastery of San Pietro, 147. 
Monbegno, 3, 22, 36. 
Monroe, Dolly, 141, 142, 370. 
Montagu, 427 — 8. 
Montagu, Mrs., 41, 181, 404—5. 
Montagu House, 405. 
Monte dell Trinita, 190. 
Montfort, Count, 18, 21, 375. 

Castle, 19, 21, 365, 375! 
Montgomery, 375. 
Montgomery, Lord, 309. 
Monuments of Rome, 198. 
Moral Emblems, 76. 
Morales, Cristoforo, 224. 
More, Sir Thomas, 423. 
Morghen, 131, 198, 206, 278, 372 — 

3—4, 385- 
Morland, 354. 

Morley, 46, 123, 126, 134,375 — 6. 
Morris, Miss, 48, 122. 
Morrison, Alfred, 173. 
Morsburg, 18. 
Mosaic, 374. 
Moscow, 202. 

George, 67, 114, 116, 117, 1 18. 

Mary, 67, 68, 118, 133, 352. 
Mosers, The, 67, 68. 
Mother, afflicted, 70. 

of the Arts, 323. 

of the Gracchi, 204 — 5 — 6, 377. 
Munster, Bishop of, 296. 
Miinter, Dr., 285. 
Muntzer, Mr., 400, 418. 
Muse, The, 153, 176,233, 254,395. 
Muses, The, 281. 
Museum, 233. 
Museum, British, 70, 77, 128, 154, 

169, 276, 387, 388. 
Museum, Soane, 396, 429. 
Music, 371, 381, 397. 




Naglfr, 102, 335 — 6. 
Naked, Model, 77, 118. 
Naples, 35, 184 — 5 — 9, 190 — 1, 192, 
193, 194, 233, 244, 247, 249, 263, 

Naples, Queen of, 1S4 — 5 — 9, 

192—4, 483. 
Napoleon, 317. 
Nathaniel Dance, 37, 64, 65, 104, 

117, 121, 150, 418. 
Nathaniel Hone, 104, 117, 118, 155 

— 161. 
National Academy, 114. 
National Biography, Dictionary of, 


National Gallery, 142, 309, 370 — 

National Portrait Gallery, 374. 
Nativity, The, 150. 
Nelly O'Brien, 355. 
Nelson's Daughter, 424. 
Netherlands, 212. 
Neville, 391. 

Nevroni, Cardinal, 311, 368. 
New Bond Street, 361, 365. 
Newcastle, 427. 
New London, and Old, 402. 
Newnes, 435. 
Nicotris, 113, 199. 

Norfolk Street, 367. 
Nollekens, 64, 68, 77, 112, 117, 
160, 377. 

Nord, Count du, 182, 379. 
Countess du, 182, 379. 

Norfolk House, 416. 

Northentz Library, 28. 

Northern Italy, 18. 

Northwick, 193, 351, 435. 

Northwick, Lady, 364, 365, 379, 

Norwich, 298. 

Nostall Priory, 172, 422. 

Nouvelle Biographie, 102, 340. 

Novosiels Ki, 370. 

Nymph Egeria, 281, 425. 

Nymphs, 369, 402, 408, 413, 


Oberon, 258. 

Olympus, 149, 406. 

Omnia Vanitas, 164, 310, 373. 

Oppermann, 34, 72, 87, 113, 215, 

216, 312. 
Ord and Son, 300. 
Orestes, 338. 
Organ, 417. 
Orpheus, 21, 368. 
Ossian, 307, 381. 
Osterly Park, 401, 420. 
Ovid, 282, 373. 
Oxford Street, 407, 

Padua, 313. 

Painting, 167, 371, 381, 397. 

Pall Mall, 115, 120, 153, 166, 361, 

Pallas, 201, 382. 
Pan, 417. 
Pannini, 377. 

Pantheon, 73, 152, 328, 332—3. 
Paphian Boy, The, 408. 
Pappasava, Count, 321, 377. 
Papworth, 429. 
Paris, 282. 

Paris de Bordone, 197. 
Paris, Judgment of, 176, 394. 
Parker, 46, 123, 126, 342. 
Parliament House, 63. 
Parma, 187. 
Parsons, Miss, 48. 
Pasquin, 47, 75, 132, 282, 341. 
Patronage, 36. 
Payne, Knight, 77. 
Pazetti, 327. 
Peintre, 54. 
Penello Volante, 40. 
Penelope, 121, 369, 374—5, 381, 

Penserosa, La, 145. 
Pepper, 377. 
Percy, Major, 417. 
Pergolesi, ill. 



Periclitan, 31, 34. 

Pericolo, 327. 

Philadelphia, 377. 

Phillips, 420. 

Phillips and Neale, Messrs., 361, 

365. 372. 
Phryne, 281. 

Peter, Duke of Courland, 229. 
Peter Kauffmann, 328. 
Peter Kuliff, 178. 
Peter Pindar, 117, 134, 409. 
Peter, Saint, 147, 378. 
Pezzoli, Count, 321, 377. 
Piazetti, 15, 380. 
Piccadilly, 83. 

Pictorial Conjuror, 155 — 161. 
Pietro, Zucchi, 191. 
Pinner, 410. 
Piranesi, 170. 
Pisa, 272. 
Place, Ely, 138. 
Pliny, 204, 206. 
Poison-sucking from the wound, 

162, i6q. 
Poland, King of, 202, 377. 
Polly Peachum, 66. 
Pompeii, 30. 
Pompeiian, 41 1. 
Pompilius, Numa, 281, 425. 
Poniatowski, Prince, 202, 204, 377 

Pope Pius VI., 203 — 4, 238, 377. 
Popery, 150. 
Pope's Iliad, 125. 
Porporati, 131. 
Porta del Popolo, 228. 
Portraits, 129, 130, 141 — 3, 150 

— 154, 296, 385. 
Post Office, 178—9. 
Powell, Caleb, 141. 
Powerscourt, 138. 
Powerscourt House, 138. 
Powis, Lord, 150, 378. 
Pozzobonelli, IO, 17. 
Practical amusements, 165. 
Pratextatus, Papirius, 280. 
Praxiteles, 280, 281. 
President of Academy, 156, 166. 
Prince Anhalt-Dessau, 363. 

Princess Anhalt-Dessau, 206, 279. 

Princess Dowager, 60, 62, 120. 

Pritchard, Mrs., 65. 

Procris, Death of, 163. 

Property, 427. 

Professor Sellius, 28 — 30. 

Prophet, Nathan the, 281, 384. 

Proserpina, 279. 

Psyche, 279, 305, 317. 

Purity, 77. 

Putney Heath, 173. 

Pyke, 424—5. 

Pylades, 338. 

Pyrrhus, 281, 371. 

Quaritch, 397. 
Queen Anne Plate, 417. 
Queen's Bench, Ireland, 143. 
Queen Charlotte, 40, 61, 68, 71, 

98, 363- 
Queen's County, 140. 
Queen's Mistress of the Robes, 205. 
Queen of Naples, 184 — 5 — 9, 192 — 



Rafael Mengs, 31, 67, 153, 303, 

Raphael, 147. 

Raphael Urbino, 67, 333, 338, 3 78. 
Rast and Huber, 103, 388. 
Rathfarnham Castle, 140, 142, 

Read and Perry, 364, 403. 
Rebecca, Lady Rushout, 366, 379, 

Records of my life, 104. 
Redeemer, The, 281. 
Redford's Art Sales, 120. 
Redgrave, Mr., 354. 
Redshaw, 378. 
Regent's Park, 419, 
Regent's Street, 205. 
Regis Desalles, 102. 
Regulus, 121. 



Religion, 163, 297—8, 307 — 8—9, 

348. 37i, 374- 
Republican, 299. 

Revue Contemporaine^ 295. 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 44 — 50, 61. 
100 — 106, 112, 114 — 117, 118, 
119, 123, 126, 127, 133, 135, 
146, 149, 150, 152, 155-6—7, 
166—7—8—9, 173, 321, 323, 343, 

349, 35 1 — 2, 357. 360, 375. 4°4, 

Rezzenico, Cardinal, 229, 378. 

Rhodope, 113. 

Richmond, Duke of, 150 — 1, 378 
— 9- 

Rieffenstein, Rath, 198, 210, 212, 
219, 225, 235, 240, 242, 244, 250, 

Ritchie, 290. 

Rinaldo d'Este, 9. 

Rinaldo, 145, 154. 

Robert. 370. 

Robinson, 1, 145, 379. 

Rome, 24, 25, 29, 30, 37, 121, 184, 
187 — 189, 190 — 2, 207, 209, 210, 
214, 215, 218, 227, 231, 237, 238, 
239, 240,241,244, 246,250, 251, 
252, 253, 262, 263, 264, 265, 267, 
268, 276, 282 — 4, 287, 291, 296, 
298, 299, 300, 309, 311, 314, 321, 
322, 326, 327, 353, 409. 

Romney, 166, 404. 

Rosa Florini Bonomi, 55, 70, 177, 
183, 328, 330, 332, 354. 

Rosebery, Lord, 152, 379. 

Rose Lenoir, 131, 386, 415. 

Rosenkrantz, 94. 

Roseneath House, 406. 

Rossi, 7, 37,46,49, 98, 105, 107, 
109, 113, 131, 170, 186, 199, 204, 
296—299, 320, 327, 359. 

Roth, Cardinal, 17, 379. 

Rowenn, 128, 376. 

Roxborough, 368. 

Royal Academy, 114, 117 — 120, 
154, 162—6, 177, 204, 281 — 2, 
295, 402. 

Royal Commission, 70. 

Royal Highness, of Gloucester, 120. 

Rushout, 177, 206, 364—5, 369, 

374, 425. 435- 
Russia, 229, 379. 
Rust, 436. 
Rutland, 436. 
Ryland, Wynn, engraver, 131, 134, 

146, 164, 177,373,375-6—8—9, 

385-6-7, 392—3. 


Saal, 228. 

Sacraments, Last, 325, 330. 

Sales, Art, 120. 

Salmo, 282. 

Saltram, 46, 123, 126, 134, 342. 

Samaria, Woman of, 276. 

Samma, 374. 

Sampiere, 147. 

Samuel, 281. 

San Andrea, 294, 326, 331, 332. 

Sandeman, 436. 

Sappho, 147, 154, 354—7, 412. 

Savage, 416. 

Savage Club, 402, 403. 

Saviour, The, 196. 

Sayer and Bennett, 380. 

Scantlebury, 380. 

Scheidewasser, 147, 148. 

Schlessheim, 380. 

School, 75, 77, 114. 

Schopfer, 381. 

Schoppe, A., 69, 102. 

Schiitz, Johann, 220, 370. 

Schwartzenberg, 1, 12, 14, 17, 148, 

181, 284, 310, 314, 329, 380. 
Schwarz Kunst, l$\. 
Scorodomoff, 131, 373, 380, 387. 
Scott, 380. 

Seckendorf, Frau von, 231, 241,262. 
Seguier, 343. 
Sellius Godfried, 28 — 30. 
Senate, 280. 

Senior United Service Club, 220. 
Servain d'Agincourt, 198, 324. 
Shakespeare, 167, 236, 370, 407. 
Shakespearian Gallery, 166, 229, 

242, 367. 



Shepherd, 381. 

Shepherdesses, 424. 

Sheraton, 420. 

Sheridan, 281, 351. 

Shield, Celestial, 281. 

Sibyls, 73, 253, 354, 370, 378. 

Simplon, 233. 

Sion House, 430. 

Sketcbley, Mr. R. F., 399. 

Smart, 358. 

Smirke, 425. 

Smith, 1,64, 65,77, 98, 105, 112, 

131, 365, 424. 
Society of Incorporated Artists, 50, 

115, 126, 193, 402, 404. 
Respectable, 247. 
Naval Architects, 402. 
Solms, Countess of, 307, 381. 
Somerset House, 166 — 7, 374, 429. 
Sommeriva, 381. 
Sophocles, 382. 

Sopra Portas, 369, 378, 407, 416. 
Sotheby, 299. 
Sotheran, Mr., 391. 
South Kensington Museum, 132, 

374. 399- 
Spanish Place, 84, 406. 
Sparta, 373. 
Spencer, 25, 45, 61, 10S, 151, 152, 

Spilsbury, 131. 

Spina, Abbata, 222, 225, 253. 
Spirit of God, 66. 
Spiritual subjects, 70. 
Spring Gardens, 404. 

Berkeley, 41, 400, 409, 412. 

Golden, 59, 60, 84, 85, 171, 

Grosvenor, 416. 

Hanover, 414. 

Merrion, 138, 140. 

Portman, 176, 404, 426, 427. 

Rutland, 145. 

Sobo, 59, 178, 409, 410. 

St. James's, 411, 416. 
Squibs, 401. 
Stabat Mater, in. 
Stadtdirektor, 28. 

Stafford, 437. 

Stake, Lady's last, 112. 

Stanford, 431. 

Stanhope, 50. 

Stanwick, General, 129, 387. 

St. Catherine, 370. 

Stein, Frau von, 267. 

Sternberg, 35, 38, 49, 63, 101, 129, 

132, 134, 153. 205, 206, 213, 

279, 320, 329, 336. 
Stephens Green, 138, 139. 
St. Joseph, 381. 
St. Oswald, 172, 422. 
St. Paul, 378. 
St. Peter, 390. 
St. Peter's, 406. 
St. Petersburg, 229, 3S0. 
Stokes, 152. 
Stolberg, 216, 2S6. 
Story of Venus, 282. 
Strand, 166, 400. 
Stratford House, 306. 
Stratford, O'Neal, 308. 
Stratford Place, 175,407, 306. 
Strawberry Hill, Catalogue, 123, 

129, 375. 4°5- 

Berkeley, 411. 

Charles, 41, 391. 

Dawson, 138. 

Dean, 59. 

Dover, 400, 418. 

Harcourt, 138. 

John, 179, 288, 290, 401 — 3 — 


Molesworth, 130. 

St. James's, 391. 

Suffolk, 52, 58, 152, 193, 437. 
St. Cecilia, in, 156, 378. 
St. James's Church, 83, 84. 

Court, 137. 
St. John, 375. 
St. Paul's, 149, 402. 
Strafford, 437. 
Streatham, 405. 
Strickland, 381. 
Studerat, 94. 
Sturz, 109, 128, 147. 
Styx, 380. 



Suabian, 13. 
Subject, satirical, 161. 
Subtle, 133. 

Suffer little children, 266, 298. 
Sundays, 208,219, 226, 235, 242. 
Sussex, Duke of, 282, 380. 
Sutherland, 437. 
Swede, 102. 
Sweden, 81. 
Swedenborg, 409. 
Swedish, 78, 81. 
Swiss, 33,45. 

Sylvia's stag, 143, 162, 370, 379, 


Table (Emo), 143. 

Taccone, Marquis, 3S1. 

Tancred, 133. 

Tasso, 224, 237, 242, 245, 247, 

Taylor, 76, 104, 122, 126, 131, 164, 

381, 420. 
Tedeschi, 211. 
Telemachus, 74, 133, 154, 155,278, 

347—8,369, 372—3. 
Temple of Virtue, 163. 
Terrick, Bishop of London, 144, 

Thackeray, 109. 

Thackeray, Miss, 84, 98, 108, 175. 
Thackeray, William, 150. 
Theatre, Covent Garden, 151. 
Theodor, Duke, 187. 
Theory, 166. 
Therese Bandettini, 199. 
Thersites, 236. 

Theseus, 268, 2S2, 306, 370, 381. 
Thomas, 401. 
Thomson's Seasons, 373. 
Thornhill, 114. 
Thornton, 381. 
Thonvaldsen, 426. 
Thrale, Mrs., 280. 
Timon, 65. 
Tipperary, 143. 
Tischbein, 228. 

Tisdall, 139. 

Titians, 197, 351, 378,423. 

Tivoli, 247, 267, 270 — 2, 322. 

Tolomeo, 243. 

Tom Jones, 140. 

Tomkins, 131, 381, 386. 

Toulon, 317. 

Tour, Grand, 36 

Townshend, Lord, 140, 141, 384. 

Townshend, Charles, 140. 

Townshend, Lady Audrey, 140. 

Tradition, 120. 

Trafalgar Square, 166. 

Travellers 276. 

Treishoff, Amalie, 231. 

Triad, 188. 

Tripartite, 177. 

Trippel, 235. 

Truth, 76, 77. 

Tuer, Mr. 38S, 392—3, 395. 

Tussaud, Madam, 309. 

Tyrol, 181. 


Uggieri, 326. 

Ulysses, 74, 121, 147, 202, 236, 

369> 370-I—5—9- 
Una, 354, 364. 398,431- 
Universelle Biographie, 72, 75, 76, 

Upper Italy, 63. 
Upper Ossory, 428. 
Urania, 147, 354,410. 


Vandyke, 133. 

Venice, 181 — 2 — 3, 251, 293, 313. 

Venus, 74, 121, 131, 228, 317, 369, 

375. 382-5—6,394. 415.425— 

Venus attired by the Graces, 63, 

176, 374. 402. 
Venus, Story of, 282. 
Vereker, 382. 



Vernon, 382. 

Vernon Harcourt 415. 

Vernon, Mrs., 59. 

Verona, Two Gentlemen of, 166. 

Verpylle, 138. 

Verrio, Antonio, 370. 

Vesey, Mrs., 41. 

Vestals, 73, 282, 354, 370. 

Vicar of Wakefield, 112. 

Vicat Cole, R.A., 400. 

Vice-kings, 137. 

Viceroy, 136, 140. 

Victory, 317. 

Vienna, 201, 281, 382. 

Vignette, 233, 373. 

Villa Adrienna, 322. 

Villa d'Este, 247, 249. 

Virgil, 202, 204, 229, 282, 377, 379, 

Volpato (engraver), 198, 202, 210, 

Volterra, Daniel di, 288, 236. 
Von, 1. 

Voralberg, 181. 
Vortigern, 128, 376. 
Vulpina, 215. 


Waagen, 309, 339, 353, 370, 421. 

Wadmore, 397. 

Wailly, Leon de, 102. 

Walch, Herr, 15, 382. 

Waldeck, Prince of, 235, 282, 382. 

Waldegrave, 383. 

Walden, Howard de, 151, 354. 

Walder, 12, 72, 215. 

Waldy, Rev. E., 152. 

Walker, 383. 

Walpole, Horace, 71, 103, 123. 

129, 134, 140, 154,245, 405, 407, 

411, 428. 
Walsingham, Lord, 400. 
Wanstead, 193, 204, 318, 330, 342, 

Warwick Street, 187. 
Watkins Wynne, Sir, 411, 417. 

Dowager Lady Williams, 399, 

Waterloo, 417. 
Watson, 133. 
Watteau, 352. 

Wedgwood, 139, 408, 413, 427. 
Weigel und Andresen, 304. 
Weimar, 209, 221, 226, 231, 234, 
238—240, 241, 244, 250, 253, 

254, 3°3- 
W eisscley, 102, 214. 
Wells, 38. 
Went worth, Lady, 25, 35, 36, 41, 

53, 65, 180, 205. 
West, 117, 119, 121, 134, 135, 166 

—7, 383, 404. 
White, 374. 

White House, Soho Square, 410. 
Wicklow, 391. 

Wieland, 231, 238, 254-259. 
Wilson, 117. 
Wilton, 117. 
Winckelmann, 25 — 34, 146, 336, 

356, 371, 384- 
Vv inn, Sir Rowland, 172, 423. 
Wisdom, 116, 127. 
Wolfe, Death of, 134. 
Wolfenbtittel, 238. 
Woman under a tree (Aglaia), 

132, 175- 
Woodhouse, 383. 
Wrenk, 131. 
Wright, 402, 445. 
Wurzbach, 100. 


Xenocrates, 281. 
Xenophon, 280. 


Yeo, 118. 

York, Duke of, 205. 

Zadig, 368. 
Zamoiski, 383. 

11 h 



Zelado, Cardinal, 202, 384. 

Zoffany, 51, 1 12, 1 17, 119, 133, 

Zuccarelli, 118. 

Zucchi Antonio, 2, 6, 109, 169, 
170—2 — 3, 177, 180, 183 — 
4, 188, 189, 191, i95— 6 » 215, 
224, 226, 228, 236, 239, 240 
—1—2, 249, 253, 262—3, 283 
—5, 287—291, 292—295, 304, 

353, 357—9, 368, 384. 401—4, 

419, 429. 
Zucchi Household, 199, 283. 
Zucchi, Joseph, 69, 131, 147, 252, 

290, 293, 329, 384. 
Zucchi's Memoirs, 188, 193 — 4, 

287, 352. 384- 
Zucchi, Pietro, 290. 
Zucchis, The, 169, 352, 384. 
Zurich, 384. 


Angelica's is a singularly difficult life to write, and her latest biographer has 
evidently spared no pains to make this volume complete. It is excellently 
illustrated and is unquestionably a book of great interest. — St. James's Gazette. 

We think that whoever takes to heart the story of Angelica Kauffmann's 
career, must find his respect for women and art equally increased, and his 
affection, if not his approval, gained for much of her work. — Tlie Spectator. 

Her friendships with Sir Joshua Reynolds and Goethe are of course dwelt 
upon at length, and if Miss Gerard brushes away some of the romance which 
has attached to the former of these, she is only attesting her adherence to the 
truth. — Art Journal, January, 1893. 

Miss Gerard's work has real value. She has an appendix of sixty or seventy 
pages, including careful lists of Angelica's works, their engravers, and their 
present owners, a separate list of those engraved by Bartolozzi, no less than 
eighty-eight in number, a guide to the houses decorated by Angelica, &c. This 
will be found the most satisfactory part of the book. Miss Gerard has done her 
work well, and all lovers of Mr. Dobson's favourite world, " the times of Paint 
and Patch," will be grateful to her. — Daily Chronic'e, December. 

It is written with kindliness, knowledge, and good taste, and if it contributes 
little to our knowledge of Angelica Kauffmann as an artist, it helps as materially 
to understand her versatile charms as a woman. — Standard, December nth. 

We have to thank the authoress for giving us a study of an interesting per- 
sonality belonging to an age which is sufficiently close to us to have charms 
denied to a more remote period of the past. — Sunday Times. 

The admirable lists at the end of Miss Gerard's volume, to which reference 
has been made, bear evidence of Angelica's astonishing fecundity. The list of 
houses decorated by her include, among numerous others, a ceiling of great 
beauty in Mr. D'Oyly Carte's rooms at the Adelphi ; others very fine at Sir 
John Leslie's house, Stratford Place (in Oxford Street) ; Lord Wynford's house, 
12, Grosvenor Square; Mrs. Hartmann's house, 33, Berkeley Square; the 
Dowager Lady Williams Wynn's house, 20, St. James's Square ; Mr. Walter 
Gilbey's house, Cambridge House, Regent's Park ; and the Arts Club, Hanover 
Square. — Daily Chronicle. 

We recommend the reader to find out the book for himself, and thus gain an 
insight into one of the most curiously interesting personalities in the history of 
modern art. Messrs. Ward and Downey have published the book in excellent 
style. One decided merit of Miss Gerard's book is the addition of very full 
appendices giving fairly complete lists of the artist's works, the date of engravings 
and etchings therefrom, and in a good many cases the present owner of the 
original. These lists are of exceptional value to the connoisseur or collector. 
Another interesting appendix is that devoted to the " Houses decorated by 
Angelica Kauffmann in the decade 1771-1781." — Freeman's Journal, Dublin. 

Miss Gerard has done her work carefully and effectively, and succeeded in 
giving us a very living picture of the gifted Tyrolese girl who was not only in 
the front rank of the painters of her time long before she was thirty, but besides 
being a favourite of fashion and the protegee of half the courts of Europe had 
the singular fortune to win the affectionate esteem, if not the absolute love, of 
such men as Reynolds, Goethe, Herder, and Wieland. — Tablet. 

Now comes Miss Frances Gerard with her thoroughly sympathetic and 
studious biography (Ward and D jwney), in which for the first time we have the 
career of the unlucky artist set out at full length, with a good deal, too, of inte- 
resting information on art matters. — Globe, November 7th, 1892. 

No one can deny that she has told the sad story of the life of Angelica 
Kauffmann in a most interesting and charming manner. Her subject evidently 
possessed many fascinations for her, and she has succeeded in making it fasci- 
nating to others. — Lady's Pictorial. 

Miss Gerard has accumulated many interesting facts about her heroine. — The 

The authoress has done her work with the greatest thoroughness and im- 
partiality, besides writing a very graceful and fascinating monograph. The 
subject itself is one of the most romantic interest. — Woman. 

Hitherto her biography has never been published in the English language, 
and Miss Gerard's book has the advantage of novelty. — Morning Post, No- 
vember 23rd. 

The plan of Miss Gerard's book is methodical, and the list of Angelica's works 
at the end makes a very satisfactory termination to an admirable study. — 
Gentlewoman, October. 

From this summary it will be seen that the bock is carefully written, and that 
no pains have been spared to procure all the information possible about the 
brilliant but unfortunate artist whose life reads like a romance. — Daily Express, 

Miss Frances A. Gerard, the compiler of this biography, had ample materials 
from foreign sources, and these she has utilized to advantage, with the result 
that we have a full account of the career of a somewhat remarkable woman. — 
Manchester Examiner. 

Among the new books of the season is Miss Frances A. Gerard's biography of 
Angelica Kauffmann. It is pleasantly written, and the subject being an inte- 
resting one, Miss Gerard's work is likely to have many readers.— School- 

" Miss Gerard has studied her materials, which are scanty in English but 
copious in other languages, with great industry, and in particular, has recovered 
many letters written by Angelica Kauffman, which lend an intrinsic and excep- 
tional interest to her volume.'' — The Times. 

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